• Title, Summary, Keyword: 초등학생

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Validation of Korean Diagnostic Scale of Multiple Intelligence (한국형 다중지능 진단도구의 타당화)

  • Moon, Yong-Lin;Yu, Gyeong-Jae
    • (The) Korean Journal of Educational Psychology
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.645-663
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study is to develop and verify a Korean Diagnostic Scale of Multiple Intelligence(MI), which will be an alternative test to avoid problems with former Shearer's MI test and to adopt H. Gardner's suggestions to develop MI assessment. The test is developed 5 types; kindergartner, elementary lower grader, elementary upper grader, middle schooler, high schooler test. A form of test is diversified with 3 types; multiple-choice items for accomplishment, true or false items for ability, and self-reported items with likert scale for interest and ability. According to H. Gardner's suggestions, we have tried to reanalyze key component of MI, analyze an overlapping or hierarchical relationship between intelligences, develop intelligences-fair items, diversify form of item. We have developed a final standardized test through a primary, secondary preliminary-test analysis, and sampled 5,585 students by age, gender, and regional groups. As a result of this sampling test, we can get a norm score and compare individuals with other's score relatively. To verify this test, we analyzed behavior observation, mean, standard deviation, a percentage of correct answers, reliability of each test type, correlation between intelligence scales, Kruskal-Wallis test of mean rank of career choice by intelligences. As a result of correlation analysis between sub-intelligence scales, we can conclude that this MI test is satisfied with intelligence independent assumption. Besides, as non-parametric statistics test(Kruskal-Wallis) of career choice by intelligences, we can identify that MI is related with domain of career choice. This test is not a linguistic and logical-mathematical biased test but a intelligences-fair test. It makes us compare individual's potential with a norm score. Besides, it could be useful as a means of educational prescription or counsel in comparison with ability, interest, and accomplishment of individual. But this test is limited to do factor or correlation analysis between types of sub-test, because items are minimized for a time-constraint and a heavy burden of test receiver. But if it could be tested with increased items by two sessions, further research could be expected to get over this constraints and do a further validation analysis.

The Clinical Significance of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis for The Diagnosis of Obesity on Elementary Students (초등학교 아동의 비만 진단에 있어서 생체 전기저항 분석법의 의의)

  • Choi, Ki-Cheol;Ahn, Young-Jun;Yang, Eun-Seok;Park, Sang-Kee;Park, Jong;Moon, Kyung-Rye
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.107-114
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    • 1998
  • Purpose: The purpose of our study is to provide useful information for me-asurement methods of childhood obesity and to provide clinical significance of bioelectrical impedance analysis. Methods: We measured height, weight, waist to hip ratio, skinfold thickness and bioelectrical impedance from 206 elementary students in Kwangju from May to July 1997. Results: In males; 1) There were statistically high correlations between tri-ceps skinfold thickness and body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat (%BF), weight, Rohler index (RI), total fat weight (TFW), waist to hip (W/H) ratio, height, lean body mass (LBM) (all, p<0.001). 2) There were statistically high correlations between subscapular skinfold thickness and BMI, RI, weig-ht, %BF, TBW (all, p<0.001). 3) There were statistically high correlations between %BF and BMI, triceps skinfold thickness, RI, TFW, subscapular skinfold thickness, weight (all, p<0.001). In females; 4) There were statistically high correlations between triceps skinfold thickness and BMI, weight, LBM, height, %BF (all, p<0.001). 5) There were statistically significant correlations between subscapular skinfold thickness and BMI, weight, LBM, RI, height. 6) There were statistically high correlations between percentage of body fat and BMI, RI, triceps skinfold thickness. The percentage of body fat according to the bioelectrical impedance analysis highly correlated with that calculated by skinfold thickness in males (r=0.57, p<0.01) and in females (r=0.30, p<0.01). Conclusion: The results of our study suggests that bioelectrical impedance analysis is a useful method of estimating body fat in the childhood obesity.

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A study on eating out and snack intake of elementary school students living in Jeonbuk province (전라북도 일부 초등학생의 외식 및 간식섭취 실태조사)

  • Beak, Young-Mi;Jung, Su-Jin;Beak, Hyang-Im;Cha, Youn-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.77-87
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    • 2007
  • This research investigated the eating out and snack intakes situation of five hundred eighty five $5^{th}\;and\;6^{th}$ graders living in the city and rural parts of Jeonbuk province. The results of this study are as followed: Nuclear families in urban area and rural community are 84.5% and 64.7% respectively. On the other hand, extended families are 7.9% in urban area and 18% in rural communities. Out of all the households, 34.3% (urban: 37.2%, rural community: 31.5%) answered they like to eat out. Over 50.3% preferred eating Korean style food and the reason was 'the taste': urban (71.4%) and rural community (67.8%). People living in urban communities seemed to eat out more frequently than rural places and $3{\sim}4$ times a month was the average. Usually people seemed to eat out during the weekends and in the evening time 84.3% (after 7:00 p.m.). Based on each family's living standard, people answered 'we hardly ever eat out' for those in the lower class (59.1%), the middle class said once or twice a week (47.1%), and the upper class (35.7%). It was obvious that people in the middle and upper class tend to eat out more frequently than those in the lower class. The most common period of time which snacks were taken was after school (38.5%), on the way back from educational institute (35.0%) and the choices of snacks which they purchased were frozen sweets (56.4%)chips & cookies (25.2%) beverages (9.9%) Fast foods (4.6%) and fried foods (3.9%) in order. Urban children seem to eat more frozen sweets and rural children ate more chips & cookies. Also, amount of snacks between meals showed a higher percentage to those who had more pocket money, The type of snacks were fruits (37.1%) chips and cookies et cetera (19.2%) instant foods (12.8%) dairy products (11.1%) confectionary (10.3%) fried foods (5.1%) in order. The result shows that urban children eat out more frequently than those in rural areas, Eating around 7:00 p.m. was most common and the middle and upper class tend to eat out more frequently than those in the lower class, Also, snacks were most often bought before and after school. After 10:00 p.m frozen goods and chips were the most preferred choice. Specially, the reason for eating fast foods was because of the pleasing taste. From this study, it is clear that eating out and having snacks became pervasive into our lives in both urban and rural areas. Hereafter, an appropriate eating habit should be correctly educated to elementary students by spoken words and textbooks in a curriculum. In reality, snacks are classified as being the leading factor of obesity. Therefore more products containing balanced nutrition should newly develop rather than snacks with high fat content.

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A Study on the Safety Consciousness of Elementary Students (초등학생의 안전의식에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Dae-Sung;Lee, Young-Hyun
    • The Korean Journal of Emergency Medical Services
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.87-104
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    • 2004
  • This study selected the fifth and sixth graders of elementary school in Jeollanamdo who can express their opinions of safety consciousness and understand the items of questionnaire as the population. It selected 10 elementary schools under the supervision of Jeonnam Board of Education and sampled 700 students randomly from 2-3 classes in the 5th and the 6th grade. One preliminary survey was conducted to revise and complement the contents and forms of questionnaire with 70 students of a school from Apr. 1 to 6, 2004 and this study was conducted from Apr. 10 to 30, 2004. Data of this study were collected by explaining the purport of study to subjects after obtaining approval of principal and teacher of the school and distributing questionnaires. Total 700 questionnaires were distributed and 681 were collected (97%) and 602 were used for final analysis except 79 lacking responses. The results of this study are as follows. According to demographical characteristics of subjects, 'male' students were 302(50.%) and 'female' students were 300(49.8%) by sex and 'the 5th graders' were 285(47.3%) and 'the 6th graders' were 317(52.7%) in grade distribution. Residents at 'apartment house' were 406(67.4%) in residence type, 'going to school by foot' was 477 students(79.2%), 'high school graduates' were 297(49.3%) in fathers' education, 'high school graduates' were 366 (60.8%) in mothers' education, 'professional and office workers' were 231(38.4%) in fathers' job, 'full-time workers' were 283(47.0%) in mothers' job, and the number of siblings was one except myself in 343 students(57.0%). Respondents on the level of class showing 'good' were 340(56.5%) and those on the degree of adaptation to school life showing 'active' were 349(58.0%). On the characteristics related to safety education, 360(59.8%) responded it was 'very necessary', on the frequency of safety education at school for last one year, 339(56.3%) responded they had 'once or twice', on the frequency of safety education by parents, 279(46.3%) responded they 'often' had it, on the level of safety practice by parents, 347(57.6%) responded they practiced it 'frequently', on the source of knowledge of safety, 223(37.0%) responded they got it from 'parents, siblings and relatives', on the degree of recognizing the need of safety education textbooks, 295(38.5%) responded 'it was needed', on the recognition of necessity of teacher for safety education, 271(45.0%) answered it was very necessary', and on the recognition of qualification of teacher for safety education, 370(61.5%) answered it was 'paramedic'. The mean score of safety consciousness of subjects was 2.72 (SD. 21) of full score 3, having high score over mean score. According to each area, the area showing the highest safety consciousness was safety of fire(2.83), followed by home safety(2.76) and first-aid treatment(2.76), traffic safety(2.71), play and leisure safety(2.66) and school safety(2.56). Items showing statistical differences in the degree of safety consciousness according to demographical characteristics were sex(t=-3.11, p=.002), education(t=2.33, p=.021) and number of siblings(F=3.729, p=.011). In the difference of safety consciousness between both sexes, 'female' students(2.75) showed higher safety consciousness than 'male' students (2.69), and the former also showed higher safety consciousness than the latter in all six areas of school safety, play and leisure safety, traffic safety, fire safety, home safety and first-aid treatment, and there were statistical differences in the areas of play and leisure safety, traffic safety, fire safety and first-aid treatment. According to the differences of safety consciousness by grade, 'the fifth graders'(2.74) showed higher safety consciousness than 'the sixth graders'(2.70) and the former also showed higher safety consciousness than the latter in all six areas of school safety, play and leisure safety, traffic safety, fire safety, home safety and first-aid treatment, and there were statistical differences in the areas of fire safety and home safety. In the safety consciousness by the number of siblings, 'single son or daughter' (2.78) was highest and their safety consciousness was also highest in all six areas of school safety, play and leisure safety, traffic safety, fire safety, home safety and first-aid treatment, and there were statistical differences in the areas of school safety, fire safety and home safety, There were statistically remarkable differences in degree of adaptation to school life (F=15.349, p=.000) and perceived schooling level(F=9.552, p=.000). According to the degree of safety consciousness related to characteristics of safety education, there were statistical differences at the degree of recognizing the need of safety education(F=9.797, p=.000), degree of safety education at school(F=2.595, p=.006), degree of safety education by parents(F=12.709, p=.000), degree of practicing safety by parents(F=17.579, p=.000), source of knowledge of safety education (F=2,715, p=.044), necessity of safety education textbooks(F=3.972, p=.008), need of safety teacher(F=4.137, p=.006) and qualification standard of safety teacher(F=3.016, p=.029).

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Implementation of HACCP Model for Steamed Rice with Squid Served from Elementary School with Joint-Lunch Management System (공동관리 초등학교의 안전한 오징어덮밥 생산을 위한 HACCP적용)

  • 박금순;이인숙;금경운
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.365-372
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this study was to implement HACCP system to foodservice of W and D elementary schools with joint-lunch management system in Kyungsan area. Steamed rice with squid was selected and Control Action, Monitoring Procedure and Control measure were identified based on HACCP flowchart to produce safe and healthy food. It was suggested that frozen squid must be thawed under the cold running city water and kept temperature below 1$0^{\circ}C$ and receiving/thawing procedure has to be done within 30 min. Raw vegetables must be washed under three-tube wash stand and whole prepreparation procedures should be done in 20 minutes. Clean and sanitize all the equipment and utensils before and after handling squid. Knives and cutting boards for vegetable and squid should be classified. Sauce for steamed rice with squid should be heated about 21 minutes to reach the temperature of 94$^{\circ}C$ before serving and internal temperature of food must be kept above 84.4$^{\circ}C$ during serving. The ideal temperature of kitchen should be remained 15∼18$^{\circ}C$. The underground water has to be excluded to minimize the risk of contamination in the foodservice facility and the prepreparation place must be separated with cooking place. Also, Personal hygiene Practice should be check in each stage. Further, additional research needs to be conducted to determine models for HACCP implementation for different menu.

Serum Leptin Levels and Changes in Body Weight and Obesity Index in Gwacheon Elementary School Children (과천지역 초등학생의 Leptin 수준과 열량섭취, 체중 및 비만도 변화와의 관계)

  • Kim, In-Kyoung;Kang, Jae-Heon;Song, Ji-Hyun
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.40 no.8
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    • pp.736-744
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    • 2007
  • Leptin, as an adipocyte-derived hormone, is an important regulator of food intake and energy expenditure. In the cross-sectional study, leptin was shown to be positively related to body adiposity and metabolic disorders in adults. However, there were very few studies which reported the leptin as a predictor of weight gain over time. We examined whether serum leptin can be used as an indicator of the present and 1-year past weight status in very young children. First grade students from elementary schools in Gwacheon City were enrolled in the study since 2005. The study subjects(total 375 students; 195 boys and 180 girls) participated in the investigation of both 2005 and 2006. Physical examinations including height, weight, waist circumference were done. To examine the prevalence of obesity, obesity index was used. Serum leptin was measured, and their nutritional status was also evaluated based on 3-Day dietary records. Serum leptin levels were strongly positively related with the value of the present BMI and with the value of the BMI one year before. We found no association with leptin levels and amount of energy intake and macronutrient intake in this children population. Children were divided into three groups according to leptin tertiles. The highest leptin tertile group showed highest prevalence of obesity in year 2006 as well as in year 2005. Serum leptin levels can reflect the weight status now and as well as 1-year before. Possibly serum leptin levels can predict the weight gain of year later. Without an action against the obesity on children with high leptin level, those children would maintain the excess adiposity growth and progress into the obesity-related metabolic disorders. Further studies are needed to predict the obesity as early as possible and preventive system then after.

Consumer Perceptions of Food-Related Hazards and Correlates of Degree of Concerns about Food (주부의 식품안전에 대한 인식과 안전성우려의 관련 요인)

  • Choe, Jeong-Sook;Chun, Hye-Kyung;Hwang, Dae-Yong;Nam, Hee-Jung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.66-74
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    • 2005
  • This survey was conducted to assess the consumer perceptions of food-related hazard in 500 housewives from all over Korea. The subjects were selected by stratified random sampling method. The survey was performed using structured questionnaire through telephone interview by skilled interviewers. The results showed that 34.6% of the respondents felt secure and were not concerned about food safety, and 65.4% were concerned about food safety. Logistic regression analysis showed that the increasing concern on food brands, food additives (such as food preservatives and artificial color), and imported foodstuffs indicated the current increasing concern on food safety. Other related factors indicating the increasing concern on food safety were education level and care for children's health. The respondents who cared about food safety expressed a high degree of concern on processed foodstuffs such as commercial boxed lunch (93.3%), imported foods (92.7%), fastfoods (89.9%), processed meat products (88.7%), dining out (85.6%), cannery and frozen foods (83.5%), and instant foods (82.0%). The lowest degree of concern was on rice. All the respondents perceived that residues of chemical substances such as pesticides and food additives, and endocrine disrupters were the most potential food risk factors, followed by food-borne pathogens, and GMOs (Genetically Modified Organisms). However, these results were not consistent with scientific judgment. Therefore, more education and information were needed for consumers' awareness of facts and myths about food safety. In addition, the results showed that consumers put lower trust in food products information such as food labels, cultivation methods (organic or not), quality labels, and the place of origin. Nevertheless, the respondents expressed their desire to overcome alienation, and recognized the importance of knowing of the origin or the producers of food. They identified that people who need to take extreme precautions on food contamination were the producers, government officials, food companies, consumers, the consumer's association, and marketers, arranged in the order of highest to lowest. They also believed that the production stage of agriculture was the most important step for improving the level of food safety Therefore, the results indicated that there is a need to introduce safety systems in the production of agricultural products, as follows: Good Agricultural Practice (GAP), Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP), and Traceability System (75).

A comparative study on sex-consciousness and sexual values between urban and rural elementary schoolers (도시와 농촌 초등학생의 성의식 및 성가치관에 관한 비교 연구)

  • Nho, Mi-Yeoung;Park, Yeoung-Soo
    • The Journal of Korean Society for School & Community Health Education
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    • v.6
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    • pp.17-34
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the sex-consciousness and sexual values of school children by geographic region. It's specifically attempted to make a comparative analysis of sex-consciousness and sexual values between urban and rural elementary schoolers to help provide efficient sex education for them to build the right sexual values. The subjects in this study were 400 elementary schoolers in their sixth year of elementary schools located in Danyang-gun and Chungju city, north Chungcheong province. After a survey was conducted, answer sheets from 387 students that were analyzable were analyzed. For data handling, SPSS program was employed, and t-test was utilized to see if there's any differences between the urban and rural elementary school youngsters in sex consciousness and sexual values. And $x^2$ test was used to make a comparative analysis of their view of sex education. The findings of the study were as follows : First, regarding sex-consciousness, they had general knowledge on sex. Especially, they were highly aware of sexual violence and the generation of baby, but many of them didn't know about where and how egg cells were produced. This indicated that systematic education should be offered in various ways. Concerning geographic gap, there was a significant difference in sexual knowledge between the urban and rural students. As to sexual attitude, they took a relatively positive attitude toward display of affection or sex-related talk on TV or in movies, as they viewed it as natural. This finding implied that the elementary schoolers were recipient toward sex and took an active attitude toward sexual expressions. Concerning geographic gap, there was no difference between the rural and urban students. As for sexual practices, the largest group of the students had a liking for the opposite sex, which showed that their needs for sex were unveiled in the course of having some trouble due to the other sex rather than through firsthand experiences or activities. As to geographic gap, there was a significant difference between the urban and rural students in that regard. Besides, the urban students put their sex-consciousness in practice more often than the rural students did. After they are educated to build the right sexual values, systematic sex-education programs should also be offered for them to be exposed to sustained sex education and to team how to apply their sex-consciousness to real life. Second, as for sexual values, the school children had relatively positive and equalitarian sexual values. Regarding geographic gap, there were significant gaps between the two groups' view of the opposite sex, sexual roles and chastity. Concerning view of the opposite sex, they attached more importance to the inner aspects of the opposite sex than his or her look, and they wanted to date in a natural manner. Regarding sexual roles, they were relatively well cognizant of gender equity and the importance of male and female roles. As to view of chastity, they looked upon sex as natural, not as what's ugly or ashamed of. Third, concerning their outlook on sex education, approximately more than half the students felt the needs for sex education, and there was a significant difference between the urban and rural students. They wanted to receive education about the prevention of sexual violence and physical changes during puberty the most, and there was a significant gap between the urban and rural students in this aspect. As to the time for sex education, they thought that students should start to be exposed to sex education in their fifth or sixth year. This finding signified that fifth or sixth graders who were in the beginning of puberty started to have a lot of interest in their own physical changes. Therefore, sex education would produce better effects when it's provided to fifth or sixth graders. Nearly half them preferred single-gender class when they received sex education, and there's no gap between the urban and rural students in that regard.

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COMORBIDITY AND RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH CHILDREN WHO HAVE THE SYMPTOMS OF OPPOSITIONAL DEFIANT DISORDER - COMMUNITY BASED STUDY - (반항성 도전 장애 아동과 연관된 공존 증상 및 위험 요인에 관한 연구 - 지역사회 연구 -)

  • Kim Boong-Nyun;Jung Kwang-Mo;Cho Soo Churl;Hong Kang-E
    • Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.79-89
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    • 2005
  • Objectives : To acquire an improved understanding of oppositional defiant disorder, we evaluated the characteristics of children who have the symptoms of ODD in community sample. Methods : 1200 children from an elementary school in Bucheon (an urban community near Seoul) were recruited by randomized sampling method. By Disruptive Behavior Disorder Scale according to DSM-III-R & DSM-IV, we evaluated the symptoms of ODD and selected subjects with ODD. Psychiatric comorbidity, character trait were compared in subjects with ODD and comparison group. Also we examined the association between prenatal/perinatal risk factors, family functions and the symptoms of ODD. Data were analyzed by appropriate statistical method using SPSS 11.5 window version. Result : Children with oppositional defiant disorder were revealed to have significantly higher rates of psychiatric comorbidity and significantly greater family dysfunction compared to comparison group. Among the prenatal/perinatal risk factors, severe emotional stress during pregnancy, postpartum depression, medication during pregnancy were revealed as risk factors of ODD. In character inventory, ODD group were evaluated to have high score in novelty seeking, harm avoidance, but low in reward dependency. Conclusion : These results support that 1) prenatal/perinatal and psycho-social risk factors could be a important role in the progression of ODD, and 2) children with ODD have diverse comorbid psychiatric symptoms.

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A Study on the Propensity to Purchase Babies' Cosmetics (베이비화장품의 구매행태에 관한 연구 - 대구, 경북 지역을 중심으로 -)

  • Lee Kyung-Hwa;Kim Ju-Duck
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.169-177
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    • 2005
  • The propensity to purchase babies' cosmetics is investigated and analysed for this research. The synopsis of this research paper is as follows. The first, the $68\%$ of all respondents do not how a manufacturer or brand name in the reality of variously emerging domestic and import cosmetics for babies. The second, in case of a child haying a fair, sensitive skin or atopy (atopic dermatitis), the respondents are careful in choosing babies cosmetics but in case of a child having a normal skin the older a child grows from a stage of a new-born, a baby and an infant to a primary-school child, the older its mother is, the more respondents use adults' cosmetics in common rather than use cosmetics only for babies. $7.6\%$ of respondents do not use babies' cosmetirs at ail. Especially, in using bathing goods such as a shampoo or a body cleanser, they frequently use adults' cosmetics in common. The third, the qualify is taken into the utmost consideration in purchasing babies' cosmetics. The Quality of imports is trusted and preferred better than that of domestic goods. The cost of purchasing babies cosmetics is less than 10,000 Won. consumers recognize that the price or cosmetics is rather high. The last, the improvement or babies cosmetics is 'the safety of goods', answered by $56.5\%$ of respondents. The respondents are generally not satisfied with babies' cosmetics. So, a baby's skin is threatened by a newly-built house syndrome, the increase of atopic dermatitis, etc., caused by an environmental pollutions, a change of diet and a change of residential life. Under these actual conditions, babies' cosmetics which can protect a delicate and sensitive skin of a baby should be developed immediately. Consumers should have a correct choice with precise recognition and information on a baby's skin and cosmetics and continually use the efficacious and excellent babies' cosmetics to prevent a baby from a skin irritation, and need to show a keen interest in a healthy skin of a baby.