• Title, Summary, Keyword: 조직 불균질성

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MRI Evaluation for the Histologic Components of Soft-tissue Tumors: Comparison of MEDIC and Fast SE T2-weighted Imaging (연조직종양의 조직 성분 평가를 위한 자기공명영상: MEDIC 과 지방억제 T2 영상의 비교)

  • Moon, Tae-Yong;Lee, In-Sook;Lee, Jun-Woo;Choi, Kyung-Un;Kim, Jeung-Il;Kim, E. Edmund
    • Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2008
  • Purpose : To compare Multi Echo Data Image Combination (MEDIC) and fast SE T2-weighted images with fat saturation (T2FS) to suggest more accurate evaluation of the histologic components of soft-tissue tumors. Materials and Methods : The experimental group included 25 histologic tissues (5 vascular, 4 neural, 4 fibrous, 4 hypercellular, 2 hemorrhagic necroses, 2 cystic, 2 lipoid, 1 myxoid stroma, and 1 thrombus) in 10 patients who had pathologically confirmed schwannoma (n = 3), hemangioma (n = 2), lipoma (n = 1), angiokeratoma (n = 1), synovial sarcoma (n = 1), liposarcoma (n = 1), and malignant fibrous histiocytoma (n = 1). The inhomogeneity values were measured using the standard deviation value (SD) divided by the mean value as SD presents an error amount similar to that of imaging heterogeneity. Results : The inhomogeneity values of 25 histologic components were lower on MEDIC than those on T2FS (p < .001). Conclusion : We conclude that MEDIC is more accurate than T2FS for evaluating the tissue components of soft-tissue tumors using digitalized data because MEDIC images have far lower inhomogeneity.

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Evaluation of Corrected Dose with Inhomogeneous Tissue by using CT Image (CT 영상을 이용한 불균질 조직의 선량보정 평가)

  • Kim, Gha-Jung
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.75-80
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    • 2006
  • Purpose: In radiation therapy, precise calculation of dose toward malignant tumors or normal tissue would be a critical factor in determining whether the treatment would be successful. The Radiation Treatment Planning (RTP) system is one of most effective methods to make it effective to the correction of dose due to CT number through converting linear attenuation coefficient to density of the inhomogeneous tissue by means of CT based reconstruction. Materials and Methods: In this study, we carried out the measurement of CT number and calculation of mass density by using RTP system and the homemade inhomogeneous tissue Phantom and the values were obtained with reference to water. Moreover, we intended to investigate the effectiveness and accuracy for the correction of inhomogeneous tissue by the CT number through comparing the measured dose (nC) and calculated dose (Percentage Depth Dose, PDD) used CT image during radiation exposure with RTP. Results: The difference in mass density between the calculated tissue equivalent material and the true value was ranged from $0.005g/cm^3\;to\;0.069g/cm^3$. A relative error between PDD of RTP and calculated dose obtained by radiation therapy of machine ranged from -2.8 to +1.06%(effective range within 3%). Conclusion: In conclusion, we confirmed the effectiveness of correction for the inhomogeneous tissues through CT images. These results would be one of good information on the basic outline of Quality Assurance (QA) in RTP system.

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A Study of Heterogeneity Corrections for Radiation Treatment Planning (방사선 치료계획 시 불균질 보정에 관한 고찰)

  • Lee, Je-Hee;Kim, Bo-Gyum;Park, Heung-Deuk
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.89-96
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    • 2006
  • Purpose: To study effectiveness of heterogeneity correction of internal-body inhomogeneities and patient positioning immobilizers in dose calculation, using images obtained from CT-Simulator. Materials and Methods: A water phantom($250{\times}250{\times}250mm^3$) was fabricated and, to simulate various inhomogeneity, 1) bone 2) metal 3) contrast media 4) immobilization devices(Head holder/pillow/Vac-lok) were inserted in it. And then, CT scans were peformed. The CT-images were input to Radiation Treatment Planning System(RTPS) and the MUs, to give 100 cGy at 10 cm depth with isocentric standard setup(Field Size=$10{\times}10cm^2$, SAD=100 cm), were calculated for various energies(4, 6, 10 MV X-ray). The calculated MUs based on various CT-images of inhomogeneities were compared and analyzed. Results: Heterogeneity correction factors were compared for different materials. The correction factors were $2.7{\sim}5.3%$ for bone, $2.7{\sim}3.8%$ for metal materials, $0.9{\sim}2.3%$ for contrast media, $0.9{\sim}2.3%$ for Head-holder, $3.5{\sim}6.9%$ for Head holder+pillow, and $0.9{\sim}1.5%$ for Vac-lok. Conclusion: It is revealed that the heterogeneity correction factor calculated from internal-body inhomogeneities have various values and have no consistency. and with increasing number of beam ports, the differences can be reduced to under 1%, so, it can be disregarded. On the other hand, heterogeneity correction from immobilizers must be regarded enough to minimize inaccuracy of dose calculation.

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Petrology of enclave in the Mt. Wonhyo granite, Yangsan city (양산시 원효산 화강암에 산출되는 포획암에 대한 암석학적 연구)

  • 진미정;김종선;이준동;김인수;백인성
    • The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.142-168
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    • 2000
  • The granites distributed in the Kyongsang basin contain the rocks which are different from the host rocks, and they are known as magic microgranular enclaves. The genesis of the magic micro-granular enclaves can be divided into four types: (1) rock fragments from country rocks; (2) cumulation of the early crystals in host magma or disruption of early chilled borders; (3) magma mingling; and (4) restite. These enclaves can be easily found in the granites around Mt. Wonhyo, Yangsan city. They are ellipsoidal in shape, and have phenocrysts might be originated from the host rocks and sharp contacts with the granites. Under the microscope, textures such as oscillation zoning, horn-blende-mantled quartz, rapakivi texture, and acicular apatite are observed, and these indicate that the enclaves were originated from magma and then produced by chilling. The evidences showing that the enclaves were formed by magma mingling are: (1) petrographical characteristics; (2) similarity of the compositions between the rim of plagioclase in the enclave and plagioclase in the granite; (3) linear trends of the major elements; (4) total REE content of the enclaves; and (5) Textural and compositional variations from rim to core in zoned enclaves. The magic end member of the enclave is regarded as the aphyric basaltic andesite in Mt. Sinbul-Youngchui area. The granites around Mt. Wonhyo experienced the magma mingling process which was produced by the injection of mafic magma at about 70 Ma, during the crystal differentiation, and then continued the crystallization. The equigranular granites and the micrographic granites in the study area are considered as the results after the magma mingling process.

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Tissue Inhomogeneity Correction in Clinical Application of Transmission Dosimetry to Head and Neck Cancer Radiation Treatment (두경부 방사선 치료 환자에서 투과선량 알고리즘의 임상 적용시 불균질 조직 보정에 관한 연구)

  • Kim Suzy;Ha Sung Whan;Wu Hong Gyun;Huh Soon Nyung
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.155-163
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    • 2004
  • Purpose : To confirm the reproducibility of in vivo transmission dosimetry system and the accuracy of the a1gorithms for the estimation of transmission dose in head and neck radiation therapy patients. Materials and Methods : From September 5 to 18, 2001, transmission dose measurements were peformed when radiotherapy was given to brain or head and neck cancer patients. The data of 35 patients who were treated more than three times and whose central axis of the beam was not blocked were analyzed in this study. To confirm the reproducibility of this system, transmission dose was measured before dally treatment and then repetitively every hour during the treatment time, with a field size of 10$\times$10 cm$^{2}$ and a delivery of 100 MU. The accuracy of the transmission dose calculation algorithms was confirmed by comparing estimated dose with measured dose. To accurately estimate transmission dose, tissue inhomogeneity correction was done. Results : The measurement variations during a day were within $\pm$0.5$\%$ and the dally variations in the checked period were within $\pm$ 1.0$\%$, which were acceptable for system reproducibility. The mean errors between estimated and measured doses were within $\pm$5.0$\%$ in Patients treated to the brain, $\pm$2.5$\%$ in head, and $\pm$ 5.0%$\%$in neck. Conclusion : The results of this study confirmed the reproducibility of our system and its usefulness and accuracy for dally treatment. We also found that tissue inhomogeneity correction was necessary for the accurate estimation of transmission dose in patients treated to the head and neck.

파괴인성 및 균열진전의 평가

  • 김정규
    • Journal of the KSME
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.328-336
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    • 1988
  • 파괴인성은 내적 및 외적요인 등에 의해 변할 뿐만 아니라 조직의 불균질성 때문에 소성둔화 및 파괴가 균일하게 일어나지 않으므로 이에 대응한 파괴인성을 선택하여 평가함이 가장 중요하다. 또한 기계의 고속화에 따라 충격적인 하중에 의한 동적파괴의 문제가 중요하게 되고 이에 따라 동적파괴인성 평가법의 확립에도 많은 연구가 필요하다. 한편 피로균열진전거동의 실험에는 많은 시간과 인적 노력이 필요로 하며 이러한 문제점을 해결하여 균열진전 측정의 정밀화 및 효율성을 높이기 위해서는 컴퓨터의 이점을 적극적으로 응용할 필요가 있다.

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Clinical Application of in Vivo Dosimetry System in Radiotherapy of Pelvis (골반부 방사선 치료 환자에서 in vivo 선량측정시스템의 임상적용)

  • Kim, Bo-Kyung;Chie, Eui-Kyu;Huh, Soon-Nyung;Lee, Hyoung-Koo;Ha, Sung-Whan
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.37-49
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    • 2002
  • The accuracy of radiation dose delivery to target volume is one of the most important factors for good local control and less treatment complication. In vivo dosimetry is an essential QA procedure to confirm the radiation dose delivered to the patients. Transmission dose measurement is a useful method of in vivo dosimetry and it's advantages are non-invasiveness, simplicity and no additional efforts needed for dosimetry. In our department, in vivo dosimetry system using measurement of transmission dose was manufactured and algorithms for estimation of transmission dose were developed and tested with phantom in various conditions successfully. This system was applied in clinic to test stability, reproducibility and applicability to daily treatment and the accuracy of the algorithm. Transmission dose measurement was performed over three weeks. To test the reproducibility of this system, X-tay output was measured before daily treatment and then every hour during treatment time in reference condition(field size; $10 cm{\times} 10 cm$, 100 MU). Data of 11 patients whose pelvis were treated more than three times were analyzed. The reproducibility of the dosimetry system was acceptable with variations of measurement during each day and over 3 week period within ${\pm}2.0%$. On anterior- posterior and posterior fields, mean errors were between -5.20% and +2.20% without bone correction and between -0.62% and +3.32% with bone correction. On right and left lateral fields, mean errors were between -10.80% and +3.46% without bone correction and between -0.55% and +3.50% with bone correction. As the results, we could confirm the reproducibility and stability of our dosimetry system and its applicability in daily radiation treatment. We could also find that inhomogeneity correction for bone is essential and the estimated transmission doses are relatively accurate.

Estimation of Distributed Groundwater Recharge in Mihocheon Watershed (미호천 유역의 분포형 지하수 함양량 산정)

  • Chung, Il-Moon;Kim, Nam-Won;Lee, Jeong-Woo;Won, Yoo-Seung
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.698-701
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    • 2007
  • 지하수 개발가능량 산정을 위한 함양량의 평가는 수문계의 물리적인 형태나 함수층의 수리성 분석 및 수직인 지질분포를 파악하여 어떤 조건하에서 물이 유입 유출되는가를 파악한 후에만 가능하다. 또한 지하수계의 물리적인 형태를 이해함으로써 조사지역의 지표수계나 지하수계의 양계를 통해서 흐르는 물의 양을 결정짓는 물수지 분석이 수행되어야 한다. 이에 따라 강수량, 증발산량, 지하수 유출량, 지표유출량 그리고 하천유출량 등을 수문학적으로 고려해야만 한다. 본 연구는 지표수-지하수 결합모형을 도입하여 분포형 지하수 함양량의 시공간적인 변동성을 파악하는 데 그 목적이 있다. 이를 위해 지표수-지하수 결합모형인 SWAT-K모형을 미호천 유역에 적용하였으며, 지표수의 총유출량과 지하수위의 공간분포자료를 이용하여 검정과 검증을 수행하였다. 전체유역에 대한 연평균 함양량은 수문총량의 약 19%인 것으로 나타났다. 1999년${\sim}$2004년까지의 소유역별 연간 함양량 결과를 월별로 나타냈으며, HRU(Hydrologic Response Unit)별 함양량의 공간분포를 통해 월별, 계절별 특성을 살펴볼 수 있었다. 소유역 모두 강수가 집중하는 7-9월에 걸쳐 많은 함양이 이루어지며 $1{\sim}3$월에는 상대적으로 함양이 적은 것을 볼 수 있다. 월함양량의 경우 최대 약200mm범위내에서 유역의 토지이용 및 토양특성, 경사등에 따라 매우 비균질하게 분포하는 것을 확인할 수 있었다. 이와같은 함양량의 시공간적 불균일성으로 인해 지하수 관리방안은 소유역별 함양특성을 반영해야 할 것으로 판단된다.의 종분산지수가 일반적인 자연대수층에 비해 9.1배 정도 높다는 것을 의미한다. 이는 시험대수층의 투수성이 매우 높아 염소이온의 용질이송이 매우 빠르게 발생되었기 때문이다. 본 연구에서 추정된 종분산지수를 Gelhar et al.(1992)의 연구 결과와 비교 분석한 결과에서도 시험규모에 비해 매우 높은 수리분산이 발생된 것으로 나타났다. 그리고 염소이온의 확산면적을 추정하기 위해, 수렴흐름 추적자시험에 의한 종분산지수와 시험대수층의 평균선형유속을 이용하여 종분산계수를 구하였다. 현장에서 수행된 양수시험에 의한 평균선형유속 22.44 m/day와 평균 종분산지수 0.4155 m를 적용하여 산정된 종분산계수는 $9.32\;m^2/day$이었다. 따라서, 시험부지 내 충적층에서 일정한 양수율$(2,500\;m^3/day)$로 지하수를 개발할 시에 양수정 주변지역으로 유입되는 염소이온의 확산면적은 1일 $9.32\;m^2$ 정도일 것으로 나타났다.적인 $OH{\cdot}$ 의 생성은 ascorbate가 조직손상에 관여할 가능성을 시사하였다.었다. 정확한 예측치를 얻기 위하여 불균질 조직이 조사야에 포함되는 경우 보정이 요구되며, 골반의 경우 골 조직의 보정이 중요한 요인임을 알 수 있었다. 이를 위하여 불균질 조직에 대한 정확한 정보가 요구되며, 이는 CT 영상을 이용하는 것이 크게 도움이 되리라 생각된다.전시 슬러지층과 상등액의 온도차를 측정하여 대사열량의 발생량을 측정하고 슬러지의 활성을 측정할 수 있는 방법을 개발하였다.enin과 Rhaponticin

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Study on the Origin of Rapakivi Texture in Bangeojin Granite (방어진 화강암에 나타나는 라파키비 조직의 성인에 관한 연구)

  • 진미정;김종선;이준동
    • The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.30-48
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    • 2002
  • Phenocrysts with rapakivi texture are easily observed in Bangeojin granite. The rapakivi texture is composed of inner pinkish alkali feldspars and white-colored mantling plagioclase. The Bangeojin granite distinctively includes lots of mafic microgranular enclaves and can be divided into five rock facies: (1) enclave-poor granite (EPG); (2) enclave-rich granite (ERG); (3) mafic microgranular enclave (MME); (4) hybrid zone between mafic microgranular enclave and granite (HZ); (5) hybrid zone-like enclaves (HLE). The rapakivi textures are observed in these five rock facies with no difference in shape and size. Plagioclase mantle commonly shows dendritic texture that is an important indicator to know the rapakivi genesis. The mantling texture would indicate supercooling condition during magma solidification process. In addition, mafic microgranular enclaves would imply the magma mingling environment. The magma mixing process had possibly caused the mantling texture. An abundance of rapakivi phenocrysts in HZ and the influxing phenomenon of the phenocrysts into MME support that there were physical chemical exchanges during the mingling. And this model of the magma mixing/mingling explain well the heterogeneous distribution of the rapakivi phenocrysts in the five rock facies. Therefore the rapakivi textures in the Bangeojin granite would have been formed by magma mixing process.

The Usability Evaluation Half Beam Radiation Treatment Technique on the Esophageal Cancer (식도암 환자에서의 Half Beam 치료법의 유용성 평가)

  • Park, Hochoon;Kim, Youngjae;Jang, Seongjoo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.9 no.5
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    • pp.287-293
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    • 2015
  • Because of esophageal cancer has the long length of the lesion and also inhomogeneous in depth. So, the radiation dose distribution was inhomogeneous in radiation therapy. To overcomes the dose distribution uniformity using half beam method. Patient's CT image was used radiation treatment planning. We used two planning methods that one is the using normal beam and another is using half beam. Than comparing the two radiotherapy planning using target coverage, dose volume histogram, conformity index, homogeneity index and normal tissues - heart, spinal cord, lung -. In results, Treatment planning using half beam is little more than normal beam in target coverage, dose volume histogram, conformity index, homogeneity index and normal tissues covering. However, If the patient is not correct position patients may arise a side effect. Thus, the using in Half beam involving the geometrically exact under lung cancer is considered to advantage.