Oh, Se In;Kwak, Chung Shil;Yon, Miyong;Lee, Mee Sook
The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
The purpose of this study was to compare the degree nutrient intake, health status and other characteristics of females aged 65 years and over in a longevity area according to family arrangement. For analysis, 585 female elderly were recruited from the Kugoksoondam area (Kurye, Goksung, Soonchang and Damyang counties), known as the longevity-belt region in Jeonla province, Korea. The subjects were categorized into three groups according to family arrangement (living alone, living with spouse only and living with family). Demographic characteristics were collected, as well as information on physical measurements, blood tests for biochemical indicators, health status and health-related life style, dietary behavior, favorite food groups, consumption frequency of food groups, nutrient intake and mini nutrition assessment. In the group living with their spouse only, the highest education, physical activity, diverse food intake, frequency of eating meats and fish, energy and nutrients intake, and score on the mininutrient status assessment (MNA) were found to be significantly favorable factors. Taken together, these results demonstrated that the group living with their spouse only had relatively superior nutrient intake and the quality of diet. In contrast, the group living alone showed the lowest self-rated economic status, diversity of food intake, and physical activity, with the highest frequency of drinking, smoking and regular exercise for almost everyday compared with the other groups. On the other hand, those living with family demonstrated the lowest intake of supplements or functional foods, and levels of hemoglobin hematocrit MCH, but the highest HBA1c and blood sugar. Therefore, the group living with family was assumed to be at risk of anemia and diabetes. These results could be useful to plan effective strategies to increase the health-life expectancy of Korean elderly people living in rural areas, according to family arrangement.
This study analyzes the food frequency for the elderly regarding different family types and finds the factors for nutritional risk, offers a basic reference for providing nutritional support for them. The study referred to the dietary behavioral survey data of 3,680 elderly people (1652 male and 2028 female) from 21 regions in the northern Kyeonggi province. The data was collected through the method of one-to-one interviews and was a part of the Community Health Survey for 2008 by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC). We classified family types as a household for elderly people living alone, a household of elderly people with a spouse, a household of the elderly with unmarried children and a household of the elderly with married children, and as for intakes of foods, the frequencies of taking fruits, vegetables, kimchi, rice with mixed cereals, meat, fish, bean tofu soymilk, milk and dairy products, as well as sweet beverages are calculated on a daily basis and skipped meals are calculated on a weekly basis. Elderly women showed lower income, lower education level, higher unemployment rates, and a higher rate of government healthcare subsidies than elderly men. Elderly women tend to live alone and with their children while elderly men tend to live with their spouse. In both males and females, the intake of fruits and vegetables were the least in the elderly living alone, while the elderly with married children ate the most. In both males and females, the household of the elderly living alone ate significantly less amounts of Kimchi than other family types. Elderly people living alone tended to have significantly less meat and fish, especially women. In the case of rice with mixed cereals, the elderly men living alone and the elderly men with unmarried children ate significantly less amounts than the elderly men living with a spouse. The elderly men living alone took significantly less milk and dairy products than the elderly men with unmarried children while the elderly women living with a spouse took significantly less milk and dairy products than the elderly women with married children. With regards to the frequency of meal-skipping, the elderly living alone had the highest frequency for skipping meals. From this result, having various foods is difficult for the elderly living alone. Furthermore, the elderly living with unmarried children demonstrated a low quality of dietary life compared to those of married children. Hence, it can be concluded that social support is important in order for the elderly to have a balanced diet.
This study was conducted to investigate the dietary and other factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD) in older Korean women. A total of 340 women aged 65 to 74 were recruited from the Kugoksoondam area (Kurye, Goksung, Soonchang and Damyang counties), known as the longevity-belt region in Jeonla province, Korea. They were categorized into two groups according to bone status by T-score : a nonosteoporotic group and an osteoporotic group. Demographic characteristics were collected, as well as information on physical measurements, blood tests for biochemical indicators, health status health-related life style, dietary behavior, favorite food groups, nutrient intake and mini nutrition assessment (MNA). The results are as follows: The mean age of 185 nonosteoporotic women was 69.6 years and that of 155 osteoporotic women was 70.9 years (p<0.001). The mean T-score of the nonosteoporotic group was $-1.5mg/cm^3$ and that of theosteoporotic group was $-3.2mg/cm^3$ (p<0.001). Height and body weight in the nonosteoporotic group were significantly higher than in the osteoporotic group (p<0.001, respectively). There was no significant difference in BMI, although the BMI in the nonosteoporotic group was slightly higher. Waist and hip circumferences in the nonosteoporotic group were significantly higher than in the osteoporotic group (p<0.01, respectively), and the mid upper arm and calf circumferences were also significantly higher than in the osteoporotic group (p<0.001, p<0.01, respectively). The 5 m walking ability was significantly superior compared to the osteoporotic group. Serum levels did not show any significant differences between the groups and were within normal range. The serum total protein, albumin and Insulin-like growth factor (IGFs) levels of the nonosteoporotic group were significantly higher than those of the osteoporotic group (p<0.05, p<0.05, p<0.001, respectively). IGF was 104.7 ng/mL for the nonosteoporotic group and 88.1 ng/mL for the osteoporotic group. Physical activity and appetite in the nonosteoporotic group were significantly higher (p<0.01, p<0.05, respectively). The favorite food groups of the nonosteoporotic group comprised more meats and fish than those of the osteoporotic group (p<0.05, respectively). Nutrient intake was not significantly different, with the exception of niacin intake (p<0.05), but the nutrient intake of the nonosteoporotic group was slightly higher than that of the osteoporotic group. The niacin intake of the nonosteoporotic group and the osteoporotic group were 11.4 mgNE and 10.0 mgNE, corresponding to 103.6% and 90.9% of the Korean EAR, respectively. The MNA score of the nonosteoporotic group was significantly more favorable than for the osteoporotic group. In conclusion, it is necessary to maintain adequate body weight and muscle mass. Habitual physical activity may have a beneficial effect on BMD for older women. Dietary factors, such as meat and fish, higher intake of niacin rich foods and nutrient status for older women also appear to have favorable effects on bone mineral density.
This study was conducted in order to observe some descriptive epidemiological findings and causes of life-long labour force loss in the rural population of Korea, and to consider, on the basis of these observations, some principles of the necessary control measures. The total number of subjects in the study was 27,172, all family members of 4,174 households. The study population was located in the 81 counties, out of a total of 138 counties, where the college students conducted service activities during the summer of 1974. In each village area where these service activities were conducted, one household per student interviewer was randomly selected. Student interviewers were instructed on the contents of the questionnaire prior to the survey. The main contents of the questionnaire form included address, name, sex and age of each family members, and present life-long labour force loss, if any, of each family member. In cases of current labour force loss, the age of onset and causes were recorded. Of the total households surveyed, 8.9% had family members (1-4 in number) with life-long labour force loss. Of the total persons surveyed, the crude prevalence rate for life-long labour force loss was 15.1 per 1,000; and the age-standardized prevalence rates for male and female were 16.3 per 1,000 and 13.4 per 1,000, respectively. The rates, in both sexes, were gradually increased as the ages were increased. The prevalence rates per 1,000, in order, for life-long labour force loss by the causes were 10.2 for senility, 2.4 for impairment of extremities, 1.2 for chronic diseases of internal organs, 0.5 for other conditions of muosculoskeletal system, 0.4 for blindness in both eyes, 0.2 for impairment of spine, 0.2 for psychoses, and 0.1 for epilepsy. Among them the causes of impairment of extremities were stroke, poliomyelitis, accidents, arthritis and injury due to war operation, in that order of higher relative frequency. The frequency ratios by age of onset were also observed by the causes and sex.
The present status of control measures for public health important helminthic infections in Korea was surveyed in 1969 and the following results were obtained. The activities of parasitic examination and Ascaris treatment for the positives which were done during 1966 to 1969 were brought in poor result and could not decrease the infection rate. It is needed to improve or strengthen the activities. The mass treatment activities for paragonimiasis and clonorchiasis in the areas which were designated by the Ministry of Health were carried out during 1965 to 1968 with no good results in decrease of estimated number of the patients. There were too many pharmaceutical companies where many kinds of anthelmintics were produced. It may be better to reduce the number of anthelmintics produced and control the quality. The human feces, the most important source of helminthic infections, was generally not treated in sanitary ways because of the poor sewerage system and no sewage treatment plant in urban areas and insanitary latrines in rural areas. The field soils of 170 specimens were collected from 34 areas out of 55 urban and tourist areas where night soil has been prohibited by a regulation to be used as a fertilizer, and examined for parasites contamination with the result of Ascaris egg detection in 44%. Some kinds of vegetables of 64 specimens each from the supply agents of parasite free vegetables and general markets were collected and examined for parasites contamination with the results of Ascaris egg detection in 25% and 36% respectively. The parasite control activities and the ability of parasitological examination techniques in the health centers of the country were not satisfactory. The budget of the Ministry of Health for the parasite control was very poor. The actual expenditure needed for cellophane thick smear technique was 8 Won per a specimen. As a principle the control of helminthic infections might be led toward breaking the chain of events in the life cycle of the prasites and eliminating environmental and host factors concerned with the infections, and the following methods nay be pointed out. 1) Mass treatment might be done to eliminate human reservoirs of an infection. 2) Animal reservoirs which are related with human infections night be eliminated. 3) The excretes of reservoirs, particularly human feces, should be treated in sanitary ways by the means of sanitary sewerage system and sewage treatment plant in urban areas and sanitary latrines such as waterborne latrine, aqua privy and pit latrine in rural areas. The increase of national economical development and prohibition of the habit of using night soils as a fertilizer might be very important factors to achieve the purpose. 4) The control of vehicles and intermediate hosts might be done by the means of prohibition of soil contamination with parasites, food sanitation, insect control and snail control. 5) The improvement of insanitary attitudes and bad habits which are related with parasitic infections night be done by the means of prohibition of habit of using night soils as a fertilizer, and improving eating habits and personal hygiene. 6) Chemoprophylactic measure and vaccination may be effective to prevent the infections or the development of a parasite to adult in the bodies when the bodies were invaded by parasites. Further studies and development of this kind of measures are needed.
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
The objectives of this study were to explore food-related lifestyle segments of the older consumers, to identify its socio-demographic characteristics, and to investigate the differences in variables regarding health beliefs. A survey was conducted of adults 55 years of age and older living in Seoul, South Korea from March 28 to April 10, 2007. Out of the 500 distributed questionnaires, 361 were retained for final analysis: a response rate of 72.2%. As a result of cluster analysis, five consumer segments were identified; health-managing group, diet-unconcerned group, convenience-oriented group, taste-oriented group, unpracticed group. Significant differences were found among the five segments in terms of socio-demographic characteristics and variables regarding health beliefs (i.e., perceived self-efficacy, perceived barriers, perceived benefits). In the health-managing group and taste-oriented group, mean scores of perceived self-efficacy (p<0.001) and perceived benefits (p<0.001) were significantly higher than other groups. However, in the diet-unconcerned group and convenience-oriented group, the mean scores of perceived barriers (p<0.01) were significantly high. This study shows that foodservice operators targeting the older consumers should consider characteristics of each segment to develop a customized program.
Conventionally the estimation method of the origin-destination Matrix has been developed by implementing the expansion of sampled data obtained from roadside interview and household travel survey. In the survey process, the bigger the sample size is, the higher the level of limitation, due to taking time for an error test for a cost and a time. Estimating the O-D matrix from observed traffic count data has been applied as methods of over-coming this limitation, and a gradient model is known as one of the most popular techniques. However, in case of the gradient model, although it may be capable of minimizing the error between the observed and estimated traffic volumes, a prior O-D matrix structure cannot maintained exactly. That is to say, unwanted changes may be occurred. For this reason, this study adopts a conjugate gradient algorithm to take into account two factors: estimation of the O-D matrix from the conjugate gradient algorithm while reflecting the prior O-D matrix structure maintained. This development of the O-D matrix estimation model is to minimize the error between observed and estimated traffic volumes. This study validates the model using the simple network, and then applies it to a large scale network. There are several findings through the tests. First, as the consequence of consistency, it is apparent that the upper level of this model plays a key role by the internal relationship with lower level. Secondly, as the respect of estimation precision, the estimation error is lied within the tolerance interval. Furthermore, the structure of the estimated O-D matrix has not changed too much, and even still has conserved some attributes.
Ryu, Jea Ki;Kim, Hyun-Kyung;Kim, Dong-Chan;Lee, Suk Jun
Journal of Life Science
Chlamydophila pneumonia is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia throughout the world. It causes mild pneumonia or bronchitis in adolescents and young adults. Older adults may experience more severe disease and repeated infections. To the best of our knowledge, no study has attempted to investigate the prevalence of C. pneumonia in a closed community in Korea. We compared the infection rate of C. pneumonia among university dormitory residents using the miro-immunofluorescence (MIF) method. Antibody titers of IgG (1:32 or more) indicate past infection of C. pneumonia. A recent infection was defined as serum with a high titer of IgG (1:512 or more) or a positive IgM (1:16 or more). The past infection rate of C. pneumonia among the university dormitory residents was 71.7%. The recent infection rate of C. pneumonia according to IgG and IgM titers was 28.3% and 23.3%, respectively. The past infection positive rate according to the number of residence months was 1 month (50%), 7 months (71.4%), 13 months (66.7%), and 35 months (89.5%). The recent infection positive rate according to IgG antibody titers was 1 month (50%), 7 months (28.6%), 13 months (33.3%), and 35 months (10.5%). The recent infection rate of C. pneumonia according to IgM antibody titers was 1 month (41.7%), 7 months (28.6%), 13 months (26.7%), and 35 months (5.3%). The results suggest that the past infection rate of C. pneumonia is increased by the number of residence months in a closed community and that the recent infection rate of C. pneumonia according to IgG and IgM serological tests is decreased by the number of residence months.
MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
This study was performed in 2010 to examine the flora and vegetation structure and chemical characteristics of soil in the growing community of Abeliophyllum distichum, located in the Byeonsanbando National Park. This Abeliophyllum distichum community has more individual numbers in Cheongrim-ni and Jungkye-ri, Byeonsan-myeon, and Buan-gun area, which is designated as a Natural Monument (No. 370), and also where the habitat conditions for Abeliophyllum distichum is more favorable. The authors recorded 100 taxa with 45 families, 82 genus, 93 species, 4 varieties, and 3 forms. Among them, species such as Abeliophyllum distichum (critically endangered), Asarum maculatum (near threatened) and Chionanthus retusa (near threatened), which are categorized as rare plants, were recorded. According to the list of Korean endemic plants, 4 taxa, particularly Philadelphus schrenckii, Abeliophyllum distichum, Weigela subsessilis, and Lonicera subsessili, were recorded. The community of Abeliophyllum distichum is located in the northwest slope of Baekcheon watershed and the community is comprised of healthy soil. The community structure was classified into three: the Castanea crenata community, Zelkova serrata community, and Quercus serrata community. The Castanea crenata community is composed of the Cornus walteri, Platycarya strobilacea, Zelkova serrata, Rhamnella frangulioides, arranged in terms of importance percentage. The Zelkova serrata community is composed of Celtis sinensis, Quercus aliena, Styrax japonica, and Acer pseudo-sieboldianum, also according to importance percentage. As for the Quercus serrata community, it is composed of Quercus variabilis, Castanea crenata, and Prunus sargentii, also arranged in terms of importance percentage. The importance percentage of Abeliophyllum distichum is 6.6% in the Castanea crenata community, 5.6% in the Zelkova serrata community and 5.1% in the Quercus serrata community. Moreover, in order of chemical characteristics of soil pH, electrical conductivity, available phosphoric, organic matter, and exchangeable cation (K, Ca, Mg) are analyzed. The No. 3 site was relatively higher than other districts of the same chemical characteristics of soil.
Taiwan agricultural development in the last decade has not been changed much since the accomplishment of land reform program. This is mainly due to the rapid development taken place within industry that agricultural development can not keep pace with. The increasing gap of rural-urban income discrepancy has caused socio-psychological unstability among rural people and inspire wants of out-migration. From 1961 to 1970, population of the ten largest cities showed an annual growth rate of 4.05%, while the population of the remainder of Taiwan showed 2.06%. Assuming the natural increase rate of these two population sections are similar, the difference of rural and urban annual growth rate can be at tributed to the flow of people from rural to urban sectors. The main objective of this paper is to identify the amount of agricultural out-migration and its impact on agricultural development and agricultural extension programs. Specifically, the objectives are to examine (1) rural-urban population composition (2) rural out-migration estimation (3) changes of agricultural population, and (4) implications for agricultural development and extension programs Some of the important findings are listed below; (1) The average agricultural out migration of the period 1960-1969 is estimated at around 60,000 per year. Take Tainan prefecture for example, the Male-Female Migration Ratio is 0.39 for age 20-24, 0.55 for age 25-29, 0.90 for 30-34. It is understood between age 20 and 34, the rural female migration rate is higher than the rural male. (2) Based on the population growth rate of 1950-1969, agricultural population is projected for the period of 1953 to 1989. By 1978, the agricultural population will reach its peak and begin to dedaine from 1980. The projected agricultural population in 1989 is 5,847,566 which occupies 29% of the Taiwan total population. (3) Assuming area of cultivated land keep unchanged as 905,263 ha. in 1970, and tif we can eliminate all 72% of part-time farms, then the average farm acreage for hose full-time farms will be increased to 3.6 hactares. This is unlikely to happen before 1989 without the government interference. (4) Less than 10% of adult farmer s of age 25-64 in 1969 enrolled in Farm Discussion Club, only 5% of adult farm women enrolled in Home Economics Club, and 5% of rural youth enrolled in 4-H Club. These statistics show a fact that only few farmers are reached by extension workers. Based on findings in this paper, some important suggestions are listed for future agricultural development. (1) Improve agricultural structure by decreasing agricultural population (a) Encourage farmers with less than 0.5 ha. of land to seek jobs outside of agriculture (b) Encourage joint cultivation and farm mechanization (c) Discourage rural migrants to Keep farm land (d) Provide occupational guidance program through extension education programs (2) Establish future farmers settlement project to assure rural youth have enough resources for farming. (3) An optimum Population policy should be integrated into rural socio-economic development and national development programs.
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