• Title, Summary, Keyword: 조사선량

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Calculation of Man-made Radiation Exposure Rate from NaI Spectrum (NaI 스펙트럼으로부터 인공방사선 조사선량의 계산)

  • Lee, M.S.
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.113-117
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    • 2001
  • The energy band method for NaI spectrum calculates only the exposure rate due to natural radiation because it calculates exposure rate using energy spectrum of $1300{\sim}3000keV$. However, the total energy method includes in its calculation the exposure rate due to man-made radiation because it uses the energy spectrum of $150{\sim}3400keV$. Therefore, the resulting difference of extracting the exposure rate calculated by the energy band method from the exposure rate calculated by the total energy method is apparently the exposure rate due to man-made radiation. In this study, we measured the NaI spectrum during the period of significant changes of the exposure rate in the area without a man-made radiation. As the results, we found the exposure rates calculated by those two methods are equal within the statistical variation of ${\pm}0.3{\mu}R\;h^{-1}$. Consequently, if the difference between the exposure rates calculated by the two methods exists, it may be due to the man-made radiation exposure rate.

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Dose Characteristics of Total-Skin Electron-Beam Irradiation with Six-Dual Electron Fields (Six-Dual 전자선 조사면에 의한 전신 피부 조사의 선량 특성)

  • Choi, Tae-Jin;Kim, Jin-Hee;Kim, Ok-Bae
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.337-345
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    • 1998
  • Purpose : To obtain the uniform dose at limited depth to entire surface of the body, the dose characteristics of degraded electron beam of the large target-skin distance and the dose distribution of the six-dual electron fields were investigated Materials and Method : The experimental dose distributions included the depth dose curve, spatial dose and attenuated electron beam were determined with 300 cm of target-skin distance (TSD) and full collimator size (35*35 $cm^2$ on TSD 100 cm) in 4 MeV electron beam energy. Actual collimated field size of 105 cm * 105 cm at the distance of 300 cm could include entire hemibody. A patient was standing on step board with hands up and holding the pole to stabilize his/her positions for the six-dual fields technique. As a scatter-degrader, 0.5 cm of acrylic plate was inserted at 20 cm from the body surface on the electron beam path to induce ray scattering and to increase the skin dose. Results : The full width at half maximum(FWHM) of dose profile was 130 cm in large field of 105*105 $cm^2$ The width of $100\pm10\%$ of the resultant dose from two adjacent fields which were separated at 25 cm from field edge for obtaining the dose unifomity was extended to 186 cm. The depth of maximum dose lies at 5 mm and the 80$\%$ depth dose lies between 7 and 8 mm for the degraded electron beam by using the 0.5 cm thickness of acrylic absorber. Total skin electron beam irradiation (TSEBI) was carried out using the six dual fields has been developed at Stanford University. The dose distribution in TSEBI showed relatively uniform around the flat region of skin except the protruding and deeply curvatured portion of the body, which showed excess of dose at the former and less dose at the latter. Conclusion : The percent depth dose, profile curves and superimposed dose distribution were investigated using the degraded electron beam through the beam absorber. The dose distribution obtained by experiments of TSEBI showed within$\pm10\%$ difference except the protruding area of skin which needs a shield and deeply curvatured region of skin which needs boosting dose.

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Determination of the exposure conversion coefficient for 3" X 3" NaI spectrum (3" X 3" NaI 스펙트럼의 조사선량 변환계수 결정)

  • Lee, M.S.
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.73-78
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    • 2001
  • In order to find the exposure conversion coefficients for 3"X3" NaI spectrum, we measured the exposure rates with the pressurized ion chamber at 29 different areas in the range of $4{\sim}23{\mu}R\;h^{-1}$, and also measured the gamma spectra with 3"X3" and 4"X4" NaI detectors, simultaneously. The exposure conversion coefficient of the total energy method was determined using the linear relation between the measured exposure rate and the gamma spectrum energy. In order to find the exposure conversion coefficients of the energy band method, we applied the exposure conversion coefficients recommended by NCRP to the 4"X4" NaI spectra, and calculated the exposure rates due to $^{40}K,\;^{238}U$, and $^{232}Th$ series respectively. Using the linearly proportional relation between the obtained $^{232}Th$ series exposure rate and peak area of 2614 keV that represents the $^{232}Th$ series, we obtained the exposure conversion coefficients for $^{232}Th$ series. We also determined the conversion coefficients for $^{238}U$ series and $^{40}K$ using a similar method.

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전신방사선조사(TBI)시 다이오드측정기(Diode detector) 및 열형광선량계(TLD)를 이용하여 측정한 골조직 선량감쇠에 대한 고찰

  • 임현실;이정진;장인기;김완선
    • Journal of The Korean Radiological Technologist Association
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.6-11
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    • 2003
  • 목적 : 전신방사선조사(TBI)시 균등한 선량을 조사할 목적으로 사용되는 각 신체부위별 보상체(compensator) 두께의 결정은 열형광선량계(TLD)를 이용하여 표면선량(surface dose)을 측정하고, 심부선량(depth dose)으로 환산하는 방법을 주로 이용한다. 그러나 이와 같은 방법은 골(bone) 조직에 대한 선량감쇠(dose attenuation)의 영향이 고려되지 않아 신체중심부에서의 정확한 심부선량을 알 수가 없다. 이에 본 연구

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A Study of Total Dose in Intensity Modulation Radiation Therapy (선량강도 조절법을 이용한 방사선치료에서 총선량에 관한 고찰)

  • 김성규
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.85-90
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    • 2000
  • In radiation therapy, the effects of radiation are decided total dose, total treatment times and number of radiation dose fractions. We considered that total dose, total treatment times and number of radiation dose fractions in intensity modulation radiation therapy(IMRT) infuence tumor cell killing. The goal of three dimensional conformal radiation therapy(3DCRT) in radiation therapy is to conform the partial distribution of the prescribed radiation dose to the precise 3D configuration of the tumor, and at the same time, to minimize the dose to the surrounding normal tissues. To optimize treatment volume of tumor, treatment volume will be same tumor volume. All IMRT compare to conventional treatment plus boost IMRT when total dose irradiated 75 - 90 Gy. Because of biological effect, total dose are decreased 12.5 - l5Gy in all IMRT.

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혈관내벽에 홀뮴-166 방사선 분할 조사시 흡수선량 분포

  • 조철우;윤석남;윤준기;이명훈;탁승재;최소연;박경배
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Medical Physics Conference
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    • pp.70-70
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    • 2003
  • 경피적관상동맥성형술(CPTCA)이나 스텐트삽입술 후에 발생하는 재협착을 방지하기 위한 방사선을 조사하는 방법 중에 베타 입자를 방출하는 액체 선원을 catheter풍선 내에 넣어 일정 시간 방사선 조사 시키는 방법이 있다. 조사시킬 혈관의 길이가 길어 한번의 방사선 조사가 어려울 경우 영역을 분할하여 두 번에 나누어 조사할 경우가 있다. 조사영역의 겹치는 부근의 흡수선량이 고선량이나 저선량이 되는가를 알기 위하여 두 풍선간의 접근 거리에 따른 혈관내벽의 흡수선량 분포를 알아보았다. 풍선내의 액체 선원은 Ho-l66을 이용하였고 Ho-l66의 물리적 반감기는 26.8시간이고 최대에너지 1.85 MeV, 평균에너지 0.69 MeV와 최대에너지 1.77 MeV, 평균에너지 0.65 MeV를 갖는 베타 입자를 방출한다. Ho-l66 의 방사선 흡수선량을 측정하기 위하여 GafChromic 필름(Nuclear Associates, Carle Place, NY, USA)을 이용하였고, 방사선이 조사된 필름의 optical density는 videodensitometer(Wellhofer, Schwarzen-bruck, Germany)를 이용하여 값을 읽었다. Catheter 풍선은 직경이 3 mm 이고 길이가 20 mm인 것을 이용하였다. 혈관 내벽의 최대 흡수선량을 표준화하여 겹치는 부분의 흡수선량 분포를 접근 거리에 따라 구하였다. 또한 몬테카를로 시abf레이션으로 확인하였다. 두 풍선의 겹치는 부근의 선량 분포는 풍선 중앙에서 중앙사이의 거리가 21 mm 일 때 중앙에서 20% 증가하였고, 거리가 22 mm일 때와 23 mm일 때 각각 10%와 40%의 감소를 보였다. 풍선 도자의 풍선 안에 베타입자 방출 액체 선원을 넣어 혈관내벽에 방사선 조사하는 방법은 비정거리가 짧아 혈관 내벽 부근에만 방사선을 조사시키고 그 외 중요 장기에는 영향을 덜 미치는 장점이 있다. 그러나 혈관 내벽 표면으로 부터의 거리에 따라 흡수선량이 급격히 떨어지는 분포를 이루기 때문에 두 개의 풍선이 겹치는 부근의 흡수선량은 아주 작은 접근 거리에서도 급격한 변화를 보였다. 따라서 시술 중에 겹치는 부분을 아주 적게 분할하여 정확하게 차례차례로 조사시키기 위해서는 신중한 거리 조정을 하여야 한다.

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A Study of Peripheral Doses for Physical Wedge and Dynamic Wedge (고정형쐐기(Physical Wedge)와 동적쐐기(Dynamic Wedge)의 조사야 주변 선량에 관한 연구)

  • Min, Je-Soon;Na, Kyung-Soo;Lee, Je-Hee;Park, Heung-Deuk
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.77-82
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    • 2007
  • Purpose: This study investigates peripheral dose from physical wedge and dynamic wedge system on a multileaf collimator (MLC) equipment linear accelerator. Materials and Methods: Measurments were performed using a 2D array ion chamber and solid water phantom for a 10$\times$10 cm, source-surface distance (SSD) 90 cm, 6 and 15 MV photon beam at depths of 0.5 cm, 5 cm through dmax. Measurments of peripheral dose at 0.5 cm and 5 cm depths were performed from 1 cm to 5 cm outside of fields for the dynamic wedge and physical wedge 15$^\circ$, 45$^\circ$. Dose profiles normalized to dose at the maximum depth. Results: At 6 MV photon beam, the average peripheral dose of dynamic wedge were lower by 1.4% and 0.1%. At 15 MV photon beam, the peripheral dose of dynamic wedge were lower by maximum 1.6%. Conclusion: This study showed that dynamic wedge can reduce scattered dose of clinical organ close to the field edge and reduced treatment time. The wedge systems produce significantly different peripheral dose that should be considered in properly choosing a wedge system for clinical use.

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Evaluation of Dose Distribution Using a Radiophotoluminescence Glass Dosimeter in Biobeam8000 Gamma Irradiation Device (유리선량계를 이용한 Biobeam8000 감마선 조사장치의 선량평가)

  • Shin, Sang-Hun;Lee, Sung-Hyun;Son, Ki-Hong;Lee, Hyun-Ho;Kim, Kum-Bae;Jung, Hai-Jo;Ji, Young-Hoon
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.198-205
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    • 2011
  • Gamma irradiator is widely used for cell, animal experiment, irradiation for blood, dose measurement, and education. Biobeam8000 gamma irradiator (STS Steuerungstechnik &. Strahlenschutz GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany, Cs137, 81.4 TBq) that KIRAMS (Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science) has is a irradiation device that enables to be used in large-capacity of 7.5 L and extensive area. Cs-137 source moves range of 24 cm back-and-forth in a regular cycle in beaker for uniform irradiation and a beaker that puts a specimen like existing radiation irradiator such as Gammacell3000 rotates $360^{\circ}$ during irradiation. Precise dose information according to the location of radiation source would be needed because of the movement of radiation source, whereas radiation could be uniformly irradiated in comparison with existing gamma irradiator. In this study, dose distribution of the inside beaker located in Biomeam8000 gamma irradiator was measured using glass dosimeter, and dose evaluation and distribution regarding dose linearity and dose reproducibility were implemented based on measurement results. This aims to show guideline for efficient use of irradiator based on measurement result when doing experiment or radiation exposure.

A Study on Mice Exposure Dose for Low-dose Gamma-irradiation Using Glass Dosimeter (유리선량계를 이용한 저선량 방사선의 마우스 피폭선량 연구)

  • Noh, Sung Jin;Kim, Hyo Jin;Kim, Hyun;Jeong, Dong Hyeok;Son, Tae Gen;Kim, Jung Ki;Yang, Kwangmo;Nam, Sang-Hee;Kang, Yeong-Rok
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.202-210
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    • 2015
  • The low dose radiation is done for a long period, thus researchers have to know the exact dose distribution for the irradiated mouse. This research has been conducted in order to find out methods in transmitting an exact dose to mouse in a mouse irradiation experiment carried out using $^{137}Cs$ irradiation equipment installed in the DIRAMS (Dongnam Institution of Radiological & Medical Sciences) research center. We developed a single mouse housing cage and shelf with adjustable geometric factors such as distance and angle from collimator. The measurement of irradiated dose showed a maximal 42% difference of absorbed dose from the desired dose in the conventional irradiation system, whereas only 6% difference of the absorbed dose was measured in the self-developed mouse apartment system. In addition, multi mice housing showed much difference of the absorbed dose in between head and body, compared to single mouse housing in the conventional irradiation system. This research may allow further research about biological effect assessment for the low dose irradiation using the self-developed mouse apartment to provide more exact doses which it tries to transmit, and to have more reliability for the biological analysis results.

구내 방사선 촬영에 있어서 Film과 Digital sensor에 따른 피폭선량의 차이에 대한 비교

  • Kim, Ju-Yeong
    • Korean Journal of Digital Imaging in Medicine
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.45-49
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    • 2005
  • 목적 : 기존 구내 방사선 촬영에서 사용되었던 Film에서의 노출선량과 Digital Sensor를 이용한 구내 디지털 촬영에서의 노출선량을 비교하여 현재 광범위 하게 사용 되어지고 있는 Digital Sensor가 환자의 피폭선량을 감소하는데 기여하는 정도를 알아본다. 대상 및 방법 : 치아 우식증이 없는 5개의 구치부 치아를 선택하여 석고 블럭에 매식한 후 교합면과 인접면에 우식병소들을 형성하였다. 이를 필름(Kodak Insight; IS, Kodak Co, USA)과 Digital Sensor(Kodak RVG 6000; Kodak Co, USA)에 XCP Instrument(Rinn Co, USA)를 사용하고, 전면에는 조직등가물질인 Acrylic Resin Block 20mm를 설치하였다. Acrylic Resin Block의 관구 측면 에서는 조사선량계를 부착하여 단계별로 변화시키는 노출조건에 대한 조사선량을 측정하였다. 그리고 이렇게 얻어진 영상을 3명의 방사선학 전공의와 1명 의 보존과 전공의가 평가를 하였다. 결과 : Film과 Digital Sensor를 가지고 촬영한 영상을 분석한 결과 노출선량에서도 Digital Sensor는 Film 노출선량과 비슷한 결과를 도출해 낼 수 있었다. 그러나 Digital Sensor로 촬영된 영상의 경우에는 Film 경우보다 좀더 효과적으로 조사선량을 판단 할 수 있었으며, 또한 영상 판독시 필름보다 폭 넓게 응용 할 수 있었다. 결론 : 본 연구에서는 선량 변화에만 의존하는 것이 아니라 Digital Sensor로 촬영시 영상 조절을 병행한다면 좀더 정확하고 효과적인 진단 활동에 도움이 될 수 있을 것으로 사료된다.

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