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Consideration on the Satisfaction of Patients and SUV Variation According to Whether or not to Listen to Music after 18F-FDG Injection (PET/CT 검사에서 18F-FDG 투여 후 음악 청취 여부에 따른 SUV변화와 환자의 만족도에 관한 고찰)

  • Park, Suyoung;Yun, Sunhee;Kim, Hwasan;Kim, Hyunki
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.37-43
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: PET/CT scan using the SUV (Standardized Uptake Value) of radiopharmaceutical uptake in organs and tissues as an objective indicator makes it possible to analyze physiological and chemical reactions of human organs. This study analyzes the change of the SUV uptake in accordance with the way how PET/CT patients take a rest after the injection of $^{18}F-FDG$ (Fluororo-deoxyglucose). And also subjective satisfaction is assessed listening to music while taking a rest. Materials and Methods: From April 2011 until February 2013, Among the Primary cancer patients who admitted to the Catholic Medical Center (Seoul & Bucheon St. Mary's Hospital) and scanned $^{18}F-FDG$ PET/CT and also received care through the tracking test (mean age $55.61{\pm}12.41$ years, 108 people, 48 men and 60 women) were selected. The patients were divided into two groups. The first group (A: basal study) is requested to take a rest in bed quietly after the injection. However the second one (B: follow up study) is requested to listen to the music while taking a rest. And then SUV analysis was performed respectively. At the end of the scan, ROI (Region Of Interest) were set from the center of the liver (right lobe) and 3 spots of the brain (frontal, temporal, and occipital lobes). And the SUV was calculated. To identify the correlation among those ROIs, paired t-test was performed using SPSS software (Version 12.0K for windows, P>0.05). Also, after the PET/CT scan the satisfaction study was conducted of all the patients. 1:1 questionnaire survey was performed, and that questionnaire was made using the Likert 5-point scale. By utilizing those questionnaires, the analysis about simple frequency, percentage, average, and standard deviation was performed. Results: The SUV change of the 4 designated ROIs in accordance with listening to music was not statistically significant. (Frontal lobe P-value=0.611, Occipital lobe P-value=0.499, Temporal lobe P-value=0.717, Liver P-value=0.334: P-value>0.05) And the satisfaction study indicated that group B was appear to be 0.42 points (5 basis points) higher than group A. It showed that patients are more satisfied in group B than group A. Conclusion: when performing PET/CT scan using $^{18}F-FDG$, listening to music after the injection of the radiopharmaceuticals does not affect the SUV but given the state of the psychological comfort that may increase the patient's satisfaction.

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A Case Study of a Text Mining Method for Discovering Evolutionary Patterns of Mobile Phone in Korea (국내 휴대폰의 진화패턴 규명을 위한 텍스트 마이닝 방안 제안 및 사례 연구)

  • On, Byung-Won
    • Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.29-45
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    • 2015
  • Systematic theory, concepts, and methodology for the biological evolution have been developed while patterns and principles of the evolution have been actively studied in the past 200 years. Furthermore, they are applied to various fields such as evolutionary economics, evolutionary psychology, evolutionary linguistics, making significant progress in research. In addition, existing studies have applied main biological evolutionary models to artifacts although such methods do not fit to them. These models are also limited to generalize evolutionary patterns of artifacts because they are designed in terms of a subjective point of view of experts who know well about the artifacts. Unlike biological organisms, because artifacts are likely to reflect the imagination of the human will, it is known that the theory of biological evolution cannot be directly applied to artifacts. In this paper, beyond the individual's subjective, the aim of our research is to present evolutionary patterns of a given artifact based on peeping the idea of the public. For this, we propose a text mining approach that presents a systematic framework that can find out the evolutionary patterns of a given artifact and then visualize effectively. In particular, based on our proposal, we focus mainly on a case study of mobile phone that has emerged as an icon of innovation in recent years. We collect and analyze review posts on mobile phone available in the domestic market over the past decade, and discuss the detailed results about evolutionary patterns of the mobile phone. Moreover, this kind of task is a tedious work over a long period of time because a small number of experts carry out an extensive literature survey and summarize a huge number of materials to finally draw a diagram of evolutionary patterns of the mobile phone. However, in this work, to minimize the human efforts, we present a semi-automatic mining algorithm, and through this research we can understand how human creativity and imagination are implemented. In addition, it is a big help to predict the future trend of mobile phone in business and industries.

The Impacts of Dietary Habits on Self-perceived Health-related Physical Fitness in Middle-aged Women -Focused on Changwon Province- (일부 중년여성의 식습관이 인지된 건강관련 체력에 미치는 영향 -창원지역을 중심으로-)

  • Lee, Hye-Jin;Lee, Kyung-Hea
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.6
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    • pp.916-925
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study was to compare dietary and lifestyle habits in middle-aged women based on their self-perceived health-related physical fitness (SPF) level as well as investigate the effects of dietary and lifestyle habits on SPF. The study subjects were divided into two groups, 'High' group (${\geq}3.2$, n=64) and 'Low' group (<3.2, n=69), based on average SPF value (3.2). Women in the 'High' group showed a greater lean mass (P<0.05), whereas women in the 'Low' group had higher triglycerides (P<0.05). In analyzing characteristics of lifestyle habits, it was found that the 'High' group showed significantly higher scores for 'vitality level (P<0.001)', 'self-rated health status (P<0.001)', 'regular medical checkups (P<0.05)', and 'regular exercise (P<0.05)'. The average score for dietary habits was significantly high in the 'High' group (P<0.05). Furthermore, ordinary dietary habits showed a significant positive correlation (P<0.001) with SPF in the regression analysis after adjusting for disturbance factors. From these results, ordinary desirable dietary habits were shown to be an important factors having positive effects SPF. Therefore, healthy dietary and lifestyle habits should be practiced to improve the SPF of middle-aged women. For this purpose, related educational programs should be developed for the middle-aged women to take interest in their dietary habits.

A Study of Experimental Image Direction for Short Animation Movies -focusing in short film and (단편애니메이션의 실험적 영상연출 연구 -<탱고>와 <페스트 필름>을 중심으로)

  • Choi, Don-Ill
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
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    • pp.375-391
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    • 2014
  • Animation movie is a non-photorealistic animated art that consists of formative language forming a frame based on a story and cuts describing frames that form the cuts. Therefore, in expressing an image, artistic expression methods and devices for a formative space are should be provided in a frame while cuts have the images between frames faithfully. Short animation movie is produced by various image experiments with unique image expressions rather than narration for expressing subjective discourse of a writer. Therefore, image style that forms unique images and various image directions are important factors. This study compared the experimental image directions of and , both of which showed a production method of film manipulation. First, while uses pixilation that produces images obtained from live images through painting and many optical disclosure process on a cell mat, was made with diverse collage techniques such as tearing, cutting, pasting, and folding hundreds of scenes from action movies. Second, expresses non-causal relationship of characters by their repetitive behaviors and circulatory image structure through a fixed camera angle, resisting typical scene transition. On the other hand, has an advancing structure that progresses antagonistic relationship of characters through diverse camera angles and scene transition of unique images. Third, in terms of editing, uses a long-take short cut technique in which the whole image consists of one short cut, though it seems to be many scenes with the appearance of various characters. On the other hand, maximizes visual fun and commitment by image reconstruction with hundreds of various short cuts. That is, both works have common features of an experimental work that shows expansion of animated image expressions through film manipulation that is different form general animation productions. On top of that, delivers routine life of diverse human beings without clear narration through image of conceptualized spaces. expresses it in a new image space through image reconstruction with collage technique and speedy progress, setting a binary opposition structure.

Comparison of Preoperative Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) and Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Tear Size according to Timing of MRI (수술 전 검사 시기에 따른 자기공명영상과 관절경상의 회전근 개 파열의 크기 비교)

  • Park, Chang-Min;Chae, Seung-Bum;Choi, Chang-Hyuk
    • Clinics in Shoulder and Elbow
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.10-16
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: To know if magnetic resonance image (MRI) re-examination is needed before surgery, we compared the pre-operative MRI recorded at different time points and the corresponding arthroscopic findings. Materials and Methods: Depending on the timing of evaluation, the MRI was classified into three groups: group A, MRI was taken 1 month before the surgery (44 cases, average 16 days); group B, 1-6 months before the surgery (41 cases, average 91 days); and group C, 6-12 months before the surgery (25 cases, average 230 days). The anterior to posterior tear size (length) and medial retraction size (width) of rotator cuff tear were measured for each group and they were compared with the actual arthroscopic findings. Results: Results of this study showed that arthroscopic rotator cuff tear length and width were larger than those of MRI. The difference of the rotator cuff tear size was 3.6(${\pm}1.2$) mm of length and 0.6(${\pm}0.4$) mm of width in group A, 4.2(${\pm}1.7$) mm and 2.4(${\pm}1.1$) mm in group B, and 4.5(${\pm}2.1$) mm and 3.0(${\pm}1.5$) mm in group C. There was a tendency of the larger size difference for longer pre-operative period, but it was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The rotator cuff tear size did not show remarkable differences between pre-operative MRI taken within 1 year before surgery and the actual arthroscopy. It is concluded that additional MRI evaluation is not required within 1 year.

Repair of Large to Massive Rotator Cuff Tears in the Elderly Patients (65세 이상 고령 환자의 대형 및 광범위 회전근 개 파열에 대한 봉합술)

  • Jung, Hong Jun;Chun, Jae Myeung;Jeon, In-Ho;Kwon, Jun;Ha, Sang-Ho;Yang, Sung Wook;Lee, Ji-Ho
    • Clinics in Shoulder and Elbow
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.91-98
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: The objective of this study is to evaluate the functional outcome and identify prognosis of retear patients in patients aged 65 years or over undergoing surgical repair for a large to massive full-thickness rotator cuff tear. Materials and Methods: From 1995 September to 2010 March, 147 patients aged 65years or over (40 male, 107 female, with an average age of 69.6) undergoing surgical repair for large to massive full thickness rotator cuff tear (large 67 cases, massive 80 cases). For functional evaluation, preoperative and postoperative 1 year range of motion and muscle power checked. For subjective evaluation, American shoulder and elbow surgeons score and Constant score were checked. For anatomical evaluation, 87 patients were checked shoulder MRI at the time of the postoperative 1 year. Results: ASES score improved from to 50.4 to 88.9, Constant score improved from 47.1 to 75.2. Supraspinatus power improved from 51.1% to 80.8%, external rotator muscle power improved from 64.5% to 83.1%. Forward elevation improved from 117.4 degrees to 153 degrees, external rotation improved from 23.6 degrees to 41.8 degrees. Follow up MRI showed re-tear in 23%, all re-tear patients were from massive tear except one patient. All re-tear patients showed improved clinical outcomes, but supraspinatus and external rotator muscle power were not improved. Conclusions: Patients aged 65 years or over undergoing surgical repair for a large to massive full-thickness rotator cuff tear showed successful outcomes over 90 percent. Re-tear patients also showed successful clinical outcomes. In elderly patients with large to massive full thickness rotator cuff tear, aggressive surgical repair leads good clinical outcomes.

A Study on Legal Issues with Airline Over-booking Practice (항공권 초과예약의 법률적 문제에 관한 연구)

  • Jeong, Jun-Sik;Hwang, Ho-Won
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.143-166
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    • 2012
  • This paper deals in depth with airline over-booking practices and legal questions therefrom in the light of public interests. Chapter I as an introduction gives clear ideas of what are the over-booking, fact-revealing current state of denied boarding and nature of the problems inherent but veiled in those practices. In Chapter II, it is reviewed whether legal instruments for DBC(Denied Boarding Compensation) are adequately equipped for airline passengers in R. O. K. Upon the results of the review that international law to which Korea is a party, domestic law and administrative preparedness for the DBC are either null or virtually ineffective, the Chapter by contrast illustrates how well the U. S. and the E. U. safeguard civil rights of their passengers from such an 'institutionalized fraud' as the over-booking. In Chapter III on which a main emphasis lies, it is examined whether the over-booking practice constitutes a criminal offense: Fraud. In section 1, the author identifies actus reus and mens rea required for fraud then compares those with every aspect of the over-booking. In conjunction with the structural element analysis, he reviews the Supreme Court's precedents that lead the section into a partial conclusion that the act of over-booking judicially constitutes a crime of fraud. Despite the fulfillment of drawing up an intended answer, the author furthers the topic in section 2 by arguing a dominant view from Korean academia taking opposite stance to the Supreme Court. The commentators assert, "To consummate a crime of fraud, there must be property damage of the victim." For this notion correlates with a debate on legally protected interest in criminalization of fraud, the section 2 shows an argument over 'Rechtgut' matters specific to fraud. The view claims that the Rechtgut comes down rather to 'right to property' than 'transactional integrity' or 'fair and equitable principles'. However, the section concludes that the later values shall be deemed as 'freedom in economic decision-making' which are the benefit and protection of the penal law about fraud. Section 3 demonstrates the self-contradiction of the view as it is proved by a conceptual analysis that the infringement on freedom in economic decision-making boils down to the 'property damage'. Such a notion is better grounded in section 4 by foreign court decisions and legislation in its favour. Therefore, this paper concludes that the airline's act of over-booking is very likely to constitute fraud in both theory and practice.

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Midterm Results of the Modified Kidner Procedure for the Symptomatic Accessory Navicular in Athletes (운동 선수에서 발생한 동통성 부주상골의 변형 Kidner 술식의 중기 결과)

  • Lee, Kyung Tai;Kim, Ki Chun;Young, Ki Won;Park, Young Uk
    • Journal of Korean Orthopaedic Sports Medicine
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.82-86
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was retrospectively to evaluate the results of the modified Kidner procedure for symptomatic accessory navicular in athletes. Materials and Methods: Between July 1999 and December 2004, 26 feet in 22 patients with symptomatic accessory navicular who had underwent modified Kidner procedure were available for clinical follow-up, and 12 cases in 9 patients were available for clinical and radiological follow-up with a minimum follow-up of 5 years were included in this study. All those patients had symptomatic accessory navicular bone who underwent modified Kidner procedure. American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) midfoot score, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and satisfaction rate were investigated. Talo-first metatarsal (T-MT1) angle, talo-calcaneal (TC) angle, and calcaneal pitch (CP) angle were measured in standing lateral radiograms. Results: AOFAS score was improved from $40.8{\pm}7.5$ (32~57) preoperatively to $88.7{\pm}8.0$ (72~100) postoperatively, and the difference was significant (p<0.01). VAS was improved from $7.0{\pm}0.9$ (5~9) preoperatively to $1.8{\pm}0.8$ (1~4) postoperatively, and the difference was significant (p<0.01). At the lastest follow up, 11 feet were very satisfied, 11 feet satisfied, and 4 feet unsatisfied (a satisfaction rate 85.0%). No significant difference was observed for T-MT1 angle (p=0.67), TC angle (p=0.93), and CP angle (p=0.49). Conclusion: Modified Kidner procedure for the symptomatic accessory navicular showed satisfactory results and is appeared to be one of the useful treatments.

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The study of stereoscopic editing process with applying depth information (깊이정보를 활용한 입체 편집 프로세스 연구)

  • Baek, Kwang-Ho;Kim, Min-Seo;Han, Myung-Hee
    • Journal of Digital Contents Society
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.225-233
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    • 2012
  • The 3D stereoscopic image contents have been emerging as the blue chip of the contents market of the next generation since the . However, all the 3D contents created commercially in the country have failed to enter box office. It is because the quality of Korean 3D contents is much lower than that of overseas contents and also current 3D post production process is based on 2D. Considering all these facts, the 3D editing process has connection with the quality of contents. The current 3D editing processes of the production case of are using the way that edits with the system on basis of 2D, followed by checking with 3D display system and modifying, if there are any problems. In order to improve those conditions, I suggest that the 3D editing process contain more objectivity by visualizing the depth data applied in some composition work such as Disparity map, Depth map, and the current 3D editing process. The proposed process has been used in the music drama , comparing with those of the film . The 3D values could be checked among cuts which have been changed a lot since those of , while the 3D value of drew an equal result in general. Since the current process is based on an artist's subjective sense of 3D, it could be changed according to the condition and state of the artist. Furthermore, it is impossible for us to predict the positive range, so it is apprehended that the cubic effect of space might be perverted by showing each different 3D value according to cuts in the same space or a limited space. On the other hand, the objective 3D editing by applying the visualization of depth data can adjust itself to the cubic effect of the same space and the whole content equally, which will enrich the 3D contents. It will even be able to solve some problems such as distortion of cubic effect and visual fatigue, etc.

Internal Fixation of Proximal Humerus Fracture with Polyaxial Angular Stable Locking Compression Plate in Patients Older Than 65 Years (65세 이상의 상완골 근위부 골절 환자에서 다축 각안정 잠김 압박 금속판을 이용한 내고정술)

  • Lee, Ki-Won;Choi, Young-Joon;Ahn, Hyung-Sun;Kim, Chung-Hwan;Hwang, Jae-Kwang;Kang, Jeong-Ho;Choo, Han-Ho;Park, Jun-Seok;Kim, Tae-Kyung
    • Clinics in Shoulder and Elbow
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.25-31
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: The clinical and radiographic outcomes of the internal fixation, which were executed on patients over the age of 65 with proximal humerus fracture by using a polyaxial angular stable locking compression plate (Non-Contact-Bridging proximal humerus plate, Zimmer, Switzerland, NCB), were evaluated. Materials and Methods: Thirty two patients over the age of 65 among the proximal humerus fracture treated with NCB plate, between August 2007 and January 2011, were chosen as the subjects. The average age of patients was 71 years, and the average postoperative follow-up period was 11.5 months. The fractures included 14 two-part and 18 three-part fractures. The clinical results were evaluated, using the visual analog scale (VAS) score and the Constant score. The radiological results were evaluated by time to union and Paavolainen method, which measures the neck shaft angle. Results: At the last follow-up examination, the mean VAS score was 3 points and the mean Constant score was 64.5 points, with bone union achieved after the average of 16.2 weeks following the surgery in all the cases. The mean neck shaft angle was 125.9 and 24 cases had good results, while 8 cases had fair results by Paavolainen method, at the last follow-up. There were 1 case of delayed union and cerclage wire failure, and 3 cases of subacromial impingement. There were no complications, such as loss of reduction, nonunion, screw loosening, or avascular necrosis of the humeral head. Conclusion: Internal fixation, using a NCB plate, was considered to be an effective surgical method in treating proximal humerus fracture in the elderly patients, on whom the fixation of the fracture and maintenance of reduction are difficult.