• Title/Summary/Keyword: 중량손실

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A Study on Properties of Concrete Made of Natural and Crushed Sand in High Temperatures (자연모래와 부순모래를 사용한 콘크리트의 고온 하에서 특성연구)

  • Kim, Joo-Seok;Choi, Yeol
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.53-60
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    • 2012
  • The main object of this paper is to investigate the effects of high temperatures on the physical and mechanical properties of natural sand concrete(NSC) and crushed sand concrete(CSC). Test samples were exposed to high temperature ranging from $200^{\circ}C$ to $800^{\circ}C$. After exposure, various tests were conducted. Color image analysis and weight losses were determined and compressive strength test and splitting tensile strength test were conducted. The results indicated that weight losses increased as exposure temperature increased with comparable decreasing rate. The results also showed that compressive strength and splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity decreased as exposure temperature increased. The results also showed that residual compressive strength of NSC decreased more drastically than that of CSC at $200^{\circ}C$ and $400^{\circ}C$. Residual splitting tensile strength of NSC decreased more than that of CSC at $200^{\circ}C$, while NSC and CSC showed comparable residual strength ratio at $800^{\circ}C$.

Effect of Antimicrobial Packaging System on the Freshness-preserving of Zucchinis (천연항균제 함유 포장소재처리에 의한 저장호박의 선도 유지효과)

  • 정순경;조성환
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.274-278
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    • 2001
  • The antimicrobial extracts of Rheum palmatum and Coptis chinensis root as well as grapefruit seed extract were applied to dipping treatment for keeping qualities of zucchinis, respectively, which were then packed in low density polyethylene films incorporated with 1% antimicrobial extracts and stored at 10$\^{C}$. Dipping and packaging in the antimicrobial agents suppressed the growth of putrefactive microorganisms and the decay ratio of zucchinis. In addition, the loss ratio of ascorbic acid content of zucchinis and their weight were decreased during the storage of zucchinis. Consequently, the combined method of dipping and packaging in antimicmbial agents tumid out to be superior to dipping treatment or film-packaging in the view point of decay ratio and the quality control of zucchinis.

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Durability evaluation depending on the insert size of conical Picks by the field test (삽입재 크기에 따른 코니컬 커터의 현장 내구성 평가 연구)

  • Choi, Soon-Wook
    • Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.49-59
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    • 2019
  • In this study, the durability of conical pick cutter was compared and analyzed by pre- and post-test visual inspection, measurement of weight loss and wear volume through field test on two types of conical pick cutters applied to rotary drum cutter. In the visual inspection, it was found that only 9 inserts were lost in the slim type conical pick cutter. This result show that the thickness of the head cover surrounding a insert was important to maintain the insert during excavation. The weight loss and wear volume of the heavy type conical pick cutter were less than half that of the slim type. From these results, it can be confirmed that heavy type is more useful than slim type in hard rock. It should be noted that, when determining the wear loss of the conical pick cutter, the mutual comparison of the weight measurement and the wear volume measurement results may be different due to the unit weight of the material and the spalling caused by excavation.

원적외선 방사체 시설 내에 저장한 오이, 호박, 방울토마토의 선도유지효과

  • 정준호;조성환
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Postharvest Science and Technology of Agricultural Products Conference
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    • pp.134.2-135
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    • 2003
  • 채소류는 생리적인 특성상 수확후 저장 및 유통되는 동안에 호흡작용, 증산작용 등의 작용이 활발해질 뿐만 아니라 곰팡이를 비롯한 식물병이 미생물의 오염 및 성장으로 부패현상을 일으키고 채소류 자체의 경도가 저하되며, 수분, 비타민, 유기산, 당분, 색소함량 등이 떨어져서 외관, 맛 신선도 등의 감소하게 된다. 본 연구에서는 채소류(오이, 호박, 방울토마토)의 선도를 연장하기 위한 저장조건을 실시하여 최적 습도 및 온도범위를 결정하였고, 이를 토대로 하여 시설채소산물을 습도조절이 가능한 원적외선 방사체 저장고(5~8$^{\circ}C$의 온도와 90% 습도유지)에 저장하면서 무처리구인 대조구와 비교하여 저장중 시료의 중량손실율, Ascorbic acid함량, 총균수(PCA사용법에 의거), pH의 변화를 측정하였고, 시료의 표면색도는 색도계(Minolta CR-300, Japan)를 사용하여 Hunter의 L, a, b값을 측정하였다. 이 결과, 채소류의 선도유지기간이 연장되는 것을 확인하였고, 중량손실율은 원적외선 방사체 저장고에 저장한 채소류가 중량손실율이 대조구에 비하여 낮게 나타났다. 따라서 습도조절이 가능한 원적외선 방사체 저장고에 채소류를 저장함으로서 채소류의 수분손실을 방지할 수 있음을 확인할 수 있었으며, 일정기간동안 원적외선 방사체 저장고에 저장함으로써 ascorbic acid함량의 감소를 대조구에 비하여 낮은 비율로 억제할 수 있었다. 총균수의 경우 채소류 시험구에서 원적외선 방사체 저장고에서 저장할수록 오염미생물의 총균수가 낮게 나타났다. 표면색도의 경우, a값은 모든 시험구에서 감소하였으며 원적외선 방사체 시험구에 비하여 대조구 저장시료의 표면색도가 청색도를 증가시키는 변화를 관찰할 수 있었고, b값은 시료간에 유의성 있는 차이없이 다소 증가하는 것으로 나타났다. 부패율은 수분 함유율이 높은 채소류일수록 원적외선 방사체 저장시설을 이용하는 경우, 부패율을 낮게 유지할 수 있었다. 따라서, 원적외선 방사체 저장시설내에 오이, 호박 및 방울토마토와 같은 채소류를 저온고습도상에서 저장할 경우, 채소류의 품질변화를 최소화 할 수 있어 갓 수확한 채소류의 선도유지기간을 연장할 수 있는 저장법이 될 수 있음을 확인하였다.

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A Study on Durability Test of Cemented Soils (시멘트 혼합토의 내구성 평가법에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Sung-Sik;Hwang, Se-Hoon
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.28 no.11
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    • pp.79-86
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    • 2012
  • Cemented soils have been used for subbase or base materials of roads, backfill materials of retaining walls and cofferdam. Such cemented soils can be degraded due to repeated wetting and drying or various weathering actions. Unlike rocks, a standard method was not defined for evaluating the durability of cemented soils. In this study, a slaking durability test and an ultrasound cleaner were used for developing a new durability test method for cemented soils. For durability tests, cemented sands with different cement ratios (4, 6, 8, and 12%) with cylindrical specimens were prepared and then air cured or under-water cured for three days. Three-day-cured specimens were dried for one day and then submerged for one day before testing. The weight loss after the slake durability test or ultrasonic cleaner operation for 10 or 20 min was measured and used for assessing durability. When a cement ratio was 4%, the weight loss from ultrasonic cleaner test was 7-25% but that from slake durability test was as much as 30-60%. For specimens with cement ratio of more than 8%, the weight loss was less than 10% from both tests. A durability index increased with increasing a cement ratio. The durability index of under-water cured specimen was higher than that of air cured specimen. The ultrasonic cleaner test was found to be an effective tool for durability assessment of cemented sands rather than the slake durability test.

Effect of microwave cooking on roasts heated to three different internal temperatures with three different microwave power levels (세가지의 출력이 다른 전자파를 이용하여 고기의 내부온도를 다르게 조리시 고기에 미치는 물리 화학적인 변화)

  • Cho, Kyung-Hee
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.394-404
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    • 1994
  • 본 실험은 1.5Kg 무게의 고기를 3가지 다른 내부온도(60$^{\circ}C$-rare, 70$^{\circ}C$-medium, 80$^{\circ}C$-well done)에 이르도록 3가지 다른 출력의 전자파(40%, 60%, 100%)로 조리시에 나타나는 고기의 조리조건(조리시간, 대기시간 및 대기시 상승온도)과 고거의 물리 화학적인 변화(수분, 단백질, 지방, vit $B_1$의 함량, 콜라겐의 용해도, 보수력, texture)를 관찰하였다. 각 처리구 간에 Kg당 조리시간은 유의적인 차이를 나타내었으나 대기시간은 유의적인 차이를 나타내지 않았다. 그러나 고기의 내부용도가 낮은 처리구일수록 긴 대기 시간이 요구되었다. 대기시 상승온도도 각 처리구 간에 유의적인 차이를 나타내지 않았으나 거의 모든 처리구에서 10도 이상의 상승온도가 관찰되었다. 고기의 내부온도가 상승할수록 조리시 중량손실도 증가되었고, 수분함량, 수분: 단백질의 비, 보수력, 비타민 $B_1$의 함량도 감소되었다. Texture를 측정한 항목들에서는 각 처리구간의 유의척인 차이를 나타내지 않았다. 콜라겐의 용해도는 각 처리구간에 유의적인 차이를 나타내지 않았으나 내부온도 60$^{\circ}C$와 70$^{\circ}C$ 처리구 사이의 용해도는 뚜렷한 증가가 관찰되었다.

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백금 합금의 고온산화휘발특성

  • Kim, Nam-Seok;Hyeon, Seung-Gyun;Kim, Mok-Sun;Hong, Gil-Su;Yang, Seung-Ho;Yun, Won-Gyu
    • Proceedings of the Materials Research Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.50.1-50.1
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    • 2010
  • 내열성과 내부식성, 촉매능력등이 뛰어난 백금은 자동차 배출가스 정화촉매, 유/무기화학반응의 공정 촉매, 석유화학산업에서의 촉매 등 촉매 뿐만 아니라 용융유리용 도가니, 유리 섬유용 부싱 등의 유리산업, 백금 열전대 외에도 전기/전자기기, 치과용 합금, 장신구, 항공우주,등의 많은 분야에서 폭넓게 쓰인다. 한편 낮은 기계적 특성을 개선하기 위하여 로듐 등의 백금족 원소를 첨가한 합금을 제조하여 이용하고 있지만 로듐의 공금 부족과 이에 따른 가격 상승으로 인한 대체조성의 설계가 요구되고 있다. 또한 고온의 산화분위기에 노출이 되면 산화물이 형성되고 이것이 휘발하여 중량의 손실이 생긴다고 알려져 있다. 본 연구에서는 백금 합금의 이러한 문제점의 해결방안을 제시하고자 백금족 원소를 첨가하고 첨가 원소별 산화휘발의 정도를 측정하였다. 시편은 plasma arc melting법으로 각각 Pt, Pt-20%Rh, Pt-11%Ir, Pt-10%Rh-10%Ir의 조성을 가지는 합금을 만든 후 압연을 하여 판상으로 만들었고, 이를 각각 $1000^{\circ}C$, $1200^{\circ}C$, $1400^{\circ}C$ 등에서 각각 96시간 까지 산화휘발시켜 중량손실량을 측정하였고 이를 XPS를 이용한 표면분석을 하여 산화휘발거동을 규명하였다. 그 결과 Pt-20%Rh가 가장 우수한 고온산화휘발특성을 보였으며 상대적으로 고온산화휘발특성이 좋지 않은 Pt-Ir 2원계 합금에 Rh를 첨가한 Pt-10%Rh-10%Ir 3원계 합금을 만들어 약 60% 향상된 결과를 얻을 수 있었고 이 결과를 증기압 관점에서 고찰하였다.

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The Correlation Between Quality Changes and Skin Thickness of the Stored Citrus Fruit (저장감귤에서의 과피 두께와 품질변화간의 상관관계)

  • 김병용;한규홍
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.273-276
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    • 2001
  • The storage time of citrus fruit at two different storage temperatures was predicted by quality changes such as weight loss, %Brix and skin thickness. The less weight loss of citrus fruits during storage at $3^{\circ}C$ was observed, compared to those stored at $25^{\circ}C$, whereas %Brix of citrus fruits increased slightly without any difference between storage temperatures. Skin thickness of fruit, represented by pixel, also changed more rapidly at the higher storage temperature. Above parameters with a storage time followed the 0 order reaction pattern. The relationship of skin thickness and storage time of the citrus fruit were resolved to a simple linear equation, and storage time could be predicted using this equation.

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A Study on the Basic Properties of Wood Impregnated with Inorganic Compounds (무기물처리 목재의 기초물성에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Geon Hyoung;Oh, Tae Kyung;Lee, Weon Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.15-21
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    • 2006
  • Composite materials were prepared by impregnating water glass into the wood, followed by soaking in solutions of boric acid or phosphoric acid. The effects of these treatments on the physical and mechanical properties of the specimens and especially on its heat resistance were investigated. 1) Weight Percent Gain (WPG)s increased with increase of concentrations of water glass. However, there was little relationship between treatment temperatures and WPG. Generally, WPGs of double treated specimens were higher than single treated ones. 2) Percent shrinkages in each directions of the specimens treated with water glass had higher value than other specimens. Percent shrinkages of the specimens treated with boric acid or phosphoric acid were decreased as compared with untreated specimen. However, the specimens treated with water glass or phosphoric acid showed very high hygroscopicity. 3) The bending strengths of all specimens treated inorganic substances were slightly decreased. However, the values of compressive strength and hardness of most specimens treated with inorganic substances increased or similar to that of untreated specimen except for a phosphoric acid treated specimens. 4) The specimens had good heat resistance. Weight losses of all specimens treated inorganic substances were about 50~70%. In particular, the specimens treated at $300^{\circ}C$ and $400^{\circ}C$ almost kept their shapes.

Deicing Performance of Environment-friendly Deicing Agents (친환경 제설제인 CMO의 성능평가 분석)

  • Lee, Seung-Woo;Woo, Chang-Wan;Kim, Jong-Oh;Park, Hee-Mun
    • International Journal of Highway Engineering
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.53-62
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    • 2005
  • Efficient snow-removing work is one of important processes of winter road management. Calcium chloride has been used as a typical deicing agent in Korea. It presents superial performance as snow deicing agents, however it has been known to give serious environmental problem and to deteriorate durability of concrete structure in road by corrosion. The environment-friendly road deicing agents made from the waste material which is liquid phase organic matter that is Ca Mg and reactant of organic acid (nitric acid and propionic acid) have been introduced by number of researchers. They indicated the calcium magnesium salt of organic acids have advantage over the calcium choride in terms of lower production unit cost by resources recycling and can solve environmental problem and durability deterioration of structures. In this study, the deicing performance of calcium magnesium salt of organic acids(CMO) is investigated based on the series of experiments including the test for heat of dissolution, freezing point, ice melting test and ice penetration test.

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