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Southeast Asia and ASEAN in 2016: Disappointing Records and Increasing Uncertainty (동남아와 아세안 2016: 기대와 혼돈 속에 커져가는 불확실성)

  • SHIN, Yoon Hwan
    • The Southeast Asian review
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.95-129
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    • 2017
  • This study surveys and reviews political change, economic performance, and regional cooperation that were carried out in 2016 by Southeast Asian countries and ASEAN. This paper reports that what has followed the inauguration of new governments in Myanmar, the Philippines, Vietnam, and Laos fails to live up to the expectation and optimism that arose in the aftermath of elections and party congresses that took place in the first half of the year. In other countries such as Malaysia, Thailand, and Cambodia, where authoritarian regimes are faced with strong oppositions, the prospects for democratic change worsened to a substantial degree, as schisms and internal strives complicated the opposition camp as a result of instigation and intervention by the authoritarian leaders and their followers. In stable political systems, both democratic and authoritarian, no significant changes that may entail serious political implications were noticed. In 2016, the national economy of almost each and every country continued its slow but steady recovery that had started in 2014 and grew by 5% on the average. For 2017 onward, however, the earlier optimism that it would grow at least as fast dimmed down as uncertainty about the world economy looms larger due to the unexpected win by Donald Trump as U.S. president and the expected 'hard landing' of the Chinese economy around 2018. ASEAN declared the launch of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) only one day before the New Year, but its track record looked already bad and unpromising by the end of 2016. ASEAN leaders were tied up by their domestic politics and affairs too tightly to take time off to work seriously to observe the schedule as laid out in the AEC Blueprint 2025. Korea's relationship with Southeast Asian countries and ASEAN was "as good as it gets" in 2016 as ever but could become subject to tough review in the near future, if the Ministry of Foreign Affairs is found out to have been implicated in the ongoing Choi Sun Sil scandal and if the opposition wins the next presidential election to be held by this year.

The Requirement and Effect of the Document of Carriage in Respect of the International Carriage of Cargo by Air (국제항공화물운송에 관한 운송증서의 요건 및 효력)

  • Lee, Kang-Bin
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.67-92
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this paper is to research the requirements and effect of the document of carriage in respect of the carriage of cargo by air under the Montreal Convention of 1999, IATA Conditions of Carriage for Cargo, and the judicial precedents of Korea and foreign countries. Under the Article 4 of Montreal Convention, in respect of the carriage of cargo, an air waybill shall be delivered. If any other means which preserves a record of the carriage are used, the carrier shall, if so requested by the consignor, deliver to the consignor a cargo receipt. Under the Article 7 of Montreal convention, the air waybill shall be made out by the consignor. If, at the request of the consignor, the carrier makes it out, the carrier shall be deemed to have done so on behalf of the consignor. The air waybill shall be made out in three original parts. The first part shall be marked "for the carrier", and shall be signed by the consignor. The second part shall be marked "for the consignee", and shall be signed by the consignor and by the carrier. The third part shall be signed by the carrier who shall hand it to the consignor after the goods have been accepted. Under the Article 5 of Montreal Convention, the air waybill or the cargo receipt shall include (a) an indication of the places of departure and destination, (b) an indication of at least one agreed stopping place, (c) an indication of the weight of the consignment. Under the Article 10 of Montreal Convention, the consignor shall indemnify the carrier against all damages suffered by the carrier or any other person to whom the carrier is liable, by reason of the irregularity, incorrectness or incompleteness of the particulars and statement furnished by the consignor or on its behalf. Under the Article 9 of Montreal Convention, non-compliance with the Article 4 to 8 of Montreal Convention shall not affect the existence of the validity of the contract, which shall be subject to the rules of Montreal Convention including those relating to limitation of liability. The air waybill is not a document of title or negotiable instrument. Under the Article 11 of Montreal Convention, the air waybill or cargo receipt is prima facie evidence of the conclusion of the contract, of the acceptance of the cargo and of the conditions of carriage. Under the Article 12 of Montreal Convention, if the carrier carries out the instructions of the consignor for the disposition of the cargo without requiring the production of the part of the air waybill or the cargo receipt, the carrier will be liable, for any damage which may be accused thereby to any person who is lawfully in possession of that part of the air waybill or the cargo receipt. According to the precedent of Korea Supreme Court sentenced on 22 July 2004, the freight forwarder as carrier was not liable for the illegal delivery of cargo to the notify party (actual importer) on the air waybill by the operator of the bonded warehouse because the freighter did not designate the boned warehouse and did not hold the position of employer to the operator of the bonded warehouse. In conclusion, as the Korea Customs Authorities will drive the e-Freight project for the carriage of cargo by air, the carrier and freight forwarder should pay attention to the requirements and legal effect of the electronic documentation of the carriage of cargo by air.

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A Study on the Problems and Resolutions of Provisions in Korean Commercial Law related to the Aircraft Operator's Liability of Compensation for Damages to the Third Party (항공기운항자의 지상 제3자 손해배상책임에 관한 상법 항공운송편 규정의 문제점 및 개선방안)

  • Kim, Ji-Hoon
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.3-54
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    • 2014
  • The Republic of Korea enacted the Air Transport Act in Commercial Law which was entered into force in November, 2011. The Air Transport Act in Korean Commercial Law was established to regulate domestic carriage by air and damages to the third party which occur within the territorial area caused by aircraft operations. There are some problems to be reformed in the Provisions of Korean Commercial Law for the aircraft operator's liability of compensation for damages to the third party caused by aircraft operation as follows. First, the aircraft operator's liability of compensation for damages needs to be improved because it is too low to compensate adequately to the third party damaged owing to the aircraft operation. Therefore, the standard of classifying per aircraft weight is required to be detailed from the current 4-tier into 10-tier and the total limited amount of liability is also in need of being increased to the maximum 7-hundred-million SDR. In addition, the limited amount of liability to the personal damage is necessary to be risen from the present 125,000 SDR to 625,000 SDR according to the recent rate of prices increase. This is the most desirable way to improve the current provisions given the ordinary insurance coverage per one aircraft accident and various specifications of recent aircraft in order to compensate the damaged appropriately. Second, the aircraft operator shall be liable without fault to damages caused by terrorism such as hijacking, attacking an aircraft and utilizing it as means of attack like the 9 11 disaster according to the present Air Transport Act in Korean Commercial Law. Some argue that it is too harsh to aircraft operators and irrational, but given they have also some legal duties of preventing terrorism and in respect of helping the third party damaged, it does not look too harsh or irrational. However, it should be amended into exempting aircraft operator's liability when the terrorism using of an aircraft by well-organized terrorists group happens like 9 11 disaster in view of balancing the interest between the aircraft operator and the third party damaged. Third, considering the large scale of the damage caused by the aircraft operation usually aircraft accident, it is likely that many people damaged can be faced with a financial crisis, and the provision of advance payment for air carrier's liability of compensation also needs to be applied to the case of aircraft operator's liability. Fourth, the aircraft operator now shall be liable to the damages which occur in land or water except air according to the current Air Transport Act of Korean Commercial Law. However, because the damages related to the aircraft operation in air caused by another aircraft operation are not different from those in land or water. Therefore, the term of 'on the surface' should be eliminated in the term of 'third parties on the surface' in order to make the damages by the aircraft operation in air caused by another aircraft operation compensable by Air Transport Act of Korean Commercial Law. It is desired that the Air Transport Act in Commercial Law including the clauses related to the aircraft operator's liability of compensation for damages to the third party be developed continually through the resolutions about its problems mentioned above for compensating the third party damaged appropriately and balancing the interest between the damaged and the aircraft operator.

Development of the National Integrated Daily Weather Index (DWI) Model to Calculate Forest Fire Danger Rating in the Spring and Fall (봄철과 가을철의 기상에 의한 전국 통합 산불발생확률 모형 개발)

  • Won, Myoungsoo;Jang, Keunchang;Yoon, Sukhee
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.348-356
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    • 2018
  • Most of fires were human-caused fires in Korea, but meteorological factors are also big contributors to fire behavior and its spread. Thus, meteorological factors as well as topographical and forest factors were considered in the fire danger rating systems. This study aims to develop an advanced national integrated daily weather index(DWI) using weather data in the spring and fall to support forest fire prevention strategy in South Korea. DWI represents the meteorological characteristics, such as humidity (relative and effective), temperature and wind speed, and we integrated nine logistic regression models of the past into one national model. One national integrated model of the spring and fall is respectively $[1+{\exp}\{-(2.706+(0.088^*T_{mean})-(0.055^*Rh)-(0.023^*Eh)-(0.014^*W_{mean}))\}^{-1}]^{-1}$, $[1+{\exp}\{-(1.099+(0.117^*T_{mean})-(0.069^*Rh)-(0.182^*W_{mean}))\}^{-1}]^{-1}$ and all weather variables significantly (p<0.01) affected the probability of forest fire occurrence in the overall regions. The accuracy of the model in the spring and fall is respectively 71.7% and 86.9%. One integrated national model showed 10% higher accuracy than nine logistic regression models when it is applied weather data with 66 random sampling in forest fire event days. These findings would be necessary for the policy makers in the Republic of Korea for the prevention of forest fires.

TRelationship between Oral Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Periodontal Disease in Middle and Older Adults According to Gender (성별에 따른 중·장년층의 구강건강행태, 만성질환과 치주질환의 연관성)

  • Hong, Min-Hee
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.19 no.11
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    • pp.403-410
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    • 2018
  • This study is to look at the risk of chronic diseases in adults and oral health behaviors affecting periodontitis by gender. This study selected 3,071 males aged 35 to 65, 4,273 females, and 7,344 people as the final subjects of the study using the sixth original data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey. In this study, subjective oral health classified under 'bad' presented 1.69 times(p<0.001) the risk of Periodontitis for males and 1.50 times(p<0.001) for females. There was a 2.01 times(p<0.001) of a risk of periodontitis for male and 1.40 times(p=0.001) of a risk for females. Smokers have a 1.68 times(p<0.001) of a risk for males and 2.07 times(p<0.001) of a risk for females, thus a higher risk for periodontitis for females. The risk of periodontitis was 1.44 times(p<0.001) of a risk for males and 1.30 times(p<0.05) for females when compared in normal hypertension. Obesity was at a rate of 1.199 times(p<0.05) as much for males in the non-military group, 1.202 times(p<0.05) that of females for periodontitis and putting females slightly more at risk. For diabetes, males were at risk of 1.28(p<0.05) whereas it being 1.53 times(p<0.05) for females, compared the average health female. In total, Males were found to be at the greatest risk of periodontitis, while women were at the highest risk for smoking. All parameters except smoking and diabetes show a higher risk of periodontitis for females. As males are more likely to have a higher risk of periodontitis than females, they are considered to be more interested in oral health care and need systematic oral health education and policies to prevent oral diseases.

Criteria of Evaluating Clothing and Web Service on Internet Shopping Mall Related to Consumer Involvement (인터넷 쇼핑몰 이용자의 소비자 관여에 따른 의류제품 및 웹 서비스 평가기준에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Kyung-Hoon;Park, Jae-Ok
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.30 no.12
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    • pp.1747-1758
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    • 2006
  • Rapid development of the information technology has influenced on the changes in every sector of human environments. One prominent change in retail market is an increase of electronic stores, which has prompted practical and research interest in the product and store attributes that include consumer to purchase products from the electronic shopping. Therefore many marketers are paying much attention to the criteria of evaluating clothing and web service on internet shopping malls. The purpose of this study is to examine differences of clothing and web service criteria of consumer groups (High-Involvement & High-Ability, Low-Involvement & High-Ability, High-Involvement & Low-Ability, and Low-Involvement & Low-Ability) who are classified into consumer involvement and internet use ability. The subjects of this study were 305 people aged between 19 and 39s, living in Seoul and Gyeonggi-do area, and having experiences in buying products on the internet shopping. Statistical analyses used for this study were the frequency, percentage, factor analysis, ANOVA and Duncan test. The results of this study were as follows: Regarded on the criteria of evaluating clothing, the low different groups had significant differences in the esthetic, the quality performance and the extrinsic criterion. Both HIHA group and HILA group showed the similar results. They considered every criterion of evaluating clothing more important, compared with other groups. Regarded on the criteria of evaluating web service related to the low different groups, there were significant differences in the factors related to the shopping mall reliance, the product, the satisfaction after purchase, and the promotion and policy criterion. Both HIHA group and HILA group showed the similar results as well. They considered every criterion of evaluating web service more important, compared with other groups. In conclusion, HI groups perceive relatively more dangerous factors which can be occurred during internet shopping. Therefore, internet shopping malls need to provide clothing that can satisfy the HI groups as well as make efforts to remove the dangerous factors on the internet.

Factors Affecting the Satisfaction for Medical Service and Reuse Intention of Patients at Dental Clinic in Gyeongnam Province (경남 일부지역 치과의원 내원 환자들의 치과 의료서비스 질 만족도와 재이용 의사에 미치는 영향 요인)

  • Seong, Mi-Gyung;Kim, Jae-Hwa;Jang, Kyeung-Ae
    • Journal of dental hygiene science
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.106-112
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    • 2015
  • This study was conducted to provide with baseline data with the purpose of increasing the values of medical services. Self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted on 236 patients at a dental clinic follow-up visit in dentist clinic Gyeongnam area from June 2013 to August 2013. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS. The motivation visiting the dental clinic is that the first one is introduction from the family and friends, the second is accessibility, the third is conspicuity and the last one is awareness of the dentist. The main variables in the process of treatment are service system, kindness, satisfaction of service, efficient of re-call system. The relief of discomfort at revisit show the highest score in the process of implant treatment and intention of revisit hereafter do in the prostheses process. In the correlation between main variables, service system and relief of discomfort at revisit (r=0.440, p<0.001), kindness and satisfaction of medical service (r=0.675, p<0.001), revisit hereafter and satisfaction of service (r=0.387, p<0.001) and efficiency of re-call system and revisit showed the highest correlation. The influence on satisfaction of dental service show meaningful level in kindness (p<0.001) and efficiency of re-call system (p<0.05). The intention of revisit is affected meaningfully by relief of uncomfort (p<0.05), service system (p<0.05), kindness (p<0.01) and efficiency of re-call system (p<0.01). In summary, the personal network of patients is most important variable at intention for revisit of dental clinic. As satisfaction of kindness and efficiency of re-call system is higher, satisfaction of medical service and intention for revisit are shown higher. Therefore further research for improvement of satisfaction for medical service and of intention of revisit at the dental clinic should be carried out.

An Article Analysis of Animation-specialized Magazine: Focusing on Animatoon magazine (애니메이션 전문 정보지의 기사 분석: 『애니메이툰』의 기사 항목과 특성에 대한 고찰)

  • Kwon, Jae-Woong
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
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    • pp.151-184
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    • 2016
  • In order to develop the animation industry, it is essential to encourage other related areas because all related industries can create synergy effects through exchanging their business. The magazine industry dealing with animation is one of them since the animation magazine plays an critical role in providing information and knowledge as well as analyzing market and industry from the practical viewpoint. But, there is only one magazine working in Korea, and it has never been researched so far even though over 20 years has passed since its first publication in 1995. It is Animatoon that is published by the company of Akom Production Co. who produced animation from the mid-1980s and Nelson Shin, the CEO of Akom, has worked as the Chief Editor. This research deals with Animatoon from the first issue till vol. 115 which was published in 2015, and tries to explore the characteristics. The result is as follows. First, Animatoon provides items to understand every article easily. Second, it provides original English articles written by foreign correspondents. Third, it provides different type of articles such as terminology explanation, production pipeline related knowledge, information about newly-released animation DVDs and so on. In addition, it is found out that Animatoon has small amount of advertisements. These characteristics shows that Animatoon helps subscribers to judge the contents of articles easier, tries to focus on the global trend, and provides basic and critical information. Therefore it can be said that Animatoon has enough features to be judged as the specialized magazine. First, Animatoon has its own specialized area, which is animation. Second, considering the type of articles, Animatoon tries to have all the parties concerned as its subscribers. Although, the amount of ads in Animatoon is small, only animation related ads are run through the whole issues.

Development Strategy for New Climate Change Scenarios based on RCP (온실가스 시나리오 RCP에 대한 새로운 기후변화 시나리오 개발 전략)

  • Baek, Hee-Jeong;Cho, ChunHo;Kwon, Won-Tae;Kim, Seong-Kyoun;Cho, Joo-Young;Kim, Yeongsin
    • Journal of Climate Change Research
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.55-68
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    • 2011
  • The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC) has identified the causes of climate change and come up with measures to address it at the global level. Its key component of the work involves developing and assessing future climate change scenarios. The IPCC Expert Meeting in September 2007 identified a new greenhouse gas concentration scenario "Representative Concentration Pathway(RCP)" and established the framework and development schedules for Climate Modeling (CM), Integrated Assessment Modeling(IAM), Impact Adaptation Vulnerability(IAV) community for the fifth IPCC Assessment Reports while 130 researchers and users took part in. The CM community at the IPCC Expert Meeting in September 2008, agreed on a new set of coordinated climate model experiments, the phase five of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project(CMIP5), which consists of more than 30 standardized experiment protocols for the shortterm and long-term time scales, in order to enhance understanding on climate change for the IPCC AR5 and to develop climate change scenarios and to address major issues raised at the IPCC AR4. Since early 2009, fourteen countries including the Korea have been carrying out CMIP5-related projects. Withe increasing interest on climate change, in 2009 the COdinated Regional Downscaling EXperiment(CORDEX) has been launched to generate regional and local level information on climate change. The National Institute of Meteorological Research(NIMR) under the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) has contributed to the IPCC AR4 by developing climate change scenarios based on IPCC SRES using ECHO-G and embarked on crafting national scenarios for climate change as well as RCP-based global ones by engaging in international projects such as CMIP5 and CORDEX. NIMR/KMA will make a contribution to drawing the IPCC AR5 and will develop national climate change scenarios reflecting geographical factors, local climate characteristics and user needs and provide them to national IAV and IAM communites to assess future regional climate impacts and take action.

A Study on Factors Affecting the Sustainability of Industry-University Cooperation: Focusing on the I-U Relationship Strength and Overcoming I-U barrier (산학협력 지속가능성에 영향을 주는 요인에 관한 연구: 산학협력관계강도와 장애의 극복을 중심으로)

  • Hong, Eun-Young;Choi, Jong-in
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.410-422
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    • 2018
  • This paper studies the factors that increase the sustainability of Industry-University cooperation in the current structure of domestic I-U cooperation, which is highly dependent on government support. First, we examine the extent to which the 'I-U Relationship Strength' can be explained by the cumulative 'Experiences of I-U cooperation' and 'Width of various I-U cooperation channels', and the 'I-U cooperation barrier' can be explained by the 'Difference in mutual recognition' and 'Institutional barriers' on sustainability. In addition, the factors that can lower the 'I-U cooperation barrier', such as the 'University administration's efforts' and 'Trust between I-U', are examined. The researchers examined the factors affecting the sustainability of I-U cooperation and the factors affecting 'I-U cooperation barriers' in the 'I-U cooperation technology development projects' of the Ministry of Small & Medium Venture Business and Startups with its long history of domestic I-U cooperation programs. In order to clarify the data of the research sample, a questionnaire survey of organizational units was conducted for all companies participating in the 'I-U cooperation technology development projects' of the Ministry of SMVB and Startups between 2011 and 2015, and the responses of 356 organizations were used. It was found that the greater the 'Width of the I-U cooperation channels', the higher the sustainability and that the greater the 'Institutional barriers', the lower the sustainability. However, through the 'University administration's efforts' and 'Trust between I-U', it is possible to overcome the 'I-U cooperation barrier'. Ultimately, the systematization of Industry-University-Research institute subjects is needed to realize sustainability. In other words, it is necessary to have a linkage program that can broaden the link between industry and universities, that is to broaden the scope of I-U cooperation. Moreover, it is necessary for the government to provide institutional support to promote desirable I-U cooperation policies. Finally, it is essential to change the universities' core organizations in order to improve the level of university administration services.