• Title, Summary, Keyword: 중환자실

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Fluconazole prophylaxis in high-risk, very low birth weight infants (고위험 극소저체중 출생아에서 fluconazole 예방요법)

  • Kim, Soo Young;Lee, Soon Joo;Kim, Mi Jeong;Song, Eun Song;Choi, Young Youn
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.50 no.7
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    • pp.636-642
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    • 2007
  • Purpose : Fluconazole prophylaxis for very low birth weight (VLBW) infants has been shown to reduce invasive fungal infection and its mortality. This study aims to evaluate the effect of fluconazole prophylaxis in VLBW infants on the incidence and mortality of fungal infection. Methods : VLBW infants with endotracheal intubation and central vascular access admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) at Chonnam University Hospital were enrolled. Twenty eight infants of 7-month baseline period from January to July 2005 ('non-fluconazole group') were compared with 29 infants of a 7-month fluconazole period from January to July 2006 ('fluconazole group'). Results : Gestational age, birth weight, sex, mode of delivery, frequency of twin pregnancy, chorioamnionitis, antenatal steroid and rupture of membranes were similar between the fluconazole and non-fluconazole groups. The rate of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants, frequency and duration of prophylactic antibiotics, total parenteral nutrition and umbilical catheters, duration of intralipid, mechanical ventilation and nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) were also not significant. However, frequency of percutaneous central venous catheterization (PCVC) and intralipid administration, and duration of PCVC were significant between the two groups. The overall incidence and mortality of fungal infection were not different between the two groups. Although the Malassezia infection was increased in the fluconazole group (P<0.05), candida was significantly decreased compared to the non-fluconazole group (P<0.05). Conclusion : Fluconazole prophylaxis in high risk VLBW infants decreased the candida infection significantly. Antifungal prophylaxis is recommended in terms of cost effectiveness, but further study is needed to clarify the reason for the increase of Malassezia infection.

Association of ionized magnesium, total magnesium, gestational age, and intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm babies (미숙아에서 이온화 마그네슘, 총 마그네슘과 재태 연령과의 관계 및 뇌실 내 출혈과의 관계)

  • Kim, Tae-Yeon;Lee, Hyun-Hee;Sung, Tae-Jung
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.52 no.10
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    • pp.1140-1146
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    • 2009
  • Purpose:The pathophysiology of magnesium, the second highest common compound in humans, is still unclear, especially in preterm babies. We accessed the association between total magnesium (tMg), ionized Mg (iMg), and gestational age (GA) and that between serum magnesium (sMg) and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in preterm babies. Methods:In all, 119 inborn preterm infants admitted between July 2006 and February 2008 were divided into the IVH group (19) and the control group (100) and were prospectively analyzed. TMg, iMg, pH, total calcium (tCa), and ionized Ca (iCa) levels were determined immediately after delivery or within 3 hours after birth, and their correlation with GA were investigated. Results:TMg was not correlated with GA, tCa, iCa, and pH. IMg was correlated with tMg (r=0.288, P=0.002) and iCa (r=0.212, P=0.021); however, it was not correlated with GA and pH. Mean GA and birth weight were significantly lower (P=0.002) and smaller (P=0.030) in the IVH group. Mean sMg was higher in the IVH group ($2.5{\pm}0.9mg/dL$) than in the control group ($2.1{\pm}0.6mg/dL$) (P=0.021). SMg was a risk factor even after logistic regression analysis (OR, 2.798; 95% C.I., 1.265-6.192; P=0.011). Conclusion:In less than 37-week-old preterm babies, tMg and iMg were similar, regardless of GA. High sMg may be a risk factor for IVH in premature babies, regardless of their exposure to antenatal magnesium.

Efficacy of deferoxamine on paraquat poisoning (파라쿼트 중독 환자에서 deferoxamine의 치료 효과)

  • Huh, Jin Won;Jegal, Yangjin;Hong, Sang-Bum;Oh, Yeon Mok;Shim, Tae Sun;Lim, Chae-Man;Lee, Sang Do;Kim, Woo Sung;Kim, Dong Soon;Kim, Won Dong;Koh, Younsuck
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.62 no.2
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    • pp.113-118
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    • 2007
  • Background: Paraquat is known to induce oxidant injury that results in multiorgan failure and lung fibrosis. Iron has been considered to play a key role in paraquat-induced oxidant lung injury. This study examined the effect of deferoxamine, an iron-chelating agent, in the treatment of paraquat poisoning. Methods: From September, 2001 to April, 2005, 28 patients with paraquat poisoning who were admitted at a medical intensive care unit of a University-affiliated hospital, were enrolled in this study. Sixteen patients were treated according to the paraquat poisoning treatment guidelines and 12 received an intravenous infusion of deferoxamine in addition to the treatment guidelines. Results: There were no differences between the two groups in terms of age, gender, severity of paraquat poisoning, and the time elapsed from ingestion to presentation at hospital. There was no difference in overall mortality between the two groups but the incidence of respiratory failure in the deferoxamine group was higher than in the conventional group(4/7 versus 0/9, p=0.019). Conclusion: Deferoxamine seems to have no clinical benefit compared with the conventional treatment.

In-Hospital Outcomes of Acute Renal Failure Requiring Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy in Patients with On-pump CABG (심폐기 가동하 관상동맥우회술 후 발생한 급성신부전 환자들에 있어 지속적 신대체요법의 병원 내 결과)

  • Kim, Young-Du;Park, Kuhn;Kang, Chul-Ung;Yoon, Jeong-Seob;Moon, Seok-Whan;Wang, Young-Pil;Jo, Kuhn-Hyun
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.32-36
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    • 2007
  • Background: Although acute renal failure (ARF) after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) is relatively rare, but devastating complication with high mortality. Our study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of early application of CRRT in patients with ARF which developed after on-pump CABG. Material and Method: Two hundred and eighty seven patients underwent isolated on-pump CABG between May 2002 and Feb. 2006 at our institution, of whom 15 (5.2%) needed CRRT (11 patients for postoperatively developed ARF and the remaining 4 patients with preexisting dialysis-dependent chronic renal failure (CRF) for postoperative hemodynamic and metabolic control). Criteria for early application of CRRT were as follows; decreased urine output less than 0.5cc/h/kg for 2 consecutive hours and elevated serum creatinine level greater than 2.0 mg/dL. Result: The incidence of ARF requiring CRRT after on-pump CABG was 3.9% (11/283) and the overall hospital mortality of patient with CRRT was 33.3% (5/15). Of 5 deaths, 4 were patients with postoperatively developed ARF, and 1 was a patient with pre-existing dialysis-dependent CRF patient. The mean time between the operation and the initiation of CRRT was $25.8{\pm}5.8$ hours and the mean duration of CRRT was $62.1{\pm}41.2$ hours. Of the 7 survivors who were not on dialysis-dependent preoperatively, 6 patients fully recovered renal function during hospital stay and 1 patient required permanent renal supportive treatment after discharge from hospital. Conclusion: Early application of CRRT could maintain stable postoperative hemodynamic status and make outcomes better than those of previous reports in patients with ARF which developed after on-pump CABG.

A Newborn Case of Maple Syrup Urine Disease Type 1B Presenting with Lethargy and Central Apnea (기면과 중추성 무호흡으로 나타난 단풍시럽뇨병 Type 1B 신생아 1례)

  • Kang, Youngtae;Choi, Sung Hwan;Ko, Jung Min;Shin, Seung Han;Kim, Ee-Kyung;Kim, Han-Suk
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Inherited Metabolic disease
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.43-49
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    • 2018
  • Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD, OMIM#248600) is a rare and autosomal recessively-inherited metabolic disorder that is caused by mutations in the branched-chain ${\alpha}$-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) genes. It prevents the normal breakdown of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), such as leucine, isoleucine, and valine, and leads to poor feeding, lethargy, abnormal movements, seizure, and death if untreated. Here, we report the case of a Korean newborn of biochemically- and genetically-confirmed MSUD manifesting lethargy and central apnea, the acute state of which was successfully treated. The molecular genetic investigation revealed two novel heterozygous mutations (p.Ala32Phefs*48 and p.Val 130Phe) in BCKDHB, and both parents were confirmed as carriers. We emphasize the importance of early diagnosis and prompt introduction of specific treatment for MSUD in life saving and prognosis.

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The Effect of Pressure Support on Respiratory Mechanics in CPAP and SIMV (CPAP 및 SIMV Mode하에서 Pressure Support 사용이 호흡역학에 미치는 효과)

  • Lim, Chae-Man;Jang, Jae-Won;Choi, Kang-Hyun;Lee, Sang-Do;Koh, Youn-Suck;Kim, Woo-Sung;Kim, Dong-Soon;Kim, Won-Dong;Park, Pyung-Whan;Choi, Jong-Moo
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.351-360
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    • 1995
  • Background: Pressure support(PS) is becomimg a widely accepted method of mechanical ventilation either for total unloading or for partial unloading of respiratory muscle. The aim of the study was to find out if PS exert different effects on respiratory mechanics in synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation(SIMV) and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) modes. Methods: 5, 10 and 15 cm $H_2O$ of PS were sequentially applied in 14 patients($69{\pm}12$ yrs, M:F=9:5) and respiratory rate (RR), tidal volume($V_T$), work of breathing(WOB), pressure time product(PTP), $P_{0.1}$, and $T_1/T_{TOT}$ were measured using the CP-100 pulmonary monitor(Bicore, USA) in SIMV and CPAP modes respectively. Results: 1) Common effects of PS on respiratory mechanics in both CPAP and SIMV modes As the level of PS was increased(0, 5, 10, 15 cm $H_2O$), $V_T$ was increased in CPAP mode($0.28{\pm}0.09$, $0.29{\pm}0.09$, $0.31{\pm}0.11$, $0.34{\pm}0.12\;L$, respectively, p=0.001), and also in SIMV mode($0.31{\pm}0.15$, $0.32{\pm}0.09$, $0.34{\pm}0.16$, $0.36{\pm}0.15\;L$, respectively, p=0.0215). WOB was decreased in CPAP mode($1.40{\pm}1.02$, $1.01{\pm}0.80$, $0.80{\pm}0.85$, $0.68{\pm}0.76$ joule/L, respectively, p=0.0001), and in SIMV mode($0.97{\pm}0.77$, $0.76{\pm}0.64$, $0.57{\pm}0.55$, $0.49{\pm}0.49$ joule/L, respectively, p=0.0001). PTP was also decreased in CPAP mode($300{\pm}216$, $217{\pm}165$, $179{\pm}187$, $122{\pm}114cm$ $H_2O{\cdot}sec/min$, respectively, p=0.0001), and in SIMV mode($218{\pm}181$, $178{\pm}157$, $130{\pm}147$, $108{\pm}129cm$ $H_2O{\cdot}sec/min$, respectively, p=0.0017). 2) Different effects of PS on respiratory mechanics in CP AP and SIMV modes By application of PS (0, 5, 10, 15 cm $H_2O$), RR was not changed in CPAP mode($27.9{\pm}6.7$, $30.0{\pm}6.6$, $26.1{\pm}9.1$, $27.5{\pm}5.7/min$, respectively, p=0.505), but it was decreased in SIMV mode ($27.4{\pm}5.1$, $27.8{\pm}6.5$, $27.6{\pm}6.2$, $25.1{\pm}5.4/min$, respectively, p=0.0001). $P_{0.1}$ was reduced in CPAP mode($6.2{\pm}3.5$, $4.8{\pm}2.8$, $4.8{\pm}3.8$, $3.9{\pm}2.5\;cm$ $H_2O$, respectively, p=0.0061), but not in SIMV mode($4.3{\pm}2.1$, $4.0{\pm}1.8$, $3.5{\pm}1.6$, $3.5{\pm}1.9\;cm$ $H_2O$, respectively, p=0.054). $T_1/T_{TOT}$ was decreased in CPAP mode($0.40{\pm}0.05$, $0.39{\pm}0.04$, $0.37{\pm}0.04$, $0.35{\pm}0.04$, respectively, p=0.0004), but not in SIMV mode($0.40{\pm}0.08$, $0.35{\pm}0.07$, $0.38{\pm}0.10$, $0.37{\pm}0.10$, respectively, p=0.287). 3) Comparison of respiratory mechanics between CPAP+PS and SIMV alone at same tidal volume. The tidal volume in CPAP+PS 10 cm $H_2O$ was comparable to that of SIMV alone. Under this condition, the RR($26.1{\pm}9.1$, $27.4{\pm}5.1/min$, respectively, p=0.516), WOB($0.80{\pm}0.85$, 0.97+0.77 joule/L, respectively, p=0.485), $P_{0.1}$($3.9{\pm}2.5$, $4.3{\pm}2.1\;cm$ $H_2O$, respectively, p=0.481) were not different between the two methods, but PTP($179{\pm}187$, $218{\pm}181 cmH_2O{\cdot}sec/min$, respectively, p=0.042) and $T_1/T_{TOT}$($0.37{\pm}0.04$, $0.40{\pm}0.08$, respectively, p=0.026) were significantly lower in CPAP+PS than in SIMV alone. Conclusion: PS up to 15 cm $H_2O$ increased tidal volume, decreased work of breathing and pressure time product in both SIMV and CPAP modes. PS decreased respiration rate in SIMV mode but not in CPAP mode, while it reduced central respiratory drive($P_{0.1}$) and shortened duty cycle ($T_1/T_{TOT}$) in CPAP mode but not in SIMV mode. By 10 em $H_2O$ of PS in CPAP mode, same tidal volume was obtained as in SIMV mode, and both methods were comparable in respect to RR, WOB, $P_{0.1}$, but CPAP+PS was superior in respect to the efficiency of the respiratory muscle work (PTP) and duty cycle($T_1/T_{TOT}$).

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Continuous Positive Airway Pressure during Bronchoalveolar Lavage in Patients with Severe Hypoxemia (심한 저산소혈증 환자에서 기관지폐포세척술 시 안면마스크를 이용한 지속성 기도양압의 유용성)

  • An, Chang Hyeok;Lim, Sung Yong;Suh, Gee Young;Park, Gye Young;Park, Jung Woong;Jeong, Seong Hwan;Lim, Si Young;Oui, Misook;Koh, Won-Jung;Chung, Man Pyo;Kim, Hojoong;Kwon, O Jung
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.54 no.1
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    • pp.71-79
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    • 2003
  • Background : A bronchoalveolar lavage(BAL) is useful in diagnosing the etiology of bilateral pulmonary infiltrations, but may worsen the oxygenation and clinical status in severely hypoxemic patients. This study assessed the safety and efficacy of the continuous positive airway pressure(CPAP) using a conventional mechanical ventilator via a face mask as a tool for maintaining the oxygenation level during BAL. Methods : Seven consecutive patients with the bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and severe hypoxemia ($PaO_2/FIO_2$ ratio ${\leq}200$ on oxygen 10 L/min via mask with reservoir bag) were enrolled. The CPAP 5-6 $cmH_2O(F_IO_2\;1.0)$ was delivered through an inflatable face mask using a conventional mechanical ventilator. The CPAP began 10 min before starting the BAL and continued for 30 min after the procedure was completed. A bronchoscope was passed through a T-adapter and advanced through the mouth. BAL was performed using the conventional method. The vital signs, pulse oxymetry values, and arterial blood gases were monitored during the study. Results : (1) Median age was 56 years(male:female=4:3). (2) The baseline $PaO_2$ was $78{\pm}16mmHg$, which increased significantly to $269{\pm}116mmHg$(p=0.018) with CPAP. After the BAL, the $PaO_2$ did not decrease significantly but returned to the baseline level after the CPAP was discontinued. The $SpO_2$ showed a similar trend with the $PaO_2$ and did not decrease to below 90 % during the duration of the study. (3) The $PaCO_2$ increased and the pH decreased significantly after the BAL but returned to the baseline level within 30 min after the BAL. (5) No complications directly related to the BAL procedure were encountered. However, intubation was necessary in 3 patients(43 %) due to the progression of the underlying diseases. Conclusion : In severe hypoxemic patients, CPAP using a face mask and conventional mechanical ventilator during a BAL might allow minimal alterations in oxygenation and prevent subsequent respiratory failure.