• Title, Summary, Keyword: 청소년

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The comparison of predicted adult height change and height gain after gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and combined growth hormone treatment in girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty (진성 성조숙증으로 진단 받은 여아에서 gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist 단독치료 및 growth hormone의 병합치료 시 예측 성인키의 변화 및 성장 획득의 비교)

  • Seo, Ji-Young;Yoon, In-Suk;Shin, Choong-Ho;Yang, Sei-Won
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.305-311
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    • 2006
  • Purpose : GnRH analogues(GnRHa) are used to treat central precocious puberty(CPP). However, in some patients, the GV decrease is so remarkable that it impairs predicted adult height(PAH); and there fore, the addition of growth hormone(GH) is suggested. We analysed the growth changes during two years and final adult height(FAH) in girls with idiopathic CPP treated with combined therapy, compared with those of girls treated with GnRHa alone. Methods : For the analysis, we classified the patients, who was treated for longer than two years, into three groups depending on the initial PAH and combination of GH; PAH_L, treated with GnRHa and PAH less than midparental height(MPH) - 5 cm. PAH_H, treated with GnRHa and PAH greater than MPH - 5 cm. GnRHa+GH, combined GH treatment, regardless of PAH before treatment. We analysed the GV and PAH change during the first two years and FAH. Results : In PAH_L, the PAH(SDS) at first year of therapy was significantly increased to $153.5{\pm}6.5cm(-1.4{\pm}1.3)$ from $149.7{\pm}6.4cm(-2.1{\pm}1.3)$ before treatment(P=0.004). In PAH_H, there was no significant increase in PAH during the two years of treatment. During the first year of combination of GH and GnRHa, GV and PAH increased significantly. We observed significant increases in FAH, comparing to the initial PAH in the PAH_L and GnRHa+GH groups. The height gains(FAH - initial PAH) were significantly higher in the PAH_L and GnRHa+GH groups than that in the PAH_H group. Conclusion : This study suggests the FAH and height gains are improved in patients, whose predicted adult height before treatment was shorter than those with higher predicted adult height, with the treatment of GnRHa alone or in combination with GH. GH could not improve the final adult height, but compensated the growth in patients whose growth velocity was decelerated by GnRHa alone.

Second allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children to overcome graft failure or relapse after initial transplant (조혈모세포이식 후 생착 실패나 재발한 소아환자에서 2차 이식의 의의)

  • Kim, Dong-Yeon;Kim, Do Kyun;Kim, Soo Young;Kim, Seok Joo;Han, Dong Gyun;Baek, Hee Jo;Kook, Hoon;Hwang, Tai-Ju
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.49 no.12
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    • pp.1329-1339
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    • 2006
  • Purpose : Failure of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation(HSCT) may be encountered in practice because of either relapse of the malignancy or dysfunction of the graft. Second HSCT may be the only option for some patients whose initial HSCT failed. Methods : From May, 1991 to December, 2004, 115 HSCTs were performed at the Pediatric Blood & Marrow Transplantation Center, Chonnam National University. This study was a retrospective analysis of the medical records of 15 patients who received the second HSCT after initial graft. Results : Among eight patients with nonmalignant diseases, two patients underwent the second HSCT because of primary graft failure and five because of late graft rejection. The remaining Fanconi anemia patient was re-transplanted due to development of AML. Two patients died and one experienced primary graft failure, but is still alive. The Kaplan-Meier 5-year overall survival rate was 75 percent and the disease free survival rate was 62.5 percent in nonmalignant diseases. All malignant patients underwent second transplants because of relapses. Four died of relapse and one of treatment-related complications. The Kaplan-Meier 2-year overall and event free survival rate was 28.6 percent each in malignant diseases. Conclusion : Second HSCT for graft dysfunction of nonmalignant disease seems to be feasible and should be considered as a standard practice. The relapse of malignant diseases remains a big obstacle even after the second HSCT, although a small portion of patients might be salvaged. Further investigation of novel therapeutic strategies, as well an the understanding of the biology should be explored.

Effects of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine and L-arginine on cerebral hemodynamics and energy metabolism during reoxygenation-reperfusion after cerebral hypoxia-ischemia in newborn piglets (급성 저산소성 허혈성 뇌손상이 유발된 신생자돈에서 재산소-재관류기 동안 NG-monomethyl-L-arginine과 L-arginine이 뇌의 혈역학 및 에너지 대사에 미치는 영향)

  • Ko, Sun Young;Kang, Saem;Chang, Yun Sil;Park, Eun Ae;Park, Won Soon
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.317-325
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    • 2006
  • Purpose : This study was carried out to elucidate the effects of nitric oxide synthase(NOS) inhibitor, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine(L-NMMA) and nitric oxide precursor, L-arginine(L-Arg) on cerebral hemodynamics and energy metabolism during reoxygenation-reperfusion(RR) after hypoxia-ischemia(HI) in newborn piglets. Methods : Twenty-eight newborn piglets were divided into 4 groups; Sham normal control(NC), experimental control(EC), L-NMMA(HI & RR with L-NMMA), and L-Arg(HI & RR with L-Arg) groups. HI was induced by occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries and simultaneously breathing with 8 percent oxygen for 30 mins, and followed RR by release of carotid occlusion and normoxic ventilation for one hour. All groups were monitored with cerebral hemodynamics and cytochrome $aa_3$ (Cyt $aa_3$) using near infrared spectroscopy(NIRS). $Na^+$, $K^+$-ATPase activity, lipid peroxidation products, and tissue high energy phosphate levels were determined biochemically in the cerebral cortex. Results : In experimental groups, mean arterial blood pressure, $PaO_2$, and pH decreased, and base excess and blood lactate level increased after HI compared to NC group(P<0.05). These variables subsequently returned to baseline after RR except pH. There were no differences among the experimental groups. In NIRS, oxidized hemoglobin($HbO_2$) decreased and hemoglobin(Hb) increased during HI(P<0.05) but returned to base line immediately after RR; 40 min after RR, the $HbO_2$ had decreased significantly compared to NC group(P<0.05). Changes of Cyt $aa_3$ decreased significantly compared to NC after HI and recovered at the end of the experiment. Significantly reduced cerebral cortical cell membrane $Na^+$, $K^+$-ATPase activity and increased lipid peroxidation products(P<0.05) were not improved with L-NMMA or L-Arg. Conclusion : These findings suggest that NO is not involved in the mechanism of HI and RR brain damage during the early acute phase of RR.

A Thermal Time-Driven Dormancy Index as a Complementary Criterion for Grape Vine Freeze Risk Evaluation (포도 동해위험 판정기준으로서 온도시간 기반의 휴면심도 이용)

  • Kwon, Eun-Young;Jung, Jea-Eun;Chung, U-Ran;Lee, Seung-Jong;Song, Gi-Cheol;Choi, Dong-Geun;Yun, Jin-I.
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2006
  • Regardless of the recent observed warmer winters in Korea, more freeze injuries and associated economic losses are reported in fruit industry than ever before. Existing freeze-frost forecasting systems employ only daily minimum temperature for judging the potential damage on dormant flowering buds but cannot accommodate potential biological responses such as short-term acclimation of plants to severe weather episodes as well as annual variation in climate. We introduce 'dormancy depth', in addition to daily minimum temperature, as a complementary criterion for judging the potential damage of freezing temperatures on dormant flowering buds of grape vines. Dormancy depth can be estimated by a phonology model driven by daily maximum and minimum temperature and is expected to make a reasonable proxy for physiological tolerance of buds to low temperature. Dormancy depth at a selected site was estimated for a climatological normal year by this model, and we found a close similarity in time course change pattern between the estimated dormancy depth and the known cold tolerance of fruit trees. Inter-annual and spatial variation in dormancy depth were identified by this method, showing the feasibility of using dormancy depth as a proxy indicator for tolerance to low temperature during the winter season. The model was applied to 10 vineyards which were recently damaged by a cold spell, and a temperature-dormancy depth-freeze injury relationship was formulated into an exponential-saturation model which can be used for judging freeze risk under a given set of temperature and dormancy depth. Based on this model and the expected lowest temperature with a 10-year recurrence interval, a freeze risk probability map was produced for Hwaseong County, Korea. The results seemed to explain why the vineyards in the warmer part of Hwaseong County have been hit by more freeBe damage than those in the cooler part of the county. A dormancy depth-minimum temperature dual engine freeze warning system was designed for vineyards in major production counties in Korea by combining the site-specific dormancy depth and minimum temperature forecasts with the freeze risk model. In this system, daily accumulation of thermal time since last fall leads to the dormancy state (depth) for today. The regional minimum temperature forecast for tomorrow by the Korea Meteorological Administration is converted to the site specific forecast at a 30m resolution. These data are input to the freeze risk model and the percent damage probability is calculated for each grid cell and mapped for the entire county. Similar approaches may be used to develop freeze warning systems for other deciduous fruit trees.

Detrended Fluctuation Analysis of Sleep Electroencephalogram between Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome and Normal Children (소아기 수면무호흡증 환자와 정상 대조군 수면 뇌파의 탈경향변동분석)

  • Kim, Eui-Joong;Ahn, Young-Min;Shin, Hong-Beom;Kim, Jong-Won
    • Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.41-49
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    • 2010
  • Unlike the case of adult obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), there was no consistent finding on the changes of sleep architecture in childhood OSAS. Further understanding of the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) should be needed. Non-linear analysis of EEG is particularly useful in giving us a new perspective and in understanding the brain system. The objective of the current study is to compare the sleep architecture and the scaling exponent (${\alpha}$) from detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) on sleep EEG between OSAS and normal children. Fifteen normal children (8 boys/7 girls, 6.0${\pm}4.3$2.2 years old) and twelve OSAS children (10 boys/2 girls, 6.4${\pm}4.3$3.4 years old) were studied with polysomnography (PSG). Sleep-related variables and OSAS severity indices were obtained. Scaling exponent of DFA were calculated from the EEG channels (C3/A2, C4/A1, O1/A2, and O2/A1), and compared between normal and OSAS children. No difference in sleep architecture was found between OSAS and normal controls except stage 1 sleep (%) and REM sleep latency (min). Stage 1 sleep (%) was significantly higher and REM latency was longer in OSAS group (9.3${\pm}4.3$4.3%, 181.5${\pm}4.3$59.9 min) than in controls (5.6${\pm}4.3$2.8%, 133.5${\pm}4.3$42.0 min). Scaling exponent (${\alpha}$) showed that sleep EEG of OSAS children also followed the 'longrange temporal correlation' characteristics. Value of ${\alpha}$ increased as sleep stages increased from stage 1 to stage 4. Value of ${\alpha}$ from C3/A2, C4/A1, O1/A2, O2/A1 were significantly lower in OSAS than in control (1.36${\pm}4.3$0.05 vs. 1.41${\pm}4.3$0.04, 1.37${\pm}4.3$0.04 vs. 1.41${\pm}4.3$0.04, 1.37${\pm}4.3$0.05 vs. 1.41${\pm}4.3$0.05, and 1.36${\pm}4.3$0.07 vs. 1.41${\pm}4.3$0.05, p<0.05). Higher stage 1 sleep (%) in OSAS children was consistent finding with OSAS adults. Lower $'{\alpha}'$ in OSAS children suggests decrease of self-organized criticality or the decreased piling-up energy of brain system during sleep in OSAS children.

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Econometric Analysis on Factors of Food Demand in the Household : Comparative Study between Korea and Japan (가계 식품수요 요인의 계량분석 - 한국과 일본의 비교 -)

  • Jho, Kwang-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.371-383
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    • 1999
  • This report gave analysis of food demand both in Korea and Japan through introducing the concept of cohort analysis to the conventional demand model. This research was done to clarify the factors which determine food demand of the household. The traits of the new model for demand analysis are to consider and quantify those effects on food demand not only of economic factors such as expenditure and price but also of non-economic factors such as the age and birth cohort of the householder. The results of the analysis can be summarized as follows: 1) The comparison of the item-wise elasticities of food demand demonstrates that the expenditure elasticity is higher in Korea than in Japan and that the expenditure elasticity is -0.1 for cereal and more than 1 for eating-out in both countries. In respect to price elasticity, the absolute values of all the items except alcohol and cooked food are higher in the Korea than in Japan, and especially the price elasticities of beverages, dairy products and fruit are predominantly higher in Japan. In this way, both expenditure and price elasticities of a large number of items are higher in Korea than in Japan, which may be explained from the fact that the level of expenditure is higher in Japan than in Korea. 2) In both of Korea and Japan, as the householder grows older, the expenditure for each item increases and the composition of expenditure changes in such a way that these moves may be regarded as due to the age effect. However, there are both similarities and differences in the details of such moves between Korea and Japan. Those two countries have this trait in common that the young age groups of the householder spend more on dairy products and middle age groups spend more on cake than other age groups. In the Korea, however, there can be seen a certain trend that higher age groups spend more on a large number of items, reflecting the fact that there are more two-generation families in higher age groups. Japan differs from Korea in that expenditure in Japan is diversified, depending upon the age group. For example, in Japan, middle age groups spend more on cake, cereal, high-caloric food like meat and eating-out while older age groups spend more for Japanese-style food like fish/shellfish and vegetable/seaweed, and cooked food. 3) The effect of the birth cohort effect was also demonstrated. The birth cohort effect was introduced under the supposition that the food circumstances under which the householder was born and brought up would determine the current expenditure. Thus, the following was made clear: older generations in both countries placed more emphasis upon stable food in their composition of food consumption; the share of livestock products, oil/fats and externalized food was higher in the food composition of younger generation; differences in food composition among generations were extremely large in Korea while they were relatively small in Japan; and Westernization and externalization of diet made rapid increases simultaneously with generation changes in Korea while they made any gradual increases in Japan during the same time period. 4) The four major factors which impact the long-term change of food demand of the household are expenditure, price, the age of the householder, and the birth cohort of the householder. Investigations were made as to which factor had the largest impact. As a result, it was found that the price effect was the smallest in both countries, and that the relative importance of the factor-by-factor effects differed among the two countries: in Korea the expenditure effect was greater than the effects of age and birth cohort while in Japan the effects of non-economic factors such as the age and birth cohort of householder were greater than those of economic factors such as expenditures.

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Changes in blood pressure and determinants of blood pressure level and change in Korean adolescents (성장기 청소년의 혈압변화와 결정요인)

  • Suh, Il;Nam, Chung-Mo;Jee, Sun-Ha;Kim, Suk-Il;Kim, Young-Ok;Kim, Sung-Soon;Shim, Won-Heum;Kim, Chun-Bae;Lee, Kang-Hee;Ha, Jong-Won;Kang, Hyung-Gon;Oh, Kyung-Won
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.308-326
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    • 1997
  • Many studies have led to the notion that essential hypertension in adults is the result of a process that starts early in life: investigation of blood pressure(BP) in children and adolescents can therefore contribute to knowledge of the etiology of the condition. A unique longitudinal study on BP in Korea, known as Kangwha Children's Blood Pressure(KCBP) Study was initiated in 1986 to investigate changes in BP in children. This study is a part of the KCBP study. The purposes of this study are to show changes in BP and to determine factors affecting to BP level and change in Korean adolescents during age period 12 to 16 years. A total of 710 students(335 males, 375 females) who were in the first grade at junior high school(12 years old) in 1992 in Kangwha County, Korea have been followed to measure BP and related factors(anthropometric, serologic and dietary factors) annually up to 1996. A total of 562 students(242 males, 320 females) completed all five annual examinations. The main results are as follows: 1. For males, mean systolic and diastolic BP at age 12 and 16 years old were 108.7 mmHg and 118.1 mmHg(systolic), and 69.5 mmHg and 73.4 mmHg(diastolic), respectively. BP level was the highest when students were at 15 years old. For females, mean systolic and diastolic BP at age 12 and 16 years were 114.4 mmHg and 113.5 mmHg(systolic) and 75.2 mmHg and 72.1 mmHg(diastolic), respectively. BP level reached the highest point when they were 13-14 years old. 2. Anthropometric variables(height, weight and body mass index, etc) increased constantly during the study period for males. However, the rate of increase was decreased for females after age 15 years. Serum total cholesterol decreased and triglyceride increased according to age for males, but they did not show any significant trend fer females. Total fat intake increased at age 16 years compared with that at age 14 years. Compositions of carbohydrate, protein and fat among total energy intake were 66.2:12.0:19.4, 64.1:12.1:21.8 at age 14 and 16 years, respectively. 3. Most of anthropometric measures, especially, height, body mass index(BMI) and triceps skinfold thickness showed a significant correlation with BP level in both sexes. When BMI was adjusted, serum total cholesterol showed a significant negative correlation with systolic BP at age 12 years in males, but at age 14 years the direction of correlation changed to positive. In females serum total cholesterol was negatively correlated with diastolic BP at age 15 and 16 years. Triglyceride and creatinine showed positive correlation with systolic and diastolic BP in males, but they did not show any correlation in females. There was no consistent findings between nutrient intake and BP level. However, protein intake correlated positively with diastolic BP level in males. 4. Blood pressure change was positively associated with changes in BMI and serum total cholesterol in both sexes. Change in creatinine was associated with BP change positively in males and negatively in females. Students whose sodium intake was high showed higher systolic and diastolic BP in males, and students whose total fat intake was high maintained lower level of BP in females. The major determinants on BP change was BMI in both sexes.

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Case study of Music & Imagery for Woman with Depression (우울한 내담자를 위한 MI(Music & Imagery) 치료사례)

  • Song, In Ryeong
    • Journal of Music and Human Behavior
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.67-90
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    • 2008
  • This case used MI techniques that give an imagery experience to depressed client's mental resource, and that makes in to verbalism. Also those images are supportive level therapy examples that apply to positive variation. MI is simple word of 'Music and Imagery' with one of psychology cure called GIM(Guided Imagery and Music). It makes client can through to the inner world and search, confront, discern and solve with suitable music. Supportive Level MI is only used from safety level music. Introduction of private session can associate specification feeling, subject, word or image. And those images are guide to positive experience. The First session step of MI program is a prelude that makes concrete goal like first interview. The Second step is a transition that can concretely express about client's story. The third step is induction and music listening. And it helps to associate imagery more easily by used tension relaxation. Also it can search and associate about various imagery from the music. The last step is process that process drawing imagery, talking about personal imagery experience in common with therapist that bring the power by expansion the positive experience. Client A case targets rapport forming(empathy, understanding and support), searching positive recourse(child hood, family), client's emotion and positive support. Music must be used simple tone, repetition melody, steady rhythm and organized by harmony music of what therapist and client's preference. The client used defense mechanism and couldn't control emotion by depression in 1 & 2 sessions. But the result was client A could experience about support and understanding after 3 sessions. After session 4 the client had stable, changed to positive emotion from the negative emotion and found her spontaneous. Therefore, at the session 6, the client recognized that she will have step of positive time at the future. About client B, she established rapport forming(empathy, understanding and support) and searching issues and positive recognition(child hood, family), expression and insight(present, future). The music was comfortable, organizational at the session 1 & 2, but after session 3, its development was getting bigger and the main melody changed variation with high and low of tune. Also it used the classic and romantic music. The client avoids bad personal relations to religious relationship. But at the session 1 & 2, client had supportive experience and empathy because of her favorite, supportive music. After session 3, client B recognized and face to face the present issue. But she had avoidance and face to face of ambivalence. The client B had a experience about emotion change according depression and face to face client's issues After session 4. At the session 5 & 6, client tried to have will power of healthy life and fairly attitude, train mental power and solution attitude in the future. On this wise, MI program had actuality and clients' issues solution more than GIM program. MI can solute the issue by client's based issue without approach to unconsciousness like GIM. Especially it can use variety music and listening time is shorter than GIM and structuralize. Also can express client's emotion very well. So it can use corrective and complement MI program to children, adolescent and adult.

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An Analysis on the Curricula and Recognitions of the Home Economics Teachers who were the Participants of the First-Grade Home Economics Regular Teacher Qualification Program (중등 가정과 1급 정교사 자격 연수 프로그램 운영 실태 분석 및 연수 참여자의 인식)

  • Lim, Il-Young;Kweon, Li-Ra;Lee, Hye-Suk;Park, Mi-Jin;Ryu, Sang-Hee
    • Journal of Korean Home Economics Education Association
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.37-56
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study is to provide basic resources to the first-grade Home Economics Regular Teacher Qualification Program (FGHERTQP) in order to improve its operation plans. For the study, the three methods were carried out: an analysis on the curricula of FGHERTQP over six years since 2000, a questionnaire asking their satisfaction degrees and needs on the programs which was answered by the home economics teachers who were the participants of FGHERTQP, and several statistical analyses such as a descriptive-test, a $X^2$-test, a t-test, and one way ANOVA by using SPSS Win ver 10.0. The results of the study were as follows; Firstly, FGHERTQP has been operated ten times by five training centers during resent six years. Subject matters ($1{\sim}7$), whole numbers of lectures ($11{\sim}29$), and their allotted working hours ($111{\sim}136$) vary with individual training centers and operation years. Secondly, when using 5 point likert scales, Contents and Methods of evaluation marked 3.08 which were the lowest scores, and Qualification Training in General marked 3.72 which was the highest score among five fields of Qualification Training in General, Contents, Organizations, Methods and Evaluation. The overall scores were low. Thirdly, in needs analysis on offering subject matters, the participants wanted to study the field of home economics education more than that of subject contents. Looking about the highest needs classified by domains, Food Principles & Meal Management showed the highest in Foods. And Consumer Issues in Clothing & Textiles in Textiles, Upcoming Housing Cultures in Housing, Family Relationship in Child Development & Family Relationship, Juveniles and their daily life as a consumer in Family & Consumer Resources Management. Fourthly, training centers' lectures available had a significant influence on the satisfaction degrees according to general characteristic variations of the participants. That is, as a training center offers more lectures in the field of subject education than those of subject contents, the participants showed higher satisfaction degrees (p<.05).

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Hepatitis Complicated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection in Children (소아의 Mycoplasma pneumoniae 폐렴에 합병된 간염)

  • Lee, Seung Min;Lee, Sung Moon;Tchah, Hann;Jeon, In Sang;Ryoo, Eell;Cho, Kang Ho;Seon, Yong Han;Son, Dong Woo;Hong, Hee Joo
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.48 no.8
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    • pp.832-838
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    • 2005
  • Purpose : Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection is relatively common in childhood. Its extrapulmonary manifestations have been reported so much, but hepatitis associated with it has been reported rarely in Korea. Methods : A clinical study was performed on 556 patients of M. pneumoniae pneumonia diagnosed serologically at Gil hospital from January 2001 to December 2004. We reviewed 65 cases among these patients, who had elevated level of serum AST and ALT greater than 50 IU/L respectively without evidence of hepatitis A, B, C, Cytomegalovirus and Ebstein-Barr virus infections. Results : Hepatitis occurred in 11.7% of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia, especially in fall and winter times. Male to female ratio was 1.2 : 1 and the mean age was 4 years and 3 months. Besides hepatitis, cough(95.4%), sputum(52.3%) and dyspnea(12.3%) were common as pulmonary manifestations. And among gastrointestinal manifestations, nausea/vomiting(26.2%) was the most common symptom, followed by poor oral intake(12.3%), diarrhea(12.3%) and abdominal pain(6.2%). In addition to hepatomegaly(4.6%) and splenomegaly(4.6%), coarse breathing sound was the most common physical manifestation, followed by rale(63.1%), pharyngeal injection(26.2%), and rash(10.8%). Anemia was noted in 20.0%, neutrophilia in 10.8%, eosinphilia in 38.5% and thrombocytosis in 6.2%, respectively. Mean level of ESR and CRP was 32.02 mm/hr and 6.69 mg/dL, respectively. Mean level of AST and ALT was 293.80 IU/L and 181.48 IU/L, respectively. Hyperbilirubinemia was noted in 7.7% and hypoalbuminemia was noted in 58.5%. Lobar or lobular pneumonia(78.5%) was the most common finding in chest X-ray and left lower lobe(39.2%) was most commonly affected. Pleural effusion was noted in 26.2%. Mean duration of hospitalization was 9.91 days. Serum AST/ALT level was normalized within 9.94 days and pulmonary consolidation resolved within 14.29 days. Conclusion : The prognosis of M. pneumoniae hepatitis is good. However, liver function should be considerately checked in M. pneumoniae infection because its incidence is not so low.