• Title/Summary/Keyword: 지르칼로이-4

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A Study on the Zircaloy-4 Brazing with Beryllium Filler Metal for the Nuclear Fuel (베릴륨 용가재를 사용한 핵연료피복재 지르칼로이-4 브레이징에 대한 연구)

  • 고진현;김형수
    • Journal of Welding and Joining
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.70-78
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    • 1993
  • An attempt was made to investigate the effect of brazing time on microstructure, microhardness, and corrosion of Zircaloy -4as well as the beryllium diffusion into its sheet. The sheets were coated with beryllium and brazed at $1020^{\circ}C$ for 20-40 minutes in $2{\times}10^{-5}$ torr vacuum atmosphere. 1. Microstructurally the brazed zone was largely divided into three regions: a region of continuous or partially formed of eutectic liquid films along grain boundaries; a region of precipitation in both grains and grain boundaries; a region of elongated wide structure of .alpha.-laths, which was not affected by beryllium. 2. Due to the precipitates, the beryllium-migrated region was hardened and the width of the hardened region increased with increasing brazing time. 3. Beryllium brazed Zircaloy -4 sheets showed a higher corrosion rate than those of as-received and heat-treated at a brazing temperature. 4. Diffusion coefficient of beryllium into Zircaloy -4 at $1020^{\circ}C$ for 30 minutes was $7.67{\times}10^{-7}cm^2/sec.$ It seemed that Be penetrated Zircaloy -4 by forming eutectic liquid films along grain boundaries in the proximity of Be/Zr interface and it, thereafter, diffused into Zircaloy mainly by interstitial solid solution.

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Improvement of LBW quality of Zircaloy-4 Spacer Grids for PWR Fuel Assembly (경수로 원전연료용 지르칼로이-4 지지격자 레이저용접품질 개선)

  • Kim, Soo-Sung;Song, Kee-Nam;Han, Hyoung-Jun
    • Journal of Welding and Joining
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.22-28
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    • 2006
  • A spacer grid assembly, which is an interconnected array of slotted grid straps and is welded at the intersections to form an egg crate structure, is one of the main structural components of the nuclear fuel assembly for Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). The weld quality of spacer grids in PWRs fuel is extremely important for the fuel assembly performance in the nuclear renter. The spacer grid welds are currently evaluated mainly by the metallographic examination although it reveals only cross-points which are welded by the laser beam. This experiment is also to compare the weldability of Zircaloy-4 spacer grids using by the GTA and LB. The effect of node geometries of spacer grids for the GTAW and LBW has been studied and optimum conditions of spacer grid welding have been found. Microstructures and micro-hardness of the GTA and LB welded zones have been also compared.

Comparison and Analysis of Zircaloy-4 Tube Wear in Air and Water Environment (수중 및 공기 중에서의 지르칼로이-4 튜브마멸 비교분석)

  • 김형규;박순종;강흥석;윤경호;송기남
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers Conference
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    • 2001.11a
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    • pp.19-26
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    • 2001
  • The wear characteristic of Zircaloy-4 tube, which is used for a cladding of light water reactor fuel rod, is investigated experimentally. The experiment is conducted with contacting the crossed tube specimens in air as well as in water at room temperature with various combination of contact normal force and sliding distance of reciprocating motion. The contour and the volume of each wear are examined to study the effect of contact condition and environment on wear. As a result, it is found that the wear volume in the water environment is larger than that in the air for all the contact (i.e., force and sliding distance) conditions. However, the wear depth is greater in air than in water if the contact normal force and the sliding distance are larger. These are explained by the ease of detachment of wear particles from the contact surface. On the other hand, workrate model is applied with the contact shear force range measured by our wear tester. Investigated is the correlation between the workrate and the wear volume increase rate of the present experiment. The parabolic curve is found to fit well for the present wear data.

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Contact Condition of Zircaloy-4 Tube and Support and Transition of Slip Regime (지르칼로이-4 튜브 및 지지부의 접촉조건과 미끄럼 상태의 천이)

  • 김형규;강흥석;윤경호;송기남
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers Conference
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    • 2001.06a
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    • pp.81-88
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    • 2001
  • To study the influence of the shape of contacting bodies (especially the end profile) on slip regime, wear test is conducted in the case of the contact between tube and support. Two different end profiles of the support are used such as truncated wedge and rounded punch. During the test, 10, 30 and 50 N are applied as normal force and slip displacement varies between 10-200 $\mu\textrm{m}$. The tube and the support specimens are made of Zircaloy-4 and a specially designed wear tester is used. Tests are carried out in air at room temperature. Wear on the tube is examined by measuring microscope. Partial and gross slip regimes are classified from the observed wear shape. Surface roughness tester is also used to measure the wear depth and contour, from which wear volume is evaluated. The transition from partial to gross slip is also investigated by investigating the considerable increase of wear volume. From the result, the boundary between the partial and the gross slip is newly determined in the conventional fretting map for the present specific contact configuration. Since the transition is related with the amount of energy dissipation from the contact surface so is wear, it is regarded that wear can be restrained by designing a proper shape of support.

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The Effect of $\beta$-Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Mechanical Characteristics of Zircaloy-4 for Nuclear Fuel Cladding (핵연료 피복관용 지르칼로이-4의 미세조직과 기계적 특성에 미치는 $\beta$-열처리의 영향)

  • Koh, Jin-Hyun;Oh, Young-Kun;Kim, Gwang-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.9 no.6
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    • pp.589-594
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    • 1999
  • The effect of $\beta$-heat treatment on th microstructure, mechanical properties and texture in the nuclear fuel cladding of Zircaloy-4 tubes was chosen at 1000, 1100 and 120$0^{\circ}C$, and the tubes were heat-treated by a high frequency vacuum induction furnace. Morphology of the second phase particles and $\alpha$-grain of as-received tubes were markedly changed by heat treatment. The average sizes of second phase particles of as-received and $\beta$-heat treated tubes were 0.1$\mu\textrm{m}$ and 0.076$\mu\textrm{m}$, respectively. However, the average sizes of second phase particles were not much changed in the $\beta$-heated temperatures. With increasing heat treatment temperatures, the 0.2% yield strength and the hoop strength were decreased because of changes in preferred orientation as will as $\alpha$-plate width. Heat treated Zircaloy-4 tubes exhibited texture changes but the preferred orientation of grains still remained.

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Development of the Spent Fuel Rod Cutting Device by Cutter Blade Method (Cutter blade 방식에 의한 사용후핵연료봉 절단 장치 개발)

  • 정재후;윤지섭;홍동회;김영환;김도우
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Precision Engineering Conference
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    • 2000.11a
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    • pp.393-396
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    • 2000
  • Spent fuel rod cutting device should cut a spent fuel rod to an optimal size in order to fast decladding operation. In this paper, for developing spent fuel rod cutting device with cutter blade, rod properties such as dimension and material of zircaloy tube and fuel pellet are investigated at first and then, various methods of existing cutting devices used commercially are investigated and their performance are analyzed and compared. This device is designed to be operated automatically via remote control system considering later use in Hot-Cell (radioactive area) and the mdularization in the structure of this device makes maintenance easy. SUS and Zircaloy-4 are selected as cut material used in the test of spent fuel rod cutting device by cutter blade. In order for constructing the high durable cutter blade, various materials are analyzed in terms of quality, shape, characteristic, and heat treatment, etc. and from these results, spent fuel rod cutting device is designed and manufactured based on the considerations of durability, round shape sustainability of rod cross-section, debris generation, and fire risk, etc.

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Crystallization Behavior of Amorphous Ti-Be Alloys as Filler Metals for Joining Zircaloy-4 Tubes and Microstructures of the Brazed Zones (지르칼로이-4 브레이징용 비정질 Ti-Be 용가재의 결정화 거동 및 접합부 미세조직)

  • Kim, Sang-Ho;Go, Jin-Hyeon;Park, Chun-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.259-263
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    • 2002
  • Three different ribbons of amorphous $Til_{1-x}Be_x$ alloys such as $Ti_{0.59}Be_{0.41},\;Ti_{0.61}Be_{0.39}\;and\;Ti_{0.63}Be_{0.37}$ were made by melt-spinning method to be used as brazing filler metals for joining Zircaloy-4 nuclear fuel cladding tubes, and their crystallization behavior as well as microstructure of the brazed zone were examined. The crystallization behavior was investigated in teams of thermal stability, crystallization temperature and activation energy. The crystallization of the $Ti_{1-x}Be_x$ alloys proceeded in two steps by the formation of ${\alpha}$-Ti at a lower temperature and of TiBe at a higher temperature. The crystallization temperature and activation energy of $Ti_{1-x}Be_x$ alloys were higher and larger than those of $Zr_{1-x}Be_x$ alloys and PVD Be. Those resulted thinner joining layer with $Ti_{1-x}Be_x$ alloys, which kept sound thickness of Zircaloy-4 nuclear fuel cladding tubes after brazing. But in the brazed zones made by $Ti_{1-x}Be_x$ filler metals, a little solid-solution layers composed of Zr and Ti were formed toward the Zr cladding tube and Zr was detected in the brazed zones. Microstructure of brazed zone was changed from globular to dentrite with decreasing Be content in the $Ti_{1-x}Be_x$ filler metal.

Determination of Flow Stress of Zircaloy-4 Under High Strain Rate Using Slot Milling Test (슬롯밀링시험을 이용한 높은 변형률 속도 조건하에서 Zircaloy-4의 유동응력 결정)

  • Hwang, Jihoon;Kim, Naksoo;Lee, Hyungyil;Kim, Dongchoul
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.67-75
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    • 2013
  • The flow stress of zircaloy-4 used in the spacer grid supporting a nuclear fuel rod was determined by the Johnson-Cook model, and model parameters were determined using reverse engineering. Parameters such as A, B, n and $\dot{\varepsilon}_0$ were determined by the tensile test result. To obtain the parameters C and m, a slot milling test and numerical simulation were performed. The objective functions were defined as the difference between the experimental and the simulation results, and then, the parameters were determined by minimizing the objective function. To verify the validity of the determined parameters, cross-verification for each case was conducted through a shearing test and simulation. The results tend to show agreement with the experimental results, such as the features of sheared edges and maximum punch force, with the correlation coefficients exceeding at least 0.97.

Effect of NaCl and Fluoride adsorbates on Zircaloy-4 Oxidation in Air. (지르칼로이 피복관의 공기중 산화에 NaCl과 불화물의 영향)

  • 박광헌;김광표;조윤철
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Surface Engineering Conference
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    • 1999.10a
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    • pp.105-105
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    • 1999
  • 핵연료 피복관은 핵연료에서 방사성 핵분열생성물의 방출을 저지하는 가장 뚱요한 방어막인데, 현재 지르칼로이 4가 피복관의 재료로 사용되고 있다. 사용후 핵연료는 원자력발전소내 습식 저장조에 저장되고 있으나, 지속적인 관리와 장소확보의 용이 성으로 인해 건식 저장조를 사용하는 추세에 있다. 본 연구에선 건식 저장조에 장 기간 저장되는 핵연료 피복관에 주변 환경으로부터 오염될 수 있는 소금기나 기름 등이 지르칼로이의 공기중 산화에 미치는 영향의 존재를 밝히려 한다. 현재 고리 원자력발전소에서 사용중인 핵연료 피복관을 1cm정도 높이로 자르고, 피복관 표면 을 ASTM -G2-88 방법으로 처리한 후 산화실험을 수행하였다. 산화정도는 간헐적 (intermittent) 방법을 사용하여 시편의 무게를 측정하여 구하였으며, 산화온도는 $400-500^{\circ}C$로 하였다. 소금이 흡착이 된 경우, 산화 속도는 흡착이 안된 시편보다 가속되었으며, 거의 이차법칙을 따르고 있다. 산화막 위의 흡착물의 영향을 알아보기 위해, 지르칼로이를 $500^{\circ}C$ 수증기에 $5g/m^2$ 두께로 산화시킨 후, 다시 산화실험을 수행하였다. 사용한 흡착물은 LiF, NaF, KF, NaCI 이다. 흡착물들은 산화를 대체로 가속시켰으며, NaF, KF, NaCI 순으로 그 영향력이 컸다. 그러나, LiF는 산화에 전혀 영향을 미치지 않았다. SIMS를 사용하여 각 시편의 두께에 따른 흡착물의 분포 를 알아보았다. 음이온(CI, F)과 양이온(Na, Li, K)이 산화막과 금속 경계면까지 관 찰되었으며, 음이온과 양이온의 분포는 대게 동일하였다. LiF의 경우 산화막에서 이들의 농도가 급격히 떨어지고 있음을 알 수 있었다. 산화막 내에서 이들 흡착물의 확산이 산화속도 가속의 원인이며 이들 흡착물중 CI과 F는 산화막과 금속 겸계면 에서 새로 생성되는 산화막의 강도에 영향을 미쳐, 일찍 미세균열을 만들기 시작하여 산화를 가속시키는 것으로 판단된다.

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Development of Test Method for Simple Shear and Prediction of Hardening Behavior Considering the Bauschinger Effect (단순전단 시험법 구축 및 바우싱거효과를 고려한 경화거동 예측)

  • Kim, Dongwook;Bang, Sungsik;Kim, Minsoo;Lee, Hyungyil;Kim, Naksoo
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.37 no.10
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    • pp.1239-1249
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    • 2013
  • In this study we establish a process to predict hardening behavior considering the Bauschinger effect for zircaloy-4 sheets. When a metal is compressed after tension in forming, the yield strength decreases. For this reason, the Bauschinger effect should be considered in FE simulations of spring-back. We suggested a suitable specimen size and a method for determining the optimum tightening torque for simple shear tests. Shear stress-strain curves are obtained for five materials. We developed a method to convert the shear load-displacement curve to the effective stress-strain curve with FEA. We simulated the simple shear forward/reverse test using the combined isotropic/kinematic hardening model. We also investigated the change of the load-displacement curve by varying the hardening coefficients. We determined the hardening coefficients so that they follow the hardening behavior of zircaloy-4 in experiments.