• Title, Summary, Keyword: 진세노사이드

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Emerging Technology - Research on Ginsenoside Characteristics of Gyeonggi Ginseng (신기술 신소재 - 경기인삼 진세노사이드 특성 연구)

  • Hong, Hee-Do;Eom, Mi-Na
    • Bulletin of Food Technology
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.258-266
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    • 2012
  • 경기인삼 품질 특성을 확립하기 위한 기초자료로 진세노사이드 특성을 조사하였다. 경기도내 4대 인삼조합(개성, 김포 파주, 경기동부, 안성) 인삼을 인삼농가에서 직접 채취하거나 채굴현장에서 수집하여 진세노사이드 함량 및 조성을 분석하여 그 특성을 분석해 본 결과는 다음과 같다. 1. 경기인삼 4, 5, 6년근의 총 진세노사이드 함량은 3.92 mg/g, 4.34 mg/g 및 4.94 mg/g으로 각각 나타나 재배 년수가 증가할수록 함량이 높아짐을 알 수 있었다. PD/PT 비율은 1.12, 1.34 및 1.40으로 년근 수가 증가할수록 PD계열 진세노사이드 함량이 증가하였다. 2. 경기인삼 6년근의 크기별 진세노사이드 함량을 측정한 결과 큰 인삼(大)의 총 진세노사이드 함량은 5.19 mg/g, 작은 인삼은 4.69 mg/g으로 같은 년근 수에서는 인삼의 크기에 따라 진세노사이드함량 차이는 크게 나타나지 않았다. 3. 6년근 부위별 총 진세노사이드 함량은 주근이 3.70 mg/g이며 세근은 6.37 mg/g으로써 주근보다 세근에서 1.72배 함량이 높은 것으로 나타났다. 진세노사이드 각각 함량별로 비교해 볼 때 PD계인 진세노사이드 $Rb_2$, $Rb_3$, Rc, Rd와 PT계인 Re, $Rg_2$가 주근보다 세근에서 높은 함량을 나타내어, PD/PT 비율이 1.08과 2.06으로 세근은 주근보다 PD계열 함량이 2배 이상 높은 것으로 나타났다.

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Effect of Spinally Administered Ginseng Total Saponin on Capsaicin-Induced Pain and Excitatory Amino Acids-Induced Nociceptive Responses

  • Nah Jin-Ju;Choi Seok;Kim Yoon-Hee;Kim Seok-Chang;Nam Ki-Yeul;Kim Jong-Keun;Nah Seung-Yeol
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.38-43
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    • 1999
  • Ginseng total saponins (ginsenosides) are biologically active main ingredients of Panax ginseng. In present study, we have investigated whether pretreatment of ginsenosides inhibited capsaicin-induced pain at the spinal level, in the view that capsaicin causes substance P (SP) release from primary afferents. Ginsenosides relieved capsaicin-induced pain in a dose-dependent manner. The $ED_{50}$ of the effect was 43 (20-93, $95\%$ C.I.) ${\mu}g/mouse$. We investigated excitatory amino acids-induced nociceptive responses in mice, because these agents are also involved in nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord. Coadministration of ginsenosides with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) or kainate via i.t. inhibited NMDA- but not kainate-induced pain behaviors. The $ED_{50}$ for the inhibition of NMDA-induced pain by ginsenosides was 37 (21-66, $95\%$ C.I.) ${\mu}g/mouse$. These results suggest that the ginsenosides-induced antinociception results from blocking of pain transmitter-induced nociceptive information at the spinal level.

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Optimal Analytical Conditions for Panax Ginseng Ginsenosides using HPLC and Ginsenosides Content Analysis of Red Ginseng Products and their Raw Materials (HPLC를 이용한 인삼 진세노사이드의 최적 분석 조건 및 홍삼 제품과 원료삼의 진세노사이드 함량 분석)

  • Tark, Keun-Man;Son, Min-Hee;Chae, Hee-Jeong
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.418-424
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    • 2009
  • The analytical conditions of ginsenosides were optimized using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The optimal analysis conditions were set up from the experiments using different gradient conditions, and the ginsenosides contents of red ginseng products and their raw materials were analysed. Red ginseng contained 0.29% Rg1, 0.82% Rb1, 0.38% Rc, 0.32% Rb2, 0.11% Rd, showing the highest ginsenoside contents. Among the red ginseng products, red ginseng extract showed the highest content. The ginsenoside contents were varied according to the raw material type and product type. Re and Rb1 contents were the highest in most raw materials and products.

Relationship Between Ginsenoside Content and Stem Color Intensity of Panax ginseng (경색별인삼근(莖色別人蔘根)의 Ginsenoside 함량(含量))

  • Park, Hoon;Parklee, Qwi-Hee;Yoo, Ki-Jung
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.211-217
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    • 1982
  • Ginsenosides in epidermis·cortex(EC) and xylem-pith(XP) of main body of Panax ginseng(var. atropurpureacaulo) root were investigated in relation to dark purple area on stem. Pattern of ginsenosides, ratio of protopanaxatriol(PT) to diol(PD) and total ginsenoside content were significantly different between EC ana XP, and not related with stem color. The increasing trend of total ginsenosides with decreasing in purple area on stem needs to be tested with greater sample size. The order of ginsenoside content was $Rb_1>Rg_1>Re>Rc>Rg_2>Rb_2>Rf>Rd$ for EC, $Rg_1>Rb_1>Rg_2>Re>Rb_2>Rc>Rf>Rd$ for XP. PT/PD was 1.08 for EC,1.95 for XP. Since total ginsenoside content was 3 times higher in EC than in XP and weight of two parts was almost same, the content of ginsenosides of main body mostly depends on those of EC.

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Process Optimization of Ginseng Berry Extract Using Mixed Solvent and its Ginsenoside Analysis (혼합용매를 이용한 진생베리 추출물 최적 공정 개발 및 추출물의 진세노사이드 분석)

  • Ha, Yoo-jin;Kim, Mee-Ree;Yoo, Sun-Kyun
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.16 no.11
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    • pp.7794-7800
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    • 2015
  • Ginsenosides in ginseng berry has been known as functional materials showing physiological effect to the human. Specially, ginseng berry contains plenty of ginsenoside Re, but the study of extraction processes were not enough performed. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to establish the optimized extraction process for obtaining ginsenoside Re from ginseng berry. The extraction process of ginsenosides was performed in 250 mL extraction flask containing 150 solvent and 10 g of dried ginseng berry. The extracted ginsenoside Re, Rg1 and Rd and total crude ginsenosides from ginseng berry were evaluated by TLC according to the treated conditions (the ratio of alcohol to water, extraction temperature, extraction period, and extraction times). Optimized conditions for extraction was 70% to 30% of the ratio of alcohol to water, $80^{\circ}C$ of extraction temperature, 4 h of extraction period, and 2 times of extraction frequency. The amount of total crude ginsenosides of the extract obtained from the optimized process was 88.6 mg/g based on dried ginseng berry. The composition of ginsenosides from the extracted was 5.5% of Rb1, 5.2% of Rc, 14.3% of Rd, 51.5% of Re, 8.1% of Rf, and 15.7% of Rg1. A protopanaxtriol ginsenosides of whole ginsenosides extracted was about 80%.

Fermentative transformation of ginsenosides by a combination of probiotic Lactobacillus helveticus and Pediococcus pentosaceus (프로바이틱스 Lactobacillus helveticus와 Pediococcus pentosaceus의 조합에 의한 진세노사이드의 발효적 형질전환)

  • Palaniyandi, Sasikumar Arunachalam;Le, Bao;Kim, Jin-Man;Yang, Seung Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.54 no.4
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    • pp.436-441
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    • 2018
  • Ginseng are native traditional herbs, which exhibit excellent pharmacological activities. Probiotic Lactobacillus helveticus KII13 and Pediococcus pentosaceus strain KID7 were used for ginsenoside transformation by fermenting crude ginseng extract to enhance minor gisenoside content. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis of fermented ginseng extract showed that the minor ginsenosides Rg3, Rh1, and Rh2 were main products after 5 days of fermentation. HPLC analysis was performed to quantify the major and minor ginsenosides. The Rg3 peak appeared on the 3rd day while the appearance of Rh2 peak and Rh1 peak were observed on the 5th day. The co-culture of L. helveticus KII13 and P. pentosaceus KID7 converted major ginsenosides (Rb1 and Rg1) into minor ginsenosides (Rg3, Rh2, and Rh1).

A Study on the Utilization of By-products from Honeyed Red Ginseng: Optimization of Total Ginsenoside Extraction Using Response Surface Methodology (홍삼정과 제조 부산물 이용에 관한 연구: 반응표면분석을 이용한 총 진세노사이드 추출조건의 최적화)

  • Lee, Eui-Seok;You, Kwan-Mo;Kim, Sun-Young;Lee, Ka-Soon;Park, Soo-Jin;Jeon, Byeong-Seon;Park, Jong-Tae;Hong, Soon-Taek
    • Food Engineering Progress
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.79-87
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    • 2017
  • This study was carried out to extract ginsenosides in by-products from honeyed red ginseng. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the extraction conditions. Based on D-optimal design, independent variables were ethanol (extraction solvent) concentration (30-90%, v/v), extraction temperature ($25-70^{\circ}C$), and extraction time (5-11 h). Extraction yield (Y1) and total ginsenosides (Y2) in the extract were analyzed as dependent variables. Results found that extraction yield increased with increasing extraction temperature and time, whereas it was decreased with increasing ethanol concentration. Similar trends were found for the content of ginsenosides in the extracts, except for ethanol concentration, which was increased with increasing ethanol concentration. Regression equations derived from RSM were suggested to coincide well with the results from the experiments. The optimal extraction conditions for extraction yield and total ginsenosides were an extraction temperature of $56.94^{\circ}C$, ethanol concentration of 57.90%, and extraction time of 11 h. Under these conditions, extraction yield and total ginsenoside contents were predicted to be 84.52% and 9.54 mg/g, respectively.

Steaming and Ultrasonic extraction conditions for enhancing the ginsenoside contents and anti-aging efficacy of the Ginseng sprout leaf/stem (새싹삼 잎 줄기의 진세노사이드 함량 및 항노화 효능 증진을 위한 증숙 및 추출조건)

  • Lee, Jong Sub;Kim, Ji Young;Han, Bok Nam;Kim, Ki-Seok;Cho, Hang-Eui;Cha, Young-Kwon;Choung, Eui Su
    • Proceedings of the Plant Resources Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.118-118
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    • 2018
  • 인삼은 우리나라에서 오랜 역사동안 많은 연구가 진행되어 왔으며, 현재는 다양한 방법으로 홍삼과 흑삼으로 만들어 식품, 화장품, 의약품 등 다양한 방면으로 사용하고 있다. 본 연구에서 시중에서 구매한 새싹삼(인삼새싹) 잎/줄기에 함유된 진세노사이드(Re, Rg1, Rb1, Rg3, Rh1) 함량을 높이기 위하여 증숙과 초음파 추출조건에 관한 연구를 수행하여 우수한 항노화 소재를 개발하기 위하여 실시하였다. 실험은 새싹삼 잎/줄기를 증숙 온도와 시간의 조건에서 진세노사이드 함량이 가장 높은 조건을 선정하였으며, 선정된 조건의 새싹삼 잎/줄기에 파장과 출력에 대한 조건으로 초음파 추출을 진행하여 진세노사이드가 가장 높은 함량을 보이는 조건을 선정하였다. 그 결과 새싹삼 잎/줄기추출물(GSE; Ginseng Sprout Extract)의 진세노사이드 함량은 4.8 mg/g으로 확인되었으나 증숙공정을 통해 8.82 mg/g으로 함량이 증가되었으며, 상기 증숙된 새싹삼 잎/줄기에 초음파공정을 적용하여 추출한 새싹삼 잎/줄기초음파추출물(SU-GSE; Steaming & dry Ultrasonication-Ginseng Sprout Extract)에서는 최대 10.65 mg/g으로 함량이 증가되었다. 반면, 새싹삼 뿌리의 진세노사이드는 2.30 mg/g으로 확인되었으나 증숙공정을 통해 4.95 mg/g으로 함량이 증가되었으며, 초음파추출공정을 통해 최대 5.82 mg/g으로 함량이 증가된 것을 확인할 수 있었으나, 새싹삼 잎/줄기에 비해 진세노사이드 함량이 낮은 것을 확인하였다. 항노화 소재로의 활용가능성을 평가하기 위하여 새싹삼 잎/줄기추출물 GSE와 SU-GSE에 대한 세포생존률, 항산화 및 항노화에 대한 효능평가를 진행하였으며 GSE의 경우 $100{\mu}g/ml$에서 세포생존률이 82.4%를 보인 반면 SU-GSE에서는 $1,000{\mu}g/ml$의 농도에서 101.8%의 세포 생존률을 보였다. 항산화 활성의 경우 GSE와 SU-GSE $100{\mu}g/ml$ 농도에서 각각 52%와 81%의 항산화 활성을 나타냄으로써 SU-GES의 조건에서 항산화 활성이 우수한 것으로 확인되었다. 또한, 항노화 활성에 대한 실험결과 MMP-1 유전자 발현에 대한 억제율을 비교한 결과 GSE와 SU-GES $100{\mu}g/ml$의 농도에서 각각 18%와 29%의 억제율을 보임에 항노화 소재로의 활용가능성을 확인하였다.

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Ginsenosides Inhibit N-, p-, arid Q-types but not L-type of $Ca^{2+}$ Channel in Bovine Chromaffin cells

  • Seok Chol;Jung, Se-Yeon;Kim, Hyun-Oh;Kim, Hack-Seang;Hyewhon Rhim;Kim, Seok-Chang;Nah, Seung-Yeol
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.18-22
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    • 2000
  • In previous reports we have shown that ginsenosides inhibit high threshold voltage-dependent $Ca^{2+}$ channels in neuronal cells. However, these studies did not show whether ginsenosides-induced inhibition of $Ca^{2+}$ currents discriminates among the various $Ca^{2+}$ channel subtypes, although it is known that there are at least five different $Ca^{2+}$ channel subtypes in neuronal cells. In this study we investigated the effect of ginsenosides on high threshold voltage-dependent $Ca^{2+}$ channel subtypes using their selective $Ca^{2+}$ channel blockers nimodipine (L-type), $\omega$-conotoxin GVIA (N-type), or $\omega$-agatoxin IVA (P-type) in bovine chromaffin cells. We could observe that ginsenosides inhibited high threshold voltage-dependent $Ca^{2+}$ currents in a dose-dependent manner. The $IC_{50}$/ was about 120 $\mu$g/ml. Nimodipine had no effect on ginsenosides response. However, the effect of ginsenosides on $Ca^{2+}$ currents was reduced by $\omega$-conotoxin GVIA, $\omega$-agatoxin IVA, and mixture of nimodipine, $\omega$-contoxin GVIA, and $\omega$-agatoxin IVA. These data suggest that ginsenosides are negatively coupled to three types of calcium channels in bovine chromaffin cell, including an $\omega$-conotoxin GVIA-sensitive (N-type) channel, an $\omega$-agatoxin IVA-sensitive (P-type) channel and nimodipine/$\omega$-conotoxin GVIA/$\omega$-agatoxin IVA-resistant (presumptive Q-type) channel.Q-type) channel.

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Rapid Determination of Ginsenosides Rb1, Rf, and Rg1 in Korean Ginseng Using HPLC (HPLC를 이용한 고려인삼 중 진세노사이드 Rb1, Rf 및 Rg1의 신속분석 방법 개발)

  • Hong, Hee-Do;Choi, Sang-Yoon;Kim, Young-Chan;Lee, Young-Chul;Cho, Chang-Won
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.8-12
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    • 2009
  • A simple gradient HPLC method for rapid determination of major ginsenosides ($Rg_1$ and $Rb_1$) and unique ginsenoside (Rf) of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) was developed. Within 50min, three ginsenosides have been separated and identified on $\mu$-Bondapak $C_{18}$ column ($3.9{\times}300\;mm$, $10{\mu}m$) with gradient elution using water and acetonitrile as a mobile phase. The method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy, and precision. The correlation coefficients ($r^2$) for calibration curves of ginsenosides were over 0.9997. The developed HPLC method was successfully applied to the analysis of ginseng samples and the recoveries of ginsenosides were in the range of $101.1{\sim}115%$ with RSD<3.2%. The developed method could be used for rapid evaluation of the ginsenosides $Rg_1$, $Rb_1$, and Rf.