• Title, Summary, Keyword: 조사선량률

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Source Intensity Analysis of DUPIC Fuel (DUPIC 핵연료의 조사선량률 분석)

  • Kim, Yun-Goo;Lim, Jae-Yong;Park, Bhum-Lak;Park, Kwang-Heon;Whang, Ju-Ho
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.117-124
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    • 1996
  • Source intensities in terms of the exposure rates at 1m from the fresh and spent DUPIC fuels, made from standard and extended turnup PWR fuels, were analyzed. Two cases were studied based on the degree of elimination of removable elements. Homogeneous mixture model was applied to get the exposure rate. The exposure rate turned out to be very high and sensitive to Cs elimination during the dry process. About 90% of exposure can be reduced in the case of fresh DUPIC fuel made from 10-year cooled spent PWR fuels if Cs is fully removed during the dry process. The main radiation source in spent fuels is Cs-137. The dry storage of spent DUPIC fuel may need a longer wet storage period and require a further review.

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감마선이 Artemia 알의 부화에 미치는 영향

  • 김원록;김진규;이영근;이창주;장화형
    • Proceedings of the Korean Nuclear Society Conference
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    • pp.720-724
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    • 1998
  • 감마선이 Artemia 알의 부화에 미치는 영향을 알아보고자, 10Gy, 100Gy, 3kGy, 6kGy과 9kGy의 선량으로 건조 상태의 알을 조사한 후 부화율과 nauplius기의 출현률을 조사하였다. 1kGy 이하의 방사선 조사군에서는 부화율과 nauplius기의 출현률이 대조군에 비하여 높게 나타났다. 3kGy 방사선조사군의 경우 대조군과 유사한 부화율을 보였으나 nauplius기의 출현률은 감소하였다. 6kGy의 방사선조사군에서는 알들의 부화 지연과 부화율의 감소가 뚜렷하였다. 50%의 부화율을 나타내는 선량은 약 5.5kGy였으며, 9kGy에서는 100% 치사선량을 나타내었다. 본 실험에서 조사한 선량증에서 비교적 낮은 선량의 범위에서는 이온화방사선에 의하여 Artemia 알의 부화시간 단축 및 부화율이 다소 증가하는 결과를 보였다. 따라서 이온화방서선을 이용한 Artemia 알의 부화률을 촉진지킬 수 있는 적정 선량에 대한 연구는 상업적으로도 가치가 있다고 생각되며, 향후 이에 대한 추가적인 연구를 통한 상업적인 활용이 기대된다.

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Survival and Complication Rate of Radiation Therapy in Stage I and II Carcinoma of Uterine Cervix (병기 I, II 자궁 경부암에서 방사선치료 후 생존율 및 합병증 분석)

  • Ma, Sun-Young;Cho, Heung-Lea;Sohn, Seung-Chang
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.349-357
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    • 1995
  • Purpose : To analyze survival rate and late rectal and bladder complication for patients with stage I and II carcinoma of uterine cervix treated by radiation alone or combined with chemotherapy Materials and Methods : Between November 1984 and December 1993, 127 patients with stage I and II carcinoma of uterine cervix treated by radiation alone or combined therapy of radiation and chemotherapy. Retrospective analysis for survival rate was carried out on eligible 107 patients and review for complication was possible in 91 patients. The median follow-up was 47 months (range 3-118) and the median age of patiens was 56 years (range 31-76). 26 patients were stage IB by FIGO classification, 40 were stage IIA and 41 were stage IIB. 86 cases were treated by radiation alone and 21 were treated by radiation and chemotherapy. 101 patients were treated with intracavitary radiation therapy (ICRT), of these, 80 were received low dose rate (LDR) ICRT and 21 were received high dose rate (HDR) ICRT. Of the patients who received LDR ICRT, 63 were treated by 1 intracavitary insertion and 17 were underwent 2 insertions And we evaluated the external radiation dose and midline shield. Results : Actuarial survival rate at 5 years was $92{\%}$ for stage IB, $75{\%}$ for stage IIA, $53{\%}$ for stage IIB and $69{\%}$ in all patients Grade 1 rectal complications were developed in 20 cases ($22{\%}$), grade 2 were in 22 cases ($24{\%}$). 22 cases ($24{\%}$) of grade 1 urinary complications and 17 cases ($19{\%}$) of grade 2 urinary complications were observed But no patient had severe complications that needed surgical management or admission care. Maximum bladder dose for the group of patients with urinary complications was higher than that for the patients without urinary complications (7608 cGy v 6960cGy. p<0.01) Maximum rectal dose for the group of patients with rectal complications was higher than that for the patients without rectal complications (7041cGy v 6269cGy, p<0.01). While there was no significant difference for survival rate or bladder complication incidence as a function of dose to whole pelvis, Grade 2 rectal complication incidence was significantly lower for the patients receiving less than 4500cGy ($6.3{\%}$ v $25.5{\%}$, p<0.05). There was no significant differance between HDR ICRT group and LDR ICRT group for survival rate according to stage, on the other hand complication incidence was higher in the HDR group than LDR group, This was maybe due to different prescription doses between HDR group and LDR group. Midline shield neither improved survival rate nor decreased complication rate. The number of insertion in LDR ICRT group did not affect on survival and compication rate. Conclusion : In stage I and II carcinoma of uterine cervix there was no significant differance for 5 year survival rate by radiation therapy technique. Rectal complication incidence was as a function of dose to whole pelvis and there were positive correlations of maximum dose of rectum and bladder and each complication incidence. So we recommand whole pelvis dose less than 4500cGy and maximum dose of rectum and bladder as low as possible.

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Determination of the exposure conversion coefficient for 3" X 3" NaI spectrum (3" X 3" NaI 스펙트럼의 조사선량 변환계수 결정)

  • Lee, M.S.
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.73-78
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    • 2001
  • In order to find the exposure conversion coefficients for 3"X3" NaI spectrum, we measured the exposure rates with the pressurized ion chamber at 29 different areas in the range of $4{\sim}23{\mu}R\;h^{-1}$, and also measured the gamma spectra with 3"X3" and 4"X4" NaI detectors, simultaneously. The exposure conversion coefficient of the total energy method was determined using the linear relation between the measured exposure rate and the gamma spectrum energy. In order to find the exposure conversion coefficients of the energy band method, we applied the exposure conversion coefficients recommended by NCRP to the 4"X4" NaI spectra, and calculated the exposure rates due to $^{40}K,\;^{238}U$, and $^{232}Th$ series respectively. Using the linearly proportional relation between the obtained $^{232}Th$ series exposure rate and peak area of 2614 keV that represents the $^{232}Th$ series, we obtained the exposure conversion coefficients for $^{232}Th$ series. We also determined the conversion coefficients for $^{238}U$ series and $^{40}K$ using a similar method.

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Treatment of Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix with High-Dose-Rate Intracavitary Irradiation using Ralstron (고선량률 강내조사를 사용한 자궁경부암의 치료)

  • Suh Chang Ok;Kim Gwi Eon;Loh John J.K.
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.231-239
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    • 1990
  • From May 1979 through December 1981 a total of 524 patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix were treated by radiation therapy with curative intent. Among the 524 patients, 350 were treated with a high-dose-rate (HDR), remote-controlled, afterloading intracavitary irradiation (ICR) system using a cobalt source (Ralstron), and 168 patients received a low-dose-rate (LDR) ICR using a radium source. External beam irradiation with a total dose of 40-50 Gy to the whole pelvis followed by intracavitary irradiation with a total dose of 30-39 Gy in 10-13 fractions to point A was the treatment protocol. ICR was given three times a week with a dose of 3 Gy per fraction. Five-year actuarial survival rates in the HDR-ICR group were $77.6{\%}$ in stage IB (N=20), $68.2{\%}$ in stage II (N=182), and $50.9{\%}$ in stage III (N=148). In LDR-ICR group, 5-year survival rates were $87.5{\%}$ in stage IB (N=22), $66.3{\%}$ in stage II (N=91), and $55.4{\%}$ in stage III (N=52). Survival rates showed a statistically significant difference by stage, but there was no significant difference between the two ICR groups. Late bowel complications after radiotherapy were noted in $3.7{\%}$ of the HDR-ICR group and $8.4{\%}$ of the LDR-ICR group. There was no severe complication requiring surgical management. The incidence of bladder complications was $1.4{\%}$ in the HDR-ICR group and $2.4{\%}$ in the LDR-ICR group. The application of HDR-ICR was technically simple and easily performed on an outpatient basis without anesthesia, and the patients tolerated it very well. Radiation exposure to personnel was virtually nil in contrast to that of LDR-ICR. Within a given period of time, more patients can be treated with HDR-ICR because of the short treatment time. Therefore, the HDR-ICR system is highly recommended for a cancer center, particularly one with a large number of patients to be treated. In order to achieve an improved outcome, however, the optimum dose-fractionation schedule of HDR-ICR and optimum combination of intracavitary irradiation with external beam irradiation should be determined through an extensive protocol.

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Radiation-Induced Grafting of Acrylic Acid onto Polypropylene Fabric in the Presence of Metallic Salt (폴리프로필렌 부직포에 아크릴산의 방사선 그라프트 반응에서 금속염의 효과)

  • Nho, Young Chang;Park, Jong Shin;Jin, Joon-Ha
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.7 no.5
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    • pp.946-953
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    • 1996
  • The effect of absorbed dose, dose rate, cationic salts and solvent on the grafting yield was evaluated when acrylic acid was grafted onto polypropylene fabric by simultaneous irradiation process. Low dose rate when irradiated with the same absorbed dose led to a high grafting yield. On the other hand, the grafting yield increased with dose rate in case the total irradiation times is equal, and the initial rate of grafting was found to be proportional to be 0.74 power of dose rate. $FeSO_4{\cdot}7H_2O$ was found to be the most effective additive for high grafting yield, while inhibiting homopolymer formation. It was impossible to induce radiation grafting without the addition of the certain amount of salt, but the grafting yield decreased with increasing metallic salt.

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Determination of Exposure Dose Rate and Isotropic Distributions of Substitute High Dose Rate Ir-192 Source for Co-60 Brachytherapy Source (원격강내조사용 Co-60 선원의 대체용 Ir-192 선원의 조사선량결정 및 선량 등방성조사)

  • 최태진;원철호;김옥배;김시운;김금배;조운갑;한현수;박경배
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.55-64
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    • 1998
  • In recent, the demand of development of the high dose rate brachytherapy source increased for substitute for Co-60 source by iridium source, since the supplying Co-60 source is very depressed and the high dose rate brachytherapy sources are entirely imported from the abroad. This study investigated the exposure rates and isotropic dose distributions for the Ir-192 source produced from $\^$191/Ir(n,r)$\^$192/Ir by nuclear reactor in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. The activity of source was obtained an 1.012 Ci (the initial activity without encapsulation was 2,87Ci) by measurement with encapsuled stainless steel. The exposure rate of provided Ir-192 source was determined on 6.36 ${\pm}$ 0.147 Rm$^2$/h-GBq (2.350 ${\pm}$ 0.054 Rcm$^2$/mCi-hr) within ${\pm}$ 2.2% discrepancy with IC-10 ion chamber (0.14 cc) which was mounted on the acrylic jig to 5, 10 and 20 cm from the center of source. The calculated doses with 22 most significant spectrum lines were corrected with intrinsic efficiency of the germanium detector were compared to measured exposure dose rates within ${\pm}$3.8 % discrepancy. The authors confirmed the high dose rate Ir-192 source could be replaced the long decayed Co-60 source via investigation of the isotropic dose distributions in lateral, source axis and diagonal direction of source center are very closed to within 3% uncertainties. Especially, this exposure rate constant and isotropic dose distribution will be fundamental to build the high dose rate source and develop the computed therapy planning system.

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Calculation of Man-made Radiation Exposure Rate from NaI Spectrum (NaI 스펙트럼으로부터 인공방사선 조사선량의 계산)

  • Lee, M.S.
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.113-117
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    • 2001
  • The energy band method for NaI spectrum calculates only the exposure rate due to natural radiation because it calculates exposure rate using energy spectrum of $1300{\sim}3000keV$. However, the total energy method includes in its calculation the exposure rate due to man-made radiation because it uses the energy spectrum of $150{\sim}3400keV$. Therefore, the resulting difference of extracting the exposure rate calculated by the energy band method from the exposure rate calculated by the total energy method is apparently the exposure rate due to man-made radiation. In this study, we measured the NaI spectrum during the period of significant changes of the exposure rate in the area without a man-made radiation. As the results, we found the exposure rates calculated by those two methods are equal within the statistical variation of ${\pm}0.3{\mu}R\;h^{-1}$. Consequently, if the difference between the exposure rates calculated by the two methods exists, it may be due to the man-made radiation exposure rate.

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Exposure Measurements of Co-60 Gamma rays (Co-60 감마선의 조사선량 측정)

  • Hah, Suck-Ho;Kim, Hyun-Moon
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.7-16
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    • 1991
  • Measurement of Co-60 gamma rays has been made for establishment of exposure standard and analyze it's overall uncertainties. Exposure rate determined by the charge mode method using vibrating reed amplifier with cylinderical type cavity chamber. The values of a variety of physical constants and the correction factors are evaluated. The resulting exposure rate is 690.81 R/h at the distance of 1m from the source and the related uncertainties is ${\pm}0.8%$

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