• Title, Summary, Keyword: 참여

Search Result 14,877, Processing Time 0.078 seconds

Korean Ocean Forecasting System: Present and Future (한국의 해양예측, 오늘과 내일)

  • Kim, Young Ho;Choi, Byoung-Ju;Lee, Jun-Soo;Byun, Do-Seong;Kang, Kiryong;Kim, Young-Gyu;Cho, Yang-Ki
    • The Sea
    • /
    • v.18 no.2
    • /
    • pp.89-103
    • /
    • 2013
  • National demands for the ocean forecasting system have been increased to support economic activity and national safety including search and rescue, maritime defense, fisheries, port management, leisure activities and marine transportation. Further, the ocean forecasting has been regarded as one of the key components to improve the weather and climate forecasting. Due to the national demands as well as improvement of the technology, the ocean forecasting systems have been established among advanced countries since late 1990. Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE) significantly contributed to the achievement and world-wide spreading of ocean forecasting systems. Four stages of GODAE were summarized. Goal, vision, development history and research on ocean forecasting system of the advanced countries such as USA, France, UK, Italy, Norway, Australia, Japan, China, who operationally use the systems, were examined and compared. Strategies of the successfully established ocean forecasting systems can be summarized as follows: First, concentration of the national ability is required to establish successful operational ocean forecasting system. Second, newly developed technologies were shared with other countries and they achieved mutual and cooperative development through the international program. Third, each participating organization has devoted to its own task according to its role. In Korean society, demands on the ocean forecasting system have been also extended. Present status on development of the ocean forecasting system and long-term plan of KMA (Korea Meteorological Administration), KHOA (Korea Hydrographic and Oceanographic Administration), NFRDI (National Fisheries Research & Development Institute), ADD (Agency for Defense Development) were surveyed. From the history of the pre-established systems in other countries, the cooperation among the relevant Korean organizations is essential to establish the accurate and successful ocean forecasting system, and they can form a consortium. Through the cooperation, we can (1) set up high-quality ocean forecasting models and systems, (2) efficiently invest and distribute financial resources without duplicate investment, (3) overcome lack of manpower for the development. At present stage, it is strongly requested to concentrate national resources on developing a large-scale operational Korea Ocean Forecasting System which can produce open boundary and initial conditions for local ocean and climate forecasting models. Once the system is established, each organization can modify the system for its own specialized purpose. In addition, we can contribute to the international ocean prediction community.

Inhibitory Effects of Functional Sujeonggwa Drinks on Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Hypercholesterolemic ApoE Knockout Mice (고콜레스테롤혈증 ApoE Knockout Mice에서 기능성 수정과의 간지질 축적 억제 효과)

  • Baek, Aran;Kim, Mijeong;Jung, Koeun;Kim, Seulki;Lee, Jeehyun;Song, Yeong Ok
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
    • /
    • v.43 no.11
    • /
    • pp.1648-1657
    • /
    • 2014
  • In this study, the hepatic lipid-lowering effects and related mechanism of action of sujeonggwa were examined in hypercholesterolemia-induced apoprotein E knockout (apo E ko) mice. Sujeonggwa drink was prepared with cinnamon, ginger, and sugar by modifying the traditional recipe of sujeonggwa. Sugar was partially substituted with either stevia or short chain fructooligosaccharide (scFOS) in order to reduce the calorie content of sujeonggwa, which was measured by descriptive analysis. Apo E ko mice (n=42) were induced to have hypercholesterolemia (plasma total cholesterol concentration >1,000 mg/dL) by administration of a high cholesterol diet for 4 weeks, followed by division into six groups. Experimental groups were orally administered water as a vehicle (normal group), sugar solution (control group), commercially available 'V' sujeonggwa drink (positive control group), or three different types of sujeonggwa drinks (S-sugar, S-stevia, and S-scFOS group) for 6 weeks while high cholesterol diet was provided to all animals. Compared to the control group, concentrations of hepatic triglycerides, total cholesterol, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and reactive oxygen species in S-sugar, S-stevia, S-scFOS were significantly reduced (P<0.05), indicating that sujeonggwa had inhibitory effects on hepatic lipid accumulation. Protein expression levels of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and its transcription factor, sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1 responsible for triglyceride synthesis, as well as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) and its transcription factor, SREBP-2 responsible for cholesterol synthesis, were also reduced in S-sugar, S-stevia, and S-scFOS groups (P<0.05). These benefits of sujeonggwa were even greater in S-stevia and S-scFOS compared to S-sugar. The beneficial effects of S-stevia on regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism were slightly greater than those of S-scFOS although the differences were not significant. In conclusion, sujeonggwa drinks, especially functional sujeonggwa drinks in which sugar was partially substituted with stevia or scFOS, inhibited hepatic lipid accumulation via suppressing FAS and HMGCR protein expression through down-regulation of SREBP-1 and 2.

The Political Background of the Installation of the Crown Prince During the Period of King Munjong in the Goryeo Dynasty (고려 문종대 왕태자(王太子) 책봉(冊封)과 태자(太子) 관련 제도(制度) 정비의 의미)

  • Kim, Seon-mi
    • Journal of Korean Historical Folklife
    • /
    • no.45
    • /
    • pp.263-289
    • /
    • 2014
  • King Munjong(文宗), the eleventh King of the Goryeo Dynasty, was the son of King Hyeonjong(顯宗), the eighth king, and the younger stepbrother(異母弟) of King Jeongjong(靖宗), the 10th king. Although King Jeongjong had four sons, he abdicated the throne to King Munjong. King Taejo(太祖) had opened the possibility for sons other than the eldest son to succeed to the throne. When King Jeongjong died, his sons were children under the age of 10 years. In the early period of the Goryeo Dynasty, when kings had young sons, there were precedents of abdicating the throne to their grown-up younger brothers. In addition, King Jeongjong and Munjong had an identical blood background. During the period, Goryeo people also naturally accepted the fact that a former king's younger brother succeeded to the throne. In this background, King Munjong ascended the throne. However, King Munjong did not ascend the throne after identifying state affairs with politic power. Therefore, he needed to increase his authority as the king. Moreover, as the sons of King Jeongjong had grown up, they could stir up trouble in future succession to the throne. Therefore, King Munjong intended to concentrate power on himself and remove trouble in future succession to the throne by selecting his son as successor to the throne. After the installation of Wangtaeja(王太子, the Crown Prince), King Munjong expanded and organized Donggunggwan(東宮官, the establishment of Secretariat of Wangtaeja) and carried out various rituals related to Wangtaeja. The control system for Donggunggwan was completed institutionally in 1068. At this time, the newly organized Donggunggwan was operated as a miniature version of the central government office. In addition, the ritual for the installation of Taeja, which was held in 1054, complied with regulated procedures. After the ritual of the installation, a ceremony to congratulate on Jangheungjeol(長興節, the birthday of Wangtaeja) was held in 1056. In 1064, the wedding ritual of Taeja took place, and the ritual for Taeja regulated in Yeji(禮志) of "Goryeosa(高麗史)" was carried out. In addition, the installation of Wangtaeja was made known overseas, and the Taeja of Goryeo was proclaimed by the Kitan three times. Such various measures played an important role in strengthening the status of Taeja as the man of authority next to the king. Later, Taeja demonstrated his status as the man of authority following the king by participating in state affairs on behalf of King Munjong who was not able to move about freely in his later years.

A Study on Hyangcheong and Jakcheong's Official Duties and Personnel Practices of Anbyeon of Hamgyeong Province in the 19th century - Focusing on an article of 'a list of Hyangcheong and Jakcheong's officials' - (19세기(世紀) 함경도(咸鏡道) 안변(安邊)의 향청(鄕廳)·작청(作廳) 직임(職任)과 인사관행(人事慣行) - '향청·작청 직임 명단' 문서를 중심으로 -)

  • Park, Kyoung ha
    • Journal of Korean Historical Folklife
    • /
    • no.44
    • /
    • pp.145-176
    • /
    • 2014
  • This study analyzed official duties and personnel practices of Hyangcheong(鄕廳), administrative organization in which sajok(士族) participate this office, and Jakcheong(作廳), hyangree(鄕吏)'s office, of Anbyeon of Hamgyeong Province in the 19th century. Although there have beeen somewhat of case study of Gyeongsang, Honam, etc., study on Hamgyeong Province has been almost nonexistent because of the limitation of materials. Hence, this paper specifically examined Hyangcheong and Jakcheong's official duties and personnel practices through an article of 'a list of Hyangcheong and Jakcheong's officials' of Anbyeon, newly found, which is in the possession of this writer. Especially, this study virtually traced individual ststus and family by analyzing Hyangcheong and Jakcheong's 40-official duties and a list of 330-ofiicial duties for sixs years. And then by comparing it against Jokbo(族譜), I have grasped 19-Famlily of them. Executives of Hyangcheong could be grasped as they were status of Yangban(兩班), but members of Jakcheong were hardly identified because they were status of hyangree, thus most of them were not enscrolled in Jokbo. Hyangcheong and Jakcheong's official duties could be found by compare it with other area in Ehubgi(邑誌) Hamgyeong Province. the features of officiak duties are as in the following. On general administrative organization, Sajok's Hayngcheong, Jakcheong as general administrative organization and Jangcheong(將廳) as police work existed. As Pyeongando and Hamgyeongdo were border areas, Jangcheong was independent and led other institutions. However, in Anbyeon, Hojang(戶長) of Hayngcheong and Jakcheong divided dudies and commanded. Hojang'role was higher than any other areas, Because Hojang is in charge of Jangcheong's functions. Jakcheong was centrally operated by Hojang, Eebang(吏房), and Hyeongbang(刑房), so-called 'Samgonghyeong(三公兄)', Whereas Anbyeon was operated by Hojang, Eebang, Chunchong(千摠). In the general areas, While Juasu(座首) Byeolgam(別監), Executive of Hyangcheong, manages each warehouse(倉) where the nation's tax revenues are kept, In Anbyeon besides Joasu, Hyangso(鄕所). The principle of Hyangcheong and Jakcheong's personnel practices was one-period, but there were many consecutive terms, every other year terms, or tranference into other area. Police work was assumed by specific persons because it was relatively specialized job, However in case of Ghamsaek(監色) of each warehouse(倉), Hyangso(鄕所) of Hyangcheong or Hojang of Jakcheong had held plural offices, and was solely responsible it. On the overall features of its operation, Hyangcheong held plural offices, but rotation was made only within Hyangcheong. On the other hand, in the case of Jakcheong, Hojang, Eebang, and even Buriebang circulated their positions, but the other Hyangree rotated each Saek(色) and Guamguan of each warehouse(倉). This writer confirmed that unlike Gyeongsang and Hamgyeong, Hyangcheoung or duties of Hyangree were not handed from generation to generation by several families and, many families shared their work by circulating positions.

A Study for Activation Measure of Climate Change Mitigation Movement - A Case Study of Green Start Movement - (기후변화 완화 활동 활성화 방안에 관한 연구 - 그린스타트 운동을 중심으로 -)

  • Cho, Sung Heum;Lee, Sang Hoon;Moon, Tae Hoon;Choi, Bong Seok;Park, Na Hyun;Jeon, Eui Chan
    • Journal of Climate Change Research
    • /
    • v.5 no.2
    • /
    • pp.95-107
    • /
    • 2014
  • The 'Green Start Movement' is a practical movement of green living to efficiently reduce the greenhouse gases originating from non-industrial fields such as household, commerce, transportation, etc. for the 'materialization of a low carbon society through green growth (Low Carbon, Green Korea)'. When the new government took office, following the Lee Myeongbak Administration that had presented 'Low Carbon, Green Growth' as a national vision, it was required to set up the direction of the practical movement of green life to respond to climate change persistently and stably as well as to evaluate the performance of the green start movement over the past 5 years. A questionnaire survey was administered to a total of 265 persons including public servants, members of environmental and non-environmental NGOs, participants of the green start movement and professionals. In the results of the questionnaire survey, many opinions have indicated that the awareness of the green start movement is increasing and the green start movement has had a positive impact on individual behavior and group behavior in terms of green living. The result shows, however, that the environmental NGOs don't cooperate sufficiently to create a 'green living' effect on a national scale. Action needs to be taken on the community level in order to generate a culture of environmental responsibility. The national administration office of the Green Start Movement Network should play the leading role between the government and environmental NGOs. The Green Start National Network should have greater autonomy and governance of the network needs to be restructured in order to work effectively. Also the Green Start Movement should identify specific local characteristics to support activities that reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Best practices can be shared to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by a substantial amount.

Development of the evaluation tool for the food safety and nutrition management education projects targeting the middle class elderly: Application of the balanced score card and the structure-process-outcome concept (중산층 노인대상 식품안전·영양관리 교육 사업 평가를 위한 도구 개발: 균형성과표와 구조·과정·성과 개념 적용)

  • Chang, Hyeja;Yoo, Hyoi;Chung, Harim;Lee, Hyesang;Lee, Minjune;Lee, Kyungeun;Yoo, Changhee;Choi, Junghwa;Lee, Nayoung;Kwak, Tongkyung
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
    • /
    • v.48 no.6
    • /
    • pp.542-557
    • /
    • 2015
  • Purpose: The aim of this study is to develop an evaluation tool for operation of food safety and nutrition education projects for middle class elderly using the concept of the balanced score card. Methods: After the draft of the evaluation tool for the elderly training projects was completed, it was revised into the questionnaire and the validity of the indicators was tested by the Delphi group. The validity of the indicators was rated using a 5-point scale. The Delphi group consisted of 26 experts in the education sector, 16 government officials, and 24 professionals of the related area in communities. The first round test was conducted from July 9 to July 17, 2012, and 45 persons responded. The second round test was conducted from July 18 to July 25 and 32 persons responded. Results: The indicators, which were answered by more than 75 percent of the experts as 'agree' (4 points), 'strongly agree' (5 point) were included as the final indicators for the evaluation tool: 28 items out of 36 in outcome perspectives, 9 items out of 12 in process perspectives, and 17 out of 20 items in structure perspectives. The score was allocated as 50 points for outcome indicators, 20 points for process indicators, and 30 points for structure indicators. Conclusion: Completion of the evaluation tool is a prerequisite to determine whether the program is effectively implemented. The monitoring tool developed in the study could be applied for identification of the most optimal delivery path for the food safety and nutrition education program, for the spread of the food safety and nutrition education program for middle class elderly.

Clinical Usefulness of Contrast Echocardiography: The Dose Effect for Left Ventricle Visualization in Dogs (심초음파의 조영제의 임상적 유용성: 개에서 좌심영상화에 대한 조영제 용량의 영향)

  • Shin, Chang-ho;Hwang, Tae-sung;Yoon, Young-min;Jung, Dong-in;Yeon, Seong-chan;Lee, Hee-chun
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
    • /
    • v.32 no.6
    • /
    • pp.486-490
    • /
    • 2015
  • Two-demensional echocardiography is routinely used for evaluation of cardiac function. Visualization of the endocardial border is essential for the assessment of global and regional left ventricular with cardiac disease. SonoVue$^{TM}$ is a microbubble contrast agent that consists of sulfur hexafluoride-filled microbubbles in a phospholipid shell. There were many studies about contrast echocardiographic examination using SonoVue$^{TM}$ contrast agent, and various doses of SonoVue$^{TM}$ were used. To our knowledge, in published veterinary medicine, there was not reported for diagnostic efficient dose of SonoVue$^{TM}$ to evaluate contrast enhanced left ventricular endocardial border delineation (LVEBD). The purpose of this study is to compare the visualization time of LVEBD and find efficient dose of SonoVue$^{TM}$ for using various doses in dogs. Ten healthy Beagles were recruited to the study. Three different doses (0.03 ml/kg, 0.05 ml/kg and 0.1 ml/kg) of SonoVue$^{TM}$ were injected. Endocardial segments were assigned based on previously established methodology, where by the four-chamber views of the LV were divided into 6 segments. In this study, Contrast enhancement of the LVEBD after each injection was evaluated visually at the time point of overall contrast enhancement (Segmental scoring 5+) in the LV by three investigators in a blind manner. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS version 14.0. All data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, the multiple comparison Scheffe test. When data for the three offsite readers were combined, mean durations of useful contrast were $3.54({\pm}2.14)$, $6.15({\pm}2.61)$, and $24.39({\pm}11.10)$ seconds for the 0.03 ml/kg, 0.05 ml/kg, and 0.1 ml/kg SonoVue$^{TM}$ doses, respectively. After injection of contrast agent, there were no significant change in side effects such as urticaria, angioedema, hypersensitivity reactions, and digestive system disorders. This study suggests that efficient dose of SonoVue$^{TM}$ contrast agent for improvement of the left ventricle visualization is 0.1 ml/kg. The duration of useful enhancement of LVEBD and the reproducibility were also the highest at the 0.1 ml/kg dosage.

Preliminary Research on the Effect of Cosmetic Containing Ginseng Extract on Quality of Life of Healthy Women Based on Skindex-16 (인삼 추출물 함유 한방화장품이 건강한 성인 여성의 삶의 질에 미치는 영향에 관한 예비 연구; Skindex-16을 중심으로)

  • Cho, Ga Young;Park, Hyo Min;Kwon, Lee Kyung;Cho, Sung A;Kang, Byung Young;Kim, Yoon Bum
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
    • /
    • v.41 no.4
    • /
    • pp.333-340
    • /
    • 2015
  • This study is designed to analyze the effect of skincare using cosmetic containing ginseng extract, on improving quality of life (QOL) of healthy women, with blind testing. QOL is a concept that represents how one's disease or health condition can physically, psychologically, and socially influence his or her daily life. The study was conducted to assess the effect of a ginseng cosmetic preparation on quality of life (QOL) using the Skindex-16 score, stratified by blind versus non-blinded option. 45 healthy women aged between 30 and 49 years with no skin disease were recruited for this study. Volunteers were divided into two groups. Group A (n = 22) received anti-aging cream with ginseng extract in the original packaging, which included the brand name and logo. Group B (n = 23) received the same cream in a plain white jar without any package decoration or logo. Both groups used the cream for 8 weeks. For the skin-related QOL assessment, Skindex-16 was used at baseline, forth, and eighth week. All volunteers except two dropouts in Group A completed the dermatology-specific QOL measure, Skindex-16, at baseline, after 4 weeks, and after 8 weeks of treatment with the provided samples. As a result, the mean score of 43 participants at baseline was $22.70{\pm}4.82$. There was a significant difference between the baseline score and the score after 8 weeks in both groups: The scores changed from $23.30{\pm}5.14$ to $20.20{\pm}4.83$ in Group A, from $22.17{\pm}4.58$ to $20.52{\pm}3.60$ in Group B. The "Symptom" subscale of Skindex-16 improved after 4 weeks and the "Emotion" subscale improved after 8 weeks in Group A. The "Function" subscale did not show improvement in either groups. Both groups showed no interaction effect between follow up time and groups in Skindex-16 and subscale. This research opens up the possibility of skincare using ginseng cream having a positive effect on QOL in healthy women. Moreover, one can predict that skincare ritual itself may have greater impact on the improvement of QOL, compared to the product packaging.

Cafeteria Users' Preference for an Indoor Green-wall in a University Dining Hall (실내 벽면녹화 공간 이용자 행태연구 - 대학구내식당 녹화 칸막이 선호를 중심으로 -)

  • Kim, Hae-Ryung;Ahn, Tong-Mahn
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
    • /
    • v.43 no.6
    • /
    • pp.62-72
    • /
    • 2015
  • The objective of this research is to investigate the different aspects in which users positively identify with indoor green walls and the influences that it has on usage behaviors. Under the hypothesis that public space users prefer locations with green walls, the effect on their behavior was observed. After installing indoor green walls, behavioral observations and questionnaires were carried out to analyze green wall preferences. The observation experiment was carried out for a total of 8 days in order to see what influences the preferences for of indoor green walls had on usage behaviors and compare a control group with an experimental group that experienced a green wall. The usage time data were put into an SPSS statistics program and used to run an independent sample t-test. The questionnaire was carried out for two days from March 1st to 2nd 2014 after the observation was completed, and was done by 224 users of the two areas. The results from the experiment are as follows. First, comparisons between the total usage time of seats adjoined to partitions in both the green walled area and the partitioned area showed that there was no preference for indoor green walls. Second, the results appeared to show a higher percentage of women users in the green walled area, compared to the original partitioned area. Third, it showed that partitions and plants did not have any influence on seat choices. Fourth, the questionnaire showed preferences for indoor green walls. Out of the 94 people who sat in the partitioned area, 11.7% answered that they wanted to sit in the green walled area, they couldn't due to the lack of available seats. Furthermore, out of the 130 people who sat in the green walled area, 24.6% said they chose the seat because of their preference for the green wall. Although 64.3% of users of the two areas said that they would choose the green walled area if under the same circumstances, the behavior observation did not reflect this.

A Study on Users' Recognition of Selection Attributes for Connection between Recreational Forest and Rural Tourism Village (자연휴양림과 체험마을 연계를 위한 이용객의 선택속성 인식 연구)

  • Lee, Yong-hak;Cho, Yeong-Eun;Kang, Eun-jee;Kim, Yong-Geun
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
    • /
    • v.44 no.1
    • /
    • pp.16-28
    • /
    • 2016
  • The study was conducted to compare and analyze the importance and performance of leisure destination selection attributes of persons who use recreational forests and rural tourism villages. This researcher investigated the use patterns of users to identify the ground for connection between recreational forest and rural tourism village, analyzed their recognition differences in physical selection attribute, program selection attribute, and service selection attribute in order for leisure destination selection, and conducted importance-performance analysis(IPA analysis) to draw a plan for connection. The main results and suggestions are presented as follows. First, recreational forests were visited by family users in order for rest and emotional cultivation and provided experience programs using simple public interest function of forest, whereas rural tourism villages were visited by family users, friends and co-workers, groups and club members to experience a variety of annual programs and understand regional cultures. It was found that it was necessary to connect natural forest with rural tourism village in order to meet the leisure needs of the people changed in diversified ways. Secondly, it was found that the connection between rural tourism village and recreational forest visited mainly for simple rest led to positive visit intention of users. It was expected that there will be various kinds of uses, including experience program participation, child education, and safe accommodations security. In other words, the connection between recreational forest and rural tourism village is an alternative to trigger actual demands and recreational forest activities with high quality. Thirdly, in the case of users of recreational forests, their performance of all selection attributes was lower than their importance of them. Therefore, overall improvements were needed. In particular, needed were the diversity, benefit, and promotion of programs, improvements in locality(themes), supply of lodges and convenient facilities, booking system, the purchase system of local special products, and professional skills of operators and managers. On contrary, the performance of program selection attribute of rural tourism village was high. Therefore, it was found that program attribute of rural tourism village was the main connection factor to activate recreational forest use. Fourthly, according to IPA analysis, the proper connections between loges, convenient facilities, and nearby touristattractions, which give high expectations and satisfaction to users, needed to remain. And it was required to make common efforts to accomplish the goal (income creation) of rural tourism village and improve booking system for visitors and performance of local special products sales opportunity. In addition, the essential factors to induce users' leisure destination selection were found to be maintenance of the use fee system of recreational forest, diversity of rural tourism village program, and retention of locality.