• Title, Summary, Keyword: 초기 QP

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Applicability of Artificial Light Source and Newly Developed Growing Medium for Lettuce Cultivation in a Closed-type Plant Production System (밀폐형 식물생산시스템에서 상추재배를 위한 인공광원과 신개발 배지의 적용)

  • Lee, Hye Ri;Kim, Hye Min;Kim, Hyeon Min;Park, Sang Hyun;Hwang, Seung Jae
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.134-142
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    • 2019
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the growth characteristics of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) as affected by artificial light sources and different growing media in a closed-type plant production system (CPPS). The lettuce seeds were sown in the 128-cell plug tray filled with 5 different growing media such as urethane sponge (US), rock-wool (RW), Q-plug (QP), TP-S2 (TP) and PU-7B (PU). The germination rate of lettuce seeds was examined during 12 days after sowing. On the 13 days after sowing, the lettuce seedlings were transplanted in a CPPS with temperature $25{\pm}1^{\circ}C$ and nutrient solution (EC $2.0dS{\cdot}m^{-1}$, pH 6.5) using recirculating deep floating technique system. The light sources were set with FL (fluorescent lamps) and combined RB LEDs (red : blue = 7 : 3) with $150{\pm}10{\mu}mol{\cdot}m^{-2}{\cdot}s^{-1}$ PPFD and a photoperiod of 14/10 hours (light/dark). The initial germination rate of lettuce was the highest in TP. The final germination and mean daily germination were the significantly highest in RW, QP and TP. The plant height, leaf length, leaf width, leaf area, and fresh and dry weights of shoot were the greatest in QP irradiated with RB LED. The number of leaves, fresh and dry weights of root and SPAD were the greatest in QP and TP irradiated with RB LED. The root length was the longest in TP irradiated with RB LED. Therefore, these results indicate that RB LED was effective for the growth of lettuce and it was also found that the QP and TP were effective for the germination and growth of lettuce in a CPPS. In addition, we confirmed the applicability of the newly developed growing medium TP for the lettuce production in a CPPS.

Adaptive Intra Frame Encoding for H.264/AVC (H.264/AVC를 위한 적응적 인트라 프레임 압축)

  • Park, Sang-Hyun
    • The Journal of the Korea institute of electronic communication sciences
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    • v.9 no.12
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    • pp.1447-1454
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    • 2014
  • In H.264 standard, an intra frame is the first frame of a GOP (Group of Pictures) and all macroblocks of an intra frame are encoded using the same quantization parameter. In addition, an intra frame is used for encoding the following frames of the same GOP so the encoding results of an intra frame affect the encoding results of the entire GOP. Thus, it is important to find the optimal quantization parameter of an intra frame for improving the quality of a GOP. In this paper, we propose an searching method for an optimal quantization parameter of an intra frame in real time. The proposed method uses a gradient descent method to find the optimal value based on characteristics of the optimal quantization parameters. Experimental results show that the proposed method captures the characteristics of the optimal quantization parameter and accurately estimates the optimal value.

Quantization Modeling of Intra Frame for Rate Control (비트율 제어를 위한 인트라 프레임 양자화 모델링)

  • Park, Sang-Hyun
    • The Journal of the Korea institute of electronic communication sciences
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    • v.9 no.10
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    • pp.1207-1214
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    • 2014
  • The first frame of a GOP is encoded in intra mode which generates a larger number of bits. In addition, the first frame is used for the inter mode encoding of the following frames. Thus the encoding results of the intra frame affects the first frame as well as the following frames. Traditionally, the quantization parameter for an intra frame is determined only depending on the bpp not considering the characteristics of the intra frame. For accurate intra frame encoding, we should consider not only bpp but also the complexity of the video sequence and the output bandwidth. In this paper, we propose a real-time quantization model which is used to calculate the quantization parameter for an intra frame encoding based on the investigation on the characteristics of a GOP. It is shown by experimental results that the proposed quantization model captures the characteristics of an intra frame effectively and the proposed method for model parameters accurately estimates the real values.

The Effect of Media Feeding Rate on the Production of Monoclonal Antibody Production in the Fed-batch Culture of Hybridoma (하이브리도마 세포의 유가식 배양에서 배지첨가속도가 단일클론 항체 생산에 미치는 영향)

  • 곽원재;최태부;박정극
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.272-280
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    • 1991
  • The effect of media feeding rate on cell growth and monoclonal antibody production in the fed-batch culture ot hybridoma A4W was studied. In the batch culture, the highest specific antibody production rate was observed at the begining of the culture period but its value tended to decrease rapidly with the culture time. The final antibody concentration and volumetric productivity was 65 $\mu g$/ml and 13 mg Mab/l/day, respectively. In the fed-batch culture, the specific antibody production rate, $q_p$ rebounded sharply within a few hours after the media feeding was started and it remained high until the end of culture if the media feeding was continued. The final antibody concentration was 220 $\mu g$/ml and the volumetric productivity was 45.1 mg/l/day. Further increase in final antibody concentration was achieved by applying a modified media of which component was fortified with glucose and glutamine, hence the final antibody concentration in this case was 270 $\mu g$/ml and the volumetric productivity was 51.8 mg/lday, which is as four tinlcs as high cuixparinf! to that of batch culture.

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Risk Assessment Model for the Delay Protocol in the Conditions of Contract of International Construction Projects (해외 건설공사 공기지연사건의 합리적 대응을 위한 계약조건 리스크 평가 방법)

  • Lee, Hwangku;Shin, Dongwoo;Kim, Kyungrai;Cha, Heesung;Kim, Youngjae
    • Korean Journal of Construction Engineering and Management
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.65-77
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    • 2017
  • Recently, many Korean major construction companies are suffering from profit loss mainly due to a direct impact from delays in their overseas projects. In general, changes are inevitable in a large-scale project, and most of changes are directly linked to construction delay. Therefore, in the event that an extension of time is necessary due to a change, the contractor must manage the delay based on the condition of the contract to effectively manage risks from delay to the completion date. Thus it is important to understand delay protocol defined in the condition of the contract early in the project, but there have been few or no study to propose methodology or tool to support this effort. This paper presents a review on the project planning and controling practices of major Korean construction companies along with the issues on delay claims and disputes in mega-international projects and suggests a tool to assess delay risk in the condition of the contract. To propose a delay risk assessment model for international construction projects, major standard conditions of contract have been reviewed including FIDIC Red Book(1999), PSSCOC(2014) and SIA 9th Edition(2010). To reflect recent trend of major international owners, standard conditions which they are utilizing for their projects also have been reviewed including those of ARAMCO and QP. The model provides a categories of risks to be reviewed on the condition of the contract along with standard level of the risk which is common in the international standard form of the contracts. This study also performed a case study on an actual international project to confirm the effectiveness of proposed model to identify and respond to a delay risk of a project.

Velocity-effective stress response of $CO_2$-saturated sandstones ($CO_2$로 포화된 사암의 속도-유효응력 반응)

  • Siggins, Anthony F.
    • Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.60-66
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    • 2006
  • Three differing sandstones, two synthetic and one field sample, have been tested ultrasonically under a range of confining pressures and pore pressures representative of in-situ reservoir pressures. These sandstones include: a synthetic sandstone with calcite intergranular cement produced using the CSIRO Calcite In-situ Precipitation Process (CIPS); a synthetic sandstone with silica intergranular cement; and a core sample from the Otway Basin Waarre Formation, Boggy Creek 1 well, from the target lithology for a trial $CO_2$ pilot project. Initial testing was carried on the cores at "room-dried" conditions, with confining pressures up to 65 MPa in steps of 5 MPa. All cores were then flooded with $CO_2$, initially in the gas phase at 6 MPa, $22^{\circ}C$, then with liquid-phase $CO_2$ at a temperature of $22^{\circ}C$ and pressures from 7 MPa to 17 MPa in steps of 5 MPa. Confining pressures varied from 10 MPa to 65 MPa. Ultrasonic waveforms for both P- and S-waves were recorded at each effective pressure increment. Velocity versus effective pressure responses were calculated from the experimental data for both P- and S-waves. Attenuations $(1/Q_p)$ were calculated from the waveform data using spectral ratio methods. Theoretical calculations of velocity as a function of effective pressure for each sandstone were made using the $CO_2$ pressure-density and $CO_2$ bulk modulus-pressure phase diagrams and Gassmann effective medium theory. Flooding the cores with gaseous phase $CO_2$ produced negligible change in velocity-effective stress relationships compared to the dry state (air saturated). Flooding with liquid-phase $CO_2$ at various pore pressures lowered velocities by approximately 8% on average compared to the air-saturated state. Attenuations increased with liquid-phase $CO_2$ flooding compared to the air-saturated case. Experimental data agreed with the Gassmann calculations at high effective pressures. The "critical" effective pressure, at which agreement with theory occurred, varied with sandstone type. Discrepancies are thought to be due to differing micro-crack populations in the microstructure of each sandstone type. The agreement with theory at high effective pressures is significant and gives some confidence in predicting seismic behaviour under field conditions when $CO_2$ is injected.