• Title, Summary, Keyword: 준 정적 실험

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Seismic Performance Evaluation of Full-Sized RC Bridge Piers with tap-Spliced longitudinal Steels according to Lateral Confinement (주철근 겹침이음된 실물교각의 횡구속 정도에 따른 내진성능 평가)

  • Park Chang-Kyu;Chung Young-Soo;Ko Seong-Hyun;Lee Jae-Hoon
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.687-696
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    • 2004
  • It has been known that practically unavoidable lap splices of longitudinal reinforcement in the plastic hinge region have a bad effect on the seismic performance of reinforced concrete bridge columns. Lap splices were usually located in the plastic hinge region of most bridge columns designed before the implementation of the new seismic design provisions of 1992 Korea Bridge Design specification. The objective of this research is to evaluate the seismic performance of full-sized reinforced concrete bridge piers with lap splice of longitudinal reinforcement in the plastic hinge region, and to develop an appropriate lateral confinement concept of RC bridge columns with lap-spliced longitudinal steels in low or moderate seismicity region. Eight test specimens in the aspect ratio of 4.0 were made with three types of lap splicing, two levels of confinement steel ratios and two types of tie configurations. It was confirmed from the Quasi-Static test that displacement ductility ratios were significantly reduced for nonseismic test columns with lap spliced longitudinal steels but were satisfied the seismic requirement for limited ductile design specimens. As a conclusion, pertinent lateral confinement content was proposed for the seismic. performance of RC bridge piers with $50\%$ lap-spliced longitudinal reinforcing steels in low or moderate seismicity region.

DGR-Tree : An Efficient Index Structure for POI Search in Ubiquitous Location Based Services (DGR-Tree : u-LBS에서 POI의 검색을 위한 효율적인 인덱스 구조)

  • Lee, Deuk-Woo;Kang, Hong-Koo;Lee, Ki-Young;Han, Ki-Joon
    • Journal of Korea Spatial Information System Society
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.55-62
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    • 2009
  • Location based Services in the ubiquitous computing environment, namely u-LBS, use very large and skewed spatial objects that are closely related to locational information. It is especially essential to achieve fast search, which is looking for POI(Point of Interest) related to the location of users. This paper examines how to search large and skewed POI efficiently in the u-LBS environment. We propose the Dynamic-level Grid based R-Tree(DGR-Tree), which is an index for point data that can reduce the cost of stationary POI search. DGR-Tree uses both R-Tree as a primary index and Dynamic-level Grid as a secondary index. DGR-Tree is optimized to be suitable for point data and solves the overlapping problem among leaf nodes. Dynamic-level Grid of DGR-Tree is created dynamically according to the density of POI. Each cell in Dynamic-level Grid has a leaf node pointer for direct access with the leaf node of the primary index. Therefore, the index access performance is improved greatly by accessing the leaf node directly through Dynamic-level Grid. We also propose a K-Nearest Neighbor(KNN) algorithm for DGR-Tree, which utilizes Dynamic-level Grid for fast access to candidate cells. The KNN algorithm for DGR-Tree provides the mechanism, which can access directly to cells enclosing given query point and adjacent cells without tree traversal. The KNN algorithm minimizes sorting cost about candidate lists with minimum distance and provides NEB(Non Extensible Boundary), which need not consider the extension of candidate nodes for KNN search.

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An Efficient Technique for Processing Frequent Updates in the R-tree (R-트리에서 빈번한 변경 질의 처리를 위한 효율적인 기법)

  • 권동섭;이상준;이석호
    • Journal of KIISE:Databases
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.261-273
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    • 2004
  • Advances in information and communication technologies have been creating new classes of applications in the area of databases. For example, in moving object databases, which track positions of a lot of objects, or stream databases, which process data streams from a lot of sensors, data Processed in such database systems are usually changed very rapidly and continuously. However, traditional database systems have a problem in processing these rapidly and continuously changing data because they suppose that a data item stored in the database remains constant until It is explicitly modified. The problem becomes more serious in the R-tree, which is a typical index structure for multidimensional data, because modifying data in the R-tree can generate cascading node splits or merges. To process frequent updates more efficiently, we propose a novel update technique for the R-tree, which we call the leaf-update technique. If a new value of a data item lies within the leaf MBR that the data item belongs, the leaf-update technique changes the leaf node only, not whole of the tree. Using this leaf-update manner and the leaf-access hash table for direct access to leaf nodes, the proposed technique can reduce update cost greatly. In addition, the leaf-update technique can be adopted in diverse variants of the R-tree and various applications that use the R-tree since it is based on the R-tree and it guarantees the correctness of the R-tree. In this paper, we prove the effectiveness of the leaf-update techniques theoretically and present experimental results that show that our technique outperforms traditional one.

A Design and Implementation of RSS Data Collecting Engine based on Web 2.0 (웹 2.0 기반 RSS 데이터 수집 엔진의 설계 및 구현)

  • Kang, Pil-Gu;Kim, Jae-Hwan;Lee, Sang-Jun;Chae, Jin-Seok
    • Journal of Korea Multimedia Society
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    • v.10 no.11
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    • pp.1496-1506
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    • 2007
  • The environment of web service has changed a great deal due to the progress of internet technology and positive participation of users. The established web service is static and passive, but the recent web service is becoming dynamic and active. Web 2.0 reflects current web service change well. The primary feature of web 2.0 is positive participation of users. Since the size of generated information is becoming larger, it is highly required to share the information fast and correctly. The technology to satisfy this need is web syndication and tagging in web 2.0. The web syndication makes feeds for another site or users to receive the content of web site. In addition, the tagging is the kernel of a information. Many internet users share rapidly the information through tag search. In this paper, we propose the efficient technique to improve the web 2.0 technology such as web syndication and tagging by using the data collection engine. Data collection engine has stored in a database, a user's Web site to use the information. and it has a user's Web site with access to updated data to collect. The experimental results show that our approach can improve the search speed up to 3.14 times better than the existing method and reduce the size of data up to 66% for building associated tags.

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Design and Implementation of the Extended SLDS for Real-time Location Based Services (실시간 위치 기반 서비스를 위한 확장 SLDS 설계 및 구현)

  • Lee, Seung-Won;Kang, Hong-Koo;Hong, Dong-Suk;Han, Ki-Joon
    • Journal of Korea Spatial Information System Society
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.47-56
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    • 2005
  • Recently, with the rapid development of mobile computing, wireless positioning technologies, and the generalization of wireless internet, LBS (Location Based Service) which utilizes location information of moving objects is serving in many fields. In order to serve LBS efficiently, the location data server that periodically stores location data of moving objects is required. Formerly, GIS servers have been used to store location data of moving objects. However, GIS servers are not suitable to store location data of moving objects because it was designed to store static data. Therefore, in this paper, we designed and implemented an extended SLDS(Short-term Location Data Subsystem) for real-time Location Based Services. The extended SLDS is extended from the SLDS which is a subsystem of the GALIS(Gracefully Aging Location Information System) architecture that was proposed as a cluster-based distributed computing system architecture for managing location data of moving objects. The extended SLDS guarantees real-time service capabilities using the TMO(Time-triggered Message-triggered Object) programming scheme and efficiently manages large volume of location data through distributing moving object data over multiple nodes. The extended SLDS also has a little search and update overhead because of managing location data in main memory. In addition, we proved that the extended SLDS stores location data and performs load distribution more efficiently than the original SLDS through the performance evaluation.

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Numerical Simulation for the Quasi-static Behavior of Superelastic Nitinol Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) (초탄성 니티놀 형상기억합금의 준정적 거동에 대한 수치해석적 재현)

  • Hu, Jong Wan
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.493-501
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    • 2015
  • Superelastic shape memory alloys (SMAs) are metallic materials that can automatically recover to their original condition without heat treatment only after the removal of the applied load. These smart materials have been wildly applied instead of steel materials to the place where large deformation is likely to concentrate. In spite of many advantages, superelastic SMA materials have been limited to use in the construction filed because there is lack of effort and research involved with the development of the material model, which is required to reproduce the behavior of superelastic SMA materials. Therefore, constitutive material models as well as algorithm codes are mainly treated in this study for the purpose of simulating their hysteretic behavior through numerical analyses. The simulated curves are compared and calibrated to the experimental test results with an aim to verify the adequacy of material modeling. Furthermore, structural analyses incorporating the material property of the superelastic SMAs are conducted on simple and cantilever beam models. It can be shown that constitutive material models presented herein are adequate to reliably predict the behavior of superelastic SMA materials under cyclic loadings.

Development of Artificial Pulmonary Nodule for Evaluation of Motion on Diagnostic Imaging and Radiotherapy (움직임 기반 진단 및 치료 평가를 위한 인공폐결절 개발)

  • Woo, Sang-Keun;Park, Nohwon;Park, Seungwoo;Yu, Jung Woo;Han, Suchul;Lee, Seungjun;Kim, Kyeong Min;Kang, Joo Hyun;Ji, Young Hoon;Eom, Kidong
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.76-83
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    • 2013
  • Previous studies about effect of respiratory motion on diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy have been performed by monitoring external motions but these can not reflect internal organ motion well. The aim of this study was to develope the artificial pulmonary nodule able to perform non-invasive implantation to dogs in the thorax and to evaluate applicability of the model to respiratory motion studies on PET image acquisition and radiation delivery by phantom studies. Artificial pulmonary nodule was developed on the basis of 8 Fr disposable gastric feeding tube. Four anesthetized dogs underwent implantation of the models via trachea and implanted locations of the models were confirmed by fluoroscopic images. Artificial pulmonary nodule models for PET injected $^{18}F$-FDG and mounted on the respiratory motion phantom. PET images of those acquired under static, 10-rpm- and 15-rpm-longitudinal round motion status. Artificial pulmonary nodule models for radiation delivery inserted glass dosemeter and mounted on the respiratory motion phantom. Radiation delivery was performed at 1 Gy under static, 10-rpm- and 15-rpm-longitudinal round motion status. Fluoroscpic images showed that all models implanted in the proximal caudal bronchiole and location of models changed as respiratory cycle. Artificial pulmonary nodule model showed motion artifact as respiratory motion on PET images. SNR of respiratory gated images was 7.21. which was decreased when compared with that of reference images 10.15. However, counts of respiratory images on profiles showed similar pattern with those of reference images when compared with those of static images, and it is assured that reconstruction of images using by respiratory gating improved image quality. Delivery dose to glass dosemeter inserted in the models were same under static and 10-rpm-longitudinal motion status with 0.91 Gy, but dose delivered under 15-rpm-longitudinal motion status was decreased with 0.90 Gy. Mild decrease of delivered radiation dose confirmed by electrometer. The model implanted in the proximal caudal bronchiole with high feasibility and reflected pulmonary internal motion on fluoroscopic images. Motion artifact could show on PET images and respiratory motion resulted in mild blurring during radiation delivery. So, the artificial pulmonary nodule model will be useful tools for study about evaluation of motion on diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy using laboratory animals.

Evaluating Impact Resistance of Externally Strengthened Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Slab with Fiber Reinforced Polymers (섬유 보강재로 외부 보강된 강섬유 보강 콘크리트 슬래브의 충격저항성능 평가)

  • Yoo, Doo-Yeol;Min, Kyung-Hwan;Lee, Jin-Young;Yoon, Young-Soo
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.293-303
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    • 2012
  • Recently, as construction technology improved, concrete structures not only became larger, taller and longer but were able to perform various functions. However, if extreme loads such as impact, blast, and fire are applied to those structures, it would cause severe property damages and human casualties. Especially, the structural responses from extreme loading are totally different than that from quasi-static loading, because large pressure is applied to structures from mass acceleration effect of impact and blast loads. Therefore, the strain rate effect and damage levels should be considered when concrete structure is designed. In this study, the low velocity impact loading test of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) slabs including 0%~1.5% (by volume) of steel fibers, and strengthened with two types of FRP sheets was performed to develop an impact resistant structural member. From the test results, the maximum impact load, dissipated energy and the number of drop to failure increased, whereas the maximum displacement and support rotation were reduced by strengthening SFRC slab with FRP sheets in tensile zone. The test results showed that the impact resistance of concrete slab can be substantially improved by externally strengthening using FRP sheets. This result can be used in designing of primary facilities exposed to such extreme loads. The dynamic responses of SFRC slab strengthened with FRP sheets under low velocity impact load were also analyzed using LS-DYNA, a finite element analysis program with an explicit time integration scheme. The comparison of test and analytical results showed that they were within 5% of error with respect to maximum displacements.