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Differences of news aspect about Asia and West in Korean newspapers and its reason: Focusing on news topic, amount of news, news tone and media sources (한국신문의 아시아와 서구에 대한 보도양상의 차이와 이유 연구: 뉴스주제, 보도량, 보도태도, 미디어 정보원을 중심으로)

  • Oh, Day-Young
    • Korean journal of communication and information
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    • v.61
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    • pp.74-97
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    • 2013
  • Asia is developing rapidly in 21st century. Human and material exchanges between Korea and Asian countries have greatly increased. Korea entered the multicultural society. It became important for Korean people to understand Asia more correctively. Korean media can play a key role for this. In this point, I analyzed 1786 news contents reported in 2011 by four Korean newspapers(Chosun Ilbo, Dong-A Ilbo, Hankyoreh newspaper, Kyungh Kyunghyang Daily News), to see differences of Asia and West news aspect and its reason, focusing on news topic, amount of news, news tone and foreign media sources. In amount of news, the percent of West(54.3%) was higher than that of Asia news(45.7%). In news tone, negative news were the most in Asia news, but the least in West news. Korean newspaper showed more positive attitude to West than Asia. 1786 news were classified into seven topics(morality and justice, politics, economics and science, society, diplomacy and national defense, human interest, people). In news amount of seven topics, Korean newspapers reported hard news like morality and justice more than soft news like human interest about Asia. However they reported many soft news about West besides hard news. In news topics and tone, hard news showed negative tone most and soft news showed neutral or positive tone most. As a result, Korean news showed the negative attitude to Asia and the positive to West. Among five main sources(media, government, private organization, individual and material), only media source affected the differences of news attitude to Asia and West. Asia media source took the more positive attitude to Asia than West. West media took the negative attitude to Asia most and the neutral attitude to West most. Korean newspapers used West media as main sources in the news of all areas except East Asia. As a result, Korean newspapers showed the West-centered-attitude and reported the negative news more than neutral and positive about Asia. It was suggested that Korean newspapers had better increase Asia news in diverse spheres by the direct reporting of the correspondent and the more use of Asia media through the internet.

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Development of Indicators to Assess the Quality of Ubiquitous-Ecological Cities (유비쿼터스 에코시티 평가지표 개발 및 적용 연구)

  • Kim, Han-Saem;Jeong, Yeun-Woo
    • LHI Journal of Land, Housing, and Urban Affairs
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.111-123
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    • 2011
  • A Ubiquitous-Ecological City (U-Eco City) is the new urban paradigm integrated with ubiquitous-city (U-City) connecting the high-tech IT technology to the urvan space with the concept of the sustainable eco-city. As a U-Eco City is attempted for the first time domestically and internationally, there is insufficient discussions for its develoment goal, planned design proposal, technology and service element and others. Even if there are plans to build up it, policy and technology, service structuring business and others, it is difficult to assess how it would bring the efficacy. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to present the indicators system to assess a U-Eco City. The results of this study revealed the following; First, the conceptual framework, which was established to achieve sustainable urban quality, can be suggested by establishing its notion of the U-Eco City. The concept of a U-Eco City as established in this study suggests that the economic development in growth-oriented level has to be conducted not only quality of urban environment but also in terms of sustainable to consider the complex impact of various development; Secondly, the developed assessment system has heightened the completeness as the evaluation index through the attitude survey. As a result of questionnaire survey with the subject of specialists and interested party of this study, the urban qualitative aspect is formulated for the stability as a relatively important aspect. For the urban continuity aspect, society, environment and economy have all similar importance, but the environment element was shown to be highest. And finally, subject area was selected on the basis of the evaluation system and the analysis was made on the basis of the implementation design plan of the area. As a result of the assessment, safety and economy have shown to be high. This is indirectly indicated for the priority in economic growth driven development plan unlike the importance of environmental continuity obtained through the attitude survey. When planning on urban development, there is a need for supplementing the environment part and it has to present the connection plan between the economic growth and environmental continuity.

Changes in prevalence of obesity according to gender in Korea adults: Using a population-based Korea National Health Check-up Database, 2011-2013 (우리나라 성인의 성별에 따른 비만유병률의 변화 : 국민건강보험 건강검진(2011-2013) 자료 이용)

  • Choi, Oh-Jong;Cho, Sung-Il
    • Korean Public Health Research
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.87-97
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    • 2018
  • Background: Recently, the prevalence of obesity (body mass index [BMI] ${\geq}25kg/m^2$) has been increasing rapidly worldwide over a short period. In Korea, the prevalence of obesity has also increased rapidly due to the rapid socio-economic development and lifestyle changes, with differing patterns according to gender. This study aimed to compare the change in obesity prevalence according to gender among the adult population in Korea using representative data, the National Health Check-up Database (NHCD), to follow-up individuals who had undergone checkups during both years in Korea (2011~2013). Methods: To analyze the changes in obesity prevalence in the recent two years, data regarding men and women who had undergone health check-ups in both two years (2011, 2013) were extracted. The final study population comprised 144,934 persons: 83,604 (58%) males and 61,330 (42%) females. Chi-square test within a univariate analysis, and the level of factor difference was verified with t-test, one-way ANOVA and multiple comparison. Results: In 2011, one out of three participants was obese (BMI ${\geq}25kg/m^2$; male, 37.7%; female, 27.3%) and more than half of the subjects were overweight (BMI ${\geq}23kg/m^2$; male, 65.6%; female, 50.4%) requiring obesity management. For the two years, the BMI of the participants significantly increased (p < .0001) and the prevalence of obesity increased among both males and females. The prevalence of obesity was higher among both genders with a longer duration of smoking, more smoking, family history of hypertension, and family history of diabetes. However, residence, income level, drinking status, psychiatric disorder, disability status and severity of disability were the opposite gender. Conclusion: In the analysis of data, the prevalence of obesity among both men and women was increasing. The degree of change in the prevalence of obesity among men and women was different in each variable. Thus, it will need to consider gender in developing health policies for obesity mediation and to provide integrated healthcare and management for those people.

A Study on Classification System for Gong-Po-Do Style in Tomb Wall Paintings of Koguryo (고구려 고분벽화 공포도 형식의 분류체계에 관한 연구)

  • Hwang, Se-Ok
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.49 no.2
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    • pp.20-55
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    • 2016
  • Koguryo's tomb mural paintings in North Korea are our precious cultural heritage which have been designated as UNESCO World Heritage property receiving high praise in the following criterion, i) exceptional creativeness of human being, ii) representative value showing the stage of development in construction history of East-Asia, iii) aesthetic superiority iv) uniqueness of building construction including tombs' ceiling. Mural paintings have been found from almost 100 tombs of the Koguryo dynasty out of 130 which are scattered across Huanren County, Lianoning Province, Ji'an, Jilin Province in China and Pyongyang in North Korea. Especially, most of them are gathered in Pyongyang from 4th and 5th century. Peculiarly, some of them have been constructed before King Jangsu's transfer of the capital to Pyongyang(AD 427). It can be regarded that Pyongyang territory had been under control of Koguryo and to become a new capital in the near future. And dense emergence of such tombs since the capital transfer from Gungnae City to Pyongyang during the reign of Jangsu is linked closely to the construction of tombs for rulers under strengthen royal authority of Jangsu and centralized system of authoritarian rule. Tomb mural paintings describe the owner's figure pictorially based on the truth just as in his living years. General lifestyles of ruling powers and sovereigns can be seen from the wall paintings portraying several buildings with various styles, figures, manners of living, which are considered that the tomb owner had led politically and sociologically in his life. In spite of not enough proofs to approve figure of architectures or "Gong-Po" in wall paintings on the tombs as those of Koguryo, it is persuasive with consideration for painting and decoration inside the tomb like wooden building in real life for the purpose of reenacting and continuing the tomb owner's luxurious life after death. "Du-Gong-Po-Zak" had appeared in company with Koguryo tomb murals and it can be found in most of the murals. And the emergence of substantial "Gong-Po-Do" can be counted more than a century ahead of the figure in murals. It could be a reasonable assumption as regards Koguryo tomb murals time of appearance match up with production period of Gahyungmyunggi(家形明器) and Hwasangseok(畵像石) Hwasangjeon(畵像塼) Design in the Mural Painting of the East-Han(東漢) Ancient Tombs in China. On this study, architectural "Gong-Po"s described in Koguryo tomb murals are categorized largely in "Bi(non)-Po-Zak-kye", "Jun(semi)-Po-Zak-kye", and "Po-Zak-kye" based on presence of "Ju-Du", "Cheom-Cha", and "Cheom-Cha-Sal-Mi" with developmental aspect, and, "Po-zak" is subdivided as "Bi(non)-Cheul-Mok" and "Cheul-Mok" types.

Analysis of Behavior of Seoullo 7017 Visitors - With a Focus on Text Mining and Social Network Analysis - (서울로 7017 방문자들의 이용행태 분석 -텍스트 마이닝과 소셜 네트워크 분석을 중심으로-)

  • Woo, Kyung-Sook;Suh, Joo-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.48 no.6
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    • pp.16-24
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze the usage behavior of Seoullo 7017, the first public garden in Korea, to understand the usage status by analyzing blogs, and to present usage behavior and improvement plans for Seoullo 7017. From June 2017 to May 2020, after Seoullo 7017 was open to citizens, character data containing 'Seoullo 7017' in the title and contents of NAVER and·DAUM blogs were converted to text mining and socialization, a Big Data technique. The analysis was conducted using social network analysis. The summary of the research results is as follows. First of all, the ratio of men and women searching for Seoullo 7017 online is similar, and the regions that searched most are in the order of Seoul and Gyeonggi, and those in their 40s and 50s were the most interested. In other words, it can be seen that there is a lack of interest in regions other than Seoul and Gyeonggi and among those in their 10s, 20s, and 30s. The main behaviors of Seoullo 7017 are' night view' and 'walking', and the factors that affect culture and art are elements related to culture and art. If various programs and festivals are opened and actively promoted, the main behavior will be more varied. On the other hand, the main behavior that the users of Seoullo 7017 want is 'sit', which is a static behavior, but the physical conditions are not sufficient for the behavior to occur. Therefore, facilities that can cause sitting behavior, such as shades and benches must be improved to meet the needs of visitors. The peculiarity of the change in the behavior of Seoullo 7017 is that it is recognized as a good place to travel alone and a good place to walk alone as a public multi-use facility and group activities are restricted due to COVID-19. Accordingly, in a situation like the COVD-19 pandemic, more diverse behaviors can be derived in facilities where people can take a walk, etc., and the increase of various attractions and the satisfaction of users can be increased. Seoullo 7017, as Korea's first public pedestrian area, was created for urban regeneration and the efficient use of urban resources in areas beyond the meaning of public spaces and is a place with various values such as history, nature, welfare, culture, and tourism. However, as a result of the use behavior analysis, various behaviors did not occur in Seoullo 7017 as expected, and elements that hinder those major behaviors were derived. Based on these research results, it is necessary to understand the usage behavior of Seoullo 7017 and to establish a plan for spatial system and facility improvement, so that Seoullo 7017 can be an important place for urban residents and a driving force to revitalize the city.

The Conservation Status and Vitalization Plan for Railroad Car Heritage (철도차량유산의 보존현황과 활성화 방안)

  • Seok, Min-Jae
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.51 no.2
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    • pp.38-57
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    • 2018
  • Led by the Cultural Heritage Administration, studies on the cultural heritage of railways have merely focused on modern registered cultural heritage and on excavating the cultural heritage of modern rail transportation. Endeavors of institutions relevant to railways to protect the cultural heritage of railways were not sufficiently made. Only the internal guideline to protect the cultural heritage of railways made by the railway corporation is being implemented. This study aims to assert the need to examine the protective measures of the heritage of railroad cars and to vitalize plans of conserving the heritage of railroad cars. Also, plans to protect the heritage of railroad cars and methods to invigorate schemes of protecting the heritage of railroad cars will be suggested. The current situation of protecting the heritage of railroad cars was investigated via a field trip. Through exploring overseas examples of protecting the heritage of the railroad cars, ways to vitalize plans of widely publicizing the heritage of the railroad cars with their historical values were suggested. Results showed that first, the way of openly exhibiting conserved railroad cars by setting up stands other than the way of exhibiting and conserving in one site was necessary. Second, in order to properly preserve and manage the cultural heritage of railways, railroad cars, much like natural monuments or intangible cultural properties, need to be perceived as cultural properties. Also, it is necessary to amend the Cultural Properties Protection Law to include railway heritage. Third, the perception of the cultural heritage of railways should be heightened, and SNS, blogs, and cafes need to strategically promote this heritage in order to increase the public's interest. Fourth, in addition to enacting legislations and gaining institutional support for the cultural heritage of railways, the budget to operate the responsible department, and employing staff for the heritage of railroad cars should be resolved as a priority in order to enhance the capability of managing this cultural heritage. In order to rationally protect the cultural heritage of railways and invigorate plans to protect the cultural heritage of railways, it is necessary to garner administrative and financial support, and enact the appropriate legislation. The heritage of railroad cars is priceless and has a social value in terms of regional icons, historic marks, and the record of life. It is considered that in this situation, the standard of amending both policy and the Cultural Properties Protection Law for the heritage of railroad cars should be urgently established.

Operating Cases of Farmer Organizations in the Rice Industry of Korea and Its Implication for Uganda (한국의 쌀 재배 농가조직 운영사례가 우간다에 주는 시사점)

  • Yi, Hyangmi;Guma, Allen Peter;Lee, Seokjoo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of International Agriculture
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.217-225
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    • 2017
  • South Korea and developing countries like Uganda have sought to re-energize their agriculture sector growth using $6^{th}$ Industrialization of Agriculture strategies. These strategies seek to upgrade farming households from just being producers or primary industry players to participants in the secondary and tertiary industry. This convergence is known as $1{\times}2{\times}3=6^{th}$ Industrialization. This involves farmers strengthening production and investing in higher value chain activities such as agro-tourism, agro-processing, farm restaurants, and the export market. These developments are driven by investment in institutional arrangements and technology that is often beyond the capacity of individual farming households as well as some farmer organizations and cooperatives. Qualitative approaches were used to draw lessons from two typical rice farmer organizations and two rice value addition groups and other sector players to investigate group formation dyanamics and the capacity of farmer organizations to attain goals for grouping. The results show being a member of a farmer organization increases access to inputs such as machinery, however, the key determinant to joining is trust/mistrust of leadership. In regard to attainment of $6^{th}$ Industrialization, farmer organizations still have to hassle with uncertainty of marketing a new $6^{th}$ industry product. Nevertheless farmer organizations seem closer to attaining the $6^{th}$ industry goal due to exposure to primary processing and export business. Some implications have been drawn for Korea as well as localization to Uganda's situation.

The Implications of Changes in Learning of East Coast Gut Successors (동해안굿 전승자 학습 변화의 의미)

  • Jung, Youn-rak
    • (The) Research of the performance art and culture
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    • no.36
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    • pp.441-471
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    • 2018
  • East Coast Gut, Korean shamanism ritual on its east coastal area, is a Gut held in fishing villages alongside Korean east coastal area from Goseong area in Gangwon-Do to Busan area. East Coast Gut is performed in a series mainly by a successor shaman, Korean shaman, who hasn't received any spiritual power from a God, and the implications of this thesis lie in that we look over the learning aspects of Seokchool Kim shaman group among other East Coast Gut successor shaman groups after dividing it into 2 categories, successor shaman and learner shaman and based upon this, we reveal the meaning of the learning aspects of East Coast Gut. For successor shamans, home means the field of education. Since they are little, they chased Gut events performing dance in a series to accumulate onsite experiences. However, in the families of successor shamans that have passed their shaman work down from generation to generation, their descendents didn't inherit shaman work any longer, which changed the way of succession and learning of shaman work. Since 1980's, Gut has been officially acknowledged as a kind of general art embracing songs, dance and music and designated as a cultural asset of the state and each city and province, and at art universities, it was adopted as a required course for its related major, which caused new learner shamans who majored in shamanism to emerge. These learner shamans are taking systematical succession lessons on the performance skills of East Coast Byeolshin Gut at universities, East Coast Byeolshin Gut preservation community, any places where Guts are held and etc.. As changes along time, the successor shamans accepted the learner shamans to pass shaman work down and changes appeared in the notion of towners who accept the performer groups of Gut and Gut itself. Unlike the past, as Gut has been acknowledged as the origin of Korean traditional arts and as the product of compresensive learning on songs, dance and music and it was designated as a national intangible cultural asset, shaman's social status and personal pride and dignity has become very high. As shaman has become positioned as the traditional artist getting both national and international recognition unlike its past image of getting despised, at the site of Gut event or even in the relation with towners, their status and the treatment they get became far different. Even towners, along with shift in shaman groups' generation, take position to acknowledge and accept the addition of new learning elements unlike the past. Even in every town, rather than just insisting on the type or the event purpose of traditional Gut, they think over on the type of festival and the main direction of a variety of Guts with which all of towners can mingle with each other. They are trying to find new meanings in the trend of changing Gut and the adaptation of new generation to this. In our reality of Gut events getting minimalized along with rapid change of times, East Coast Gut is still very actively performed in a series until now compared to Guts in other regions. This is because following the successor shamans who have struggled to preserve the East Coast Gut, the learner shamans are actively inflowing and the series performance groups preserve the origin of Gut and try hard to use Gut as art contents. Besides, the learner shamans systematically organize what they learned on shamanism from the successor shamans and get prepared and try to hand it down to descendents in the closest possible way to preserve its origin. In the future, East Coast Gut will be succeeded by the learner shamans from the last successor shamans to inherit its tradition and develop it to adapt to the times.

A study on the case of education to train an archivist - Focus on archival training courses and the tradition of archival science in Italiy - (기록관리전문가의 양성교육에 관한 사례연구 -이탈리아의 기록관리학 전통과 교육과정을 중심으로-)

  • Kim, Jung-Ha
    • Journal of Korean Society of Archives and Records Management
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.201-230
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    • 2001
  • Conserving the recored cultural inheritance is actually the duty of all of us. Above all, the management and conservation of archives and documents is up to archivists who have technical knowledge about archival science. Archivists have to not only conserve archives and documents but also carry out classifying and appraising them in order to define them as current historic ones. The fundamental education about archival science is made up of history and law. Because Archive is the organisation which manage archives and documents produced by legal and administrative actions. Although there are still arguments about technical knowledge and degree archivists have to acquire, most of them prefer the studies related with history and emphasize legal studies to be the general boundary of archivits' ideology and trust. The training course about conservation of archives is conducted in about 9 National Archives of Torino, Milano, Venezia, Genova, Bologna, Parma, Roma, Napoli, Palermo. The training course in 19th was mostly based on the lectures of Phaleography, Diplomatics. There were not the education about archival science yet. Toward the end of 19th and 20th, people stressed the most basic subject in the training course of National Archive was not Phaleography and Diplomatics but archival science. The goal of archival science is to study the institution and organisation transferring archives and documents to Archive. And also it help archivists not wander about with ignorance of organisational and original procedures and divisions but know exactly theirs works. Like this, the studies on institution and organisation have got in the saddle as a branch of archival science since a few ten years. While archival science didn't evoke sympathy among people and experienced the tedious and difficult path in italy and other countries, Archive was managed by experts of other branches. As a result, there were a lot of faults in Archival Science. Specializing training course for Italian archivists came into being under the backdrop of Social Science Institute of Roma National University in 1925. The archival course of universities accomplished by the studies of history, law and economy. And such as Eugenio Casanova and Giorgio Cencetti were devoted archival science was abled to settle down in national archive. The training course for experts of 'archival science, 'Phaleography and Diplomatics' in National Archive of Bologna(Archivio di Stato di Bologna) is one of courses conducted in 17 National Archives in italy. This course is gratuitous and made up of 8 subjects(Archivistica, Paleografia, Diplomatica, Storia dell' Archivio, Notariato e documenti privati, istituzione medievale, istituzione moderna, istituzione contemporanea) students have to complete for two years. Students can receive the degree through passing twice written exam and once oral test. After department of Culture and education finally puts the marks of students, the chief Nationa Archive of Bologna confer the degree of 'archival science Phaleography and Diplomatics' on students passing the exams. This degree authenticates trainees' qualification which enables him to work at the archive in province, district and administrative capital city and archive of comunity and so on. Italian training course naturally leads archivists to keep in contact with valuable cultural inheritance through training in Archive. And it shows the intention to strengthen the affinity with each documents in the spot of archival management before training archivists. Also this is appraised as one of positive policies to conserve the local cultual inheritante in connection with the original qualitity of national archive with testify the history of each region. Traning course for archivist in Italy shows us the way how we have to prepare and proceed it. First, from producing documents to conserving than forever there has introduced 'original order that is to say a general rule to respect the first order given at the time producing documents'. Management of administrative documents is related consistently with one of historical documents. Second, the traning course for archivist is managing around 17 national archives. because italian national archive lay stress not or rducation of theory bus on train for archivest working in the first time of archival science. Third, diplomatics and phaleography for studies about historical document support archives. Forth, the studies on history id proceeding by cooperation between archivist and historian around archive. How our duties is non continuinf disputer who has to conserve and manage document and archives, but traing experts who having ability, vision and flexible thought, responsibility about archivals.

Air Pollution and Its Effects on E.N.T. Field (대기오염과 이비인후과)

  • 박인용
    • Proceedings of the KOR-BRONCHOESO Conference
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    • pp.6-7
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    • 1972
  • The air pollutants can be classified into the irritant gas and the asphixation gas, and the irritant gas is closely related to the otorhinolaryngological diseases. The common irritant gases are nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, hydrogen carbon compounds, and the potent and irritating PAN (peroxy acyl nitrate) which is secondarily liberated from photosynthesis. Those gases adhers to the mucous membrane to result in ulceration and secondary infection due to their potent oxidizing power. 1. Sulfur dioxide gas Sulfur dioxide gas has the typical characteristics of the air pollutants. Because of its high solubility it gets easily absorbed in the respiratory tract, when the symptoms and signs by irritation become manifested initially and later the resistance in the respiratory tract brings central about pulmonary edema and respiratory paralysis of origin. Chronic exposure to the gas leads to rhinitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, and olfactory or gustatory disturbances. 2. Carbon monoxide Toxicity of carbon monoxide is due to its deprivation of the oxygen carrying capacity of the hemoglobin. The degree of the carbon monoxide intoxication varies according to its concentration and the duration of inhalation. It starts with headache, vertigo, nausea, vomiting and tinnitus, which can progress to respiratory difficulty, muscular laxity, syncope, and coma leading to death. 3. Nitrogen dioxide Nitrogen dioxide causes respiratory disturbances by formation of methemoglobin. In acute poisoning, it can cause pulmonary congestion, pulmonary edema, bronchitis, and pneumonia due to its strong irritation on the eyes and the nose. In chronic poisoning, it causes chronic pulmonary fibrosis and pulmonary edema. 4. Ozone It has offending irritating odor, and causes dryness of na sopharyngolaryngeal mucosa, headache and depressed pulmonary function which may eventually lead to pulmonary congestion or edema. 5. Smog The most outstanding incident of the smog occurred in London from December 5 through 8, 1952, because of which the mortality of the respiratory diseases increased fourfold. The smog was thought to be due to the smoke produced by incomplete combustion and its byproduct the sulfur oxides, and the dust was thought to play the secondary role. In new sense, hazardous is the photochemical smog which is produced by combination of light energy and the hydrocarbons and oxidant in the air. The Yonsei University Institute for Environmental :pollution Research launched a project to determine the relationship between the pollution and the medical, ophthalmological and rhinopharyngological disorders. The students (469) of the "S" Technical School in the most heavily polluted area in Pusan (Uham Dong district) were compared with those (345) of "K" High School in the less polluted area. The investigated group had those with subjective symptoms twice as much as the control group, 22.6% (106) in investigated group and 11.3% (39) in the control group. Among those symptomatic students of the investigated group. There were 29 with respiratory symptoms (29%), 22 with eye symptoms (21%), 50 with stuffy nose and rhinorrhea (47%), and 5 with sore thorat (5%), which revealed that more than half the students (52%) had subjective symptoms of the rhinopharyngological aspects. Physical examination revealed that the investigated group had more number of students with signs than those of the control group by 10%, 180 (38.4%) versus 99 (28.8%). Among the preceding 180 students of the investigated group, there were 8 with eye diseases (44%), 1 with respiratory disease (0.6%), 97 with rhinitis (54%), and 74 with pharyngotonsillitis (41%) which means that 95% of them had rharygoical diseases. The preceding data revealed that the otolaryngological diseases are conspicuously outnumbered in the heavily polluted area, and that there must be very close relationship between the air pollution and the otolaryngological diseases, and the anti-pollution measure is urgently needed.

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