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Paragon of people circling the pagoda of Woljeongsa Temple and performance of its cultural inheritance (월정사 탑돌이의 전형과 공연문화)

  • Lee, Chang-sik
    • (The) Research of the performance art and culture
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    • no.36
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    • pp.751-781
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    • 2018
  • Task of circling the pagoda of Waljeongsa(Woljeongsa Tabdori) is the major intangible cultural heritage with representativeness and historical meaning as a Buddhism culture, one of the Buddhism folk plays, which was firstly played after the liberation. Woljeongsa Tabdori holds significant designation importance in terms of Buddhism folklore heritage with Korean unique tradition and identity of Gangwon-do province. Temples are demonstrating Tabdori nationwide but Woljeongsa Tabdori is the unique case that systematically inherits the culture based on the designation of being intangible cultural heritage. That is why it is needed to focus on the cultural and internal value of Woljeongsa Tabdori. Tabdori is the integrated symbol of Buddhism respect and worship to the Buddha and pagoda. It is hard to presume the originality of Woljeongsa Tabdori: given the history of Woljeonsa temple, it lies into Goguryeo traditional play and Bokhui(Pagoda circling folk play) in Silla era. It fits into the courtesy of Circumambulating Stupa considering Moon in Goguryo mural, background of Odaesan Hwaeom thought/tripitaka and essence of Octagonal 9-story stone pagoda. At the first stage of Tabdori, Buddhist musical instruments such as Buddhism temple bell, singing bowl, cloud-shaped gong and wooden-fish. However, later, Samhyeon Yukgak has been added and then, Boyeom and Bakpaljeongjinga were singing: it could be interpreted that it was a pure Buddhist ceremony but it has become to have traditional aspect and been spread to the public. The origin of Woljeongsa Tabdori is related to the explanation of Circumambulating Stupa that experiences the glory of the ending ceremony. When a temple has a rite, the Buddhists make an offering to the Buddha. At that time, Buddhist prayer, sermon and chant are followed. After the rite, the Buddhists are circling the pagoda with the monks while praying for Buddhist charity and making their own wishes. It prays not only going after death to Nirvana of the one but also national prosperity and the welfare of the people for peaceful reign. As the temple holds bigger rites, many Buddhists gather and the Tabdori was a success. The scene of circling the pagoda and making own wishes in line with the Buddhist sermon was solemn. The idea on changes and convergence of Woljeongsa Tabdori requires strategic inheritance to promote the transmission while maintaining the paragon and purpose of designating the cultural heritage and reviving its identity. Korean Tabdori was held in Buddha's birthday in April and the mid-autumn day. Tabdori is a memorial service type Buddhist ceremony that once the monk holds the Buddhist rosary, circles the pagoda and sings the great mind and charity of the Buddha, Buddhists follow the step, lighting the lantern, circling the pagoda and praying for the gentle and easy death. Transmission education of the successor, diversified approach of the expert's advice and discourse on the revival of the origin should be reinforced in phases.

Postmortem Changes of the Protein and Amino Acid Composition of Muscles in the Partially Frozen Prawn, Pandalus japonica (보리새우육의 부분동결저장중 단백질 및 아미노산의 조성변화)

  • PYEUN Jae-Hyeung;CHOI Young-Joon;KIM Jeung-Han;CHO Kweon-Ock
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.280-290
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    • 1984
  • An extensive study has been made on the relationship between the freshness and the compositions of the muscle protein of prawn, Pandalus japonica during the storage under partially frozen condition. The variations of the subunit distribution for sarcoplasmic protein and myofibrillar protein extracted from the samples by changes of freshness were discussed by sodium dodecylsulfate-poly-acrylamide gel (SDS-PAG) electrophoresis. On the other hand, the denaturation constant ($K_D$) of the myofibrillar protein extracted from the prawn stored at $-3^{\circ}C\;and\;-20^{\circ}C$ were successively compared. The prawn muscle contained about $18\%$ of protein with the composition of $32\%$ in sarcoplasmic protein, $56\%$ in myofibrillar protein, $10\%$ in residual intracellular protein and $2\%$ in stroma. The indices for estimating freshness of the muscle were approached to the early stage of putrefaction on the 26th day of the storage with $25.29mg\%$ of total volatile basic nitrogen, $31.36\%$ of K-value and 8.83 of pH. The content of the myofibrillar protein was remarkably decreased with the time during the storage while that of residual intracellular protein was increased. The $K_D$ values of the myofibrillar protein were $9.03{\times}10^{-6}sec^{-1}\;at\;-3^{\circ}C\;and\;4.42{\times}10^{-6}sec^{-1}\;at\;-20^{\circ}C$. The results of the analysis of SDS-PAG electrophoretograms indicated that the sarcoplasmic protein and the myofibrillar protein were composed of 12 subunits and 17 subunits in the muscle of instantaneously killed prawn ana were changed into 8 subunits and 22 subunits in the muscle stored for 26 days, respectively. It is noticeable that 30,000, 41,000, 107,000, 136,000, 170,000 173,000, 185,000, and 198,000 daltons of the newly appeared 8 subunits were found in the myofibrillar protein from the prawn muscle stored for 26 days. The amino acid composition of the muscle protein showed that the most of amino acids were slightly decreased with the days of the storage. With respect to the free amino acid composition of the muscle of instantaneously killed prawn, glycine, proline, arginine, alanine and taurine comprised $93\%$ of the total free amino acids. Taurine, valine, leucine, phenylalanine, serine, lysine, methionine, isoleucine and histidine were increased during the storage period but exceptionally proline was decreased.

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Roles and Preparation for the Future Nurse-Educators (미래 간호교육자의 역할과 이를 위한 준비)

  • Kim Susie
    • The Korean Nurse
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.39-49
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    • 1981
  • 기존 간호 영역 내 간호는 질적으로, 양적으로 급격히 팽창 확대되어 가고 있다. 많은 나라에서 건강관리체계가 부적절하게 분배되어 있으며 따라서 많은 사람들이 적절한 건강관리를 제공받지 못하고 있어 수준 높은 양질의 건강관리를 전체적으로 확대시키는 것이 시급하다. 혹 건강관리의 혜택을 받는다고 해도 이들 역시 보다 더 양질의 인간적인 간호를 요하고 있는 실정이다. 간호는 또한 간호영역 자체 내에서도 급격히 확대되어가고 있다. 예를들면, 미국같은 선진국가의 건강간호사(Nurse practitioner)는 간호전문직의 새로운 직종으로 건강관리체계에서 독자적인 실무자로 그 두각을 나타내고 있다. 의사의 심한 부족난으로 고심하는 발전도상에 있는 나라들에서는 간호원들에게 전통적인 간호기능 뿐 아니라 건강관리체계에서 보다 많은 역할을 수행하도록 기대하며 일선지방의 건강센터(Health center) 직종에 많은 간호원을 투입하고 있다. 가령 우리 한국정부에서 최근에 시도한 무의촌지역에서 졸업간호원들이 건강관리를 제공할 수 있도록 한 법적 조치는 이러한 구체적인 예라고 할 수 있다. 기존 간호영역내외의 이런 급격한 변화는 Melvin Toffler가 말한 대로 ''미래의 충격''을 초래하게 되었다. 따라서 이러한 역동적인 변화는 간호전문직에 대하여 몇가지 질문을 던져준다. 첫째, 미래사회에서 간호영역의 특성은 무엇인가? 둘째, 이러한 새로운 영역에서 요구되는 간호원을 길러내기 위해 간호교육자는 어떤 역할을 수행해야 하는가? 셋째 내일의 간호원을 양성하는 간호교육자를 준비시키기 위한 실질적이면서도 현실적인 전략은 무엇인가 등이다. 1. 미래사회에서 간호영역의 특성은 무엇인가? 미래의 간호원은 다음에 열거하는 여러가지 요인으로 인하여 지금까지의 것과는 판이한 환경에서 일하게 될 것이다. 1) 건강관리를 제공하는 과정에서 컴퓨터화되고 자동화된 기계 및 기구 등 새로운 기술을 많이 사용할 것이다. 2) 1차건강관리가 대부분 간호원에 의해 제공될 것이다. 3) 내일의 건강관리는 소비자 주축의 것이 될 것이다. 4) 간호영역내에 많은 새로운 전문분야들이 생길 것이다. 5) 미래의 건강관리체계는 사회적인 변화와 이의 요구에 더 민감한 반응을 하게 될 것이다. 6) 건강관리체계의 강조점이 의료진료에서 건강관리로 바뀔 것이다. 7) 건강관리체계에서의 간호원의 역할은 의료적인 진단과 치료계획의 기능에서 크게 탈피하여 병원내외에서 보다 더 독특한 실무형태로 발전될 것이다. 이러한 변화와 더불어 미래 간호영역에서 보다 효과적인 간호를 수행하기 위해 미래 간호원들은 지금까지의 간호원보다 더 광범위하고 깊은 교육과 훈련을 받아야 한다. 보다 발전된 기술환경에서 전인적인 접근을 하기위해 신체과학이나 의학뿐 아니라 행동과학 $\cdot$ 경영과학 등에 이르기까지 다양한 훈련을 받아야 할 필요가 있다. 또한 행동양상면에서 전문직인 답게 보다 진취적이고 표현적이며 자동적이고 응용과학적인 역할을 수행하도록 훈련을 받아야 한다. 그리하여 간호원은 효과적인 의사결정자$\cdot$문제해결자$\cdot$능숙한 실무자일 뿐 아니라 소비자의 건강요구를 예리하게 관찰하고 이 요구에 효과적인 존재를 발전시켜 나가는 연구자가 되어야 한다. 2. 미래의 간호교육자는 어떤 역할을 수행해야 하는가? 간호교육은 전문직으로서의 실무를 제공하기 위한 기초석이다. 이는 간호교육자야말로 미래사회에서 국민의 건강요구를 충족시키기는 능력있는 간호원을 공급하는 일에 전무해야 함을 시사해준다. 그러면 이러한 일을 달성하기 위해 간호교육자는 무엇을 해야 하는가? 우선 간호교육자는 두가지 측면에서 이 일을 수정해야 된다고 본다. 그 하나는 간호교육기관에서의 측면이고 다른 하나는 간호교육자 개인적인 측면엣서이다. 우선 간호교육기관에서 간호교육자는 1) 미래사회에서 요구되는 간호원을 교육시키기 위한 프로그램을 제공해야 한다. 2) 효과적인 교과과정의 발전과 수정보완을 계속적으로 진행시켜야 한다. 3) 잘된 교과과정에 따라 적절한 훈련을 철저히 시켜야 한다. 4) 간호교육자 자신이 미래의 예측된 현상을 오늘의 교육과정에 포함시킬 수 있는 자신감과 창의력을 가지고 모델이 되어야 한다. 5) 연구 및 학생들의 학습에 영향을 미치는 중요한 의사결정에 학생들을 참여시키도록 해야한다. 간호교육자 개인적인 측면에서는 교육자 자신들이 능력있고 신빙성있으며 간호의 이론$\cdot$실무$\cdot$연구면에 걸친 권위와 자동성$\cdot$독창성, 그리고 인간을 진정으로 이해하려는 자질을 갖추도록 계속 노력해야 한다. 3. 미래의 간호원을 양성하는 능력있는 간호교육자를 준비시키기 위한 실질적이면서도 현실적인 전략은 무엇인가? 내일의 도전을 충족시킬 수 있는 능력있는 간호교육자를 준비시키기 위한 실질적이고 현실적인 전략을 논함에 있어 우리나라의 실정을 참조하겠다. 전문직 간호교육자를 준비하는데 세가지 방법을 통해 할 수 있다고 생각한다. 첫째는 간호원 훈련수준을 전문직 실무를 수행할 수 있는 단계로 면허를 높이는 것이고, 둘째는 훈련수준을 더 향상시키기 위하여 학사 및 석사간호교육과정을 발전시키고 확대하는 것이며, 셋째는 현존하는 간호교육 프로그램의 질을 높이는 것이다. 첫째와 둘째방법은 정부의 관할이 직접 개입되는 방법이기 때문에 여기서는 생략하고 현존하는 교과과정을 발전시키고 그 질을 향상시키는 것에 대해서만 언급하고자 한다. 미래의 여러가지 도전에 부응할 수 있는 교육자를 준비시키는 교육과정의 발전을 두가지 면에서 추진시킬 수 있다고 본다. 첫째는 국제간의 교류를 통하여 idea 및 경험을 나눔으로서 교육과정의 질을 높일 수 있다. 서로 다른 나라의 간호교육자들이 정기적으로 모여 생각과 경험을 교환하고 연구하므로서 보다 체계적이고 효과적인 발전체인(chain)이 형성되는 것이다. ICN같은 국제적인 조직에 의해 이러한 모임을 시도하는 것인 가치있는 기회라고 생각한다. 국가간 또는 국제적인 간호교육자 훈련을 위한 교육과정의 교환은 한 나라안에서 그 idea를 확산시키는데 효과적인 영향을 미칠 수 있다. 충분한 간호교육전문가를 갖춘 간호교육기관이 새로운 교육과정을 개발하여 그렇지 못한 기관과의 연차적인 conference를 가지므로 확산시킬 수도 있으며 이런 방법은 경제적인 면에서도 효과적일 뿐만 아니라 그 나라 그 문화상황에 적합한 교과과정 개발에도 효과적일 수 있다. 간호교육자를 준비시키는 둘째전략은 현존간호교육자들이 간호이론과 실무$\cdot$연구를 통합하고 발전시키는데 있어서 당면하는 여러가지 요인-전인적인 간호에 적절한 과목을 이수하지 못하고 임상실무경험의 부족등-을 보충하는 방법이다. 이런 실제적인 문제를 잠정적으로 해결하기 위하여 1) 몇몇 대학에서 방학중에 계속교육 프로그램을 개발하여 현직 간호교육자들에게 필요하고 적절한 과목을 이수하도록 한다. 따라서 임상실무교육도 이때 실시할 수 있다. 2) 대학원과정 간호교육프로그램의 입학자의 자격에 2$\~$3년의 실무경험을 포함시키도록 한다. 결론적으로 교수와 학생간의 진정한 동반자관계는 자격을 구비한 능력있는 교수의 실천적인 모델을 통하여서 가능하게 이루어 질수 있다고 믿는 바이다.

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Removal of Red Tide Organisms -2. Flocculation of Red Tide Organisms by Using Loess- (적조생물의 구제 -2. 황토에 의한 적조생물의 응집제거-)

  • KIM Sung-Jae
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.33 no.5
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    • pp.455-462
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    • 2000
  • The objective of this study was to examine the physicochemical characteristics of coagulation reaction between loess and red tide organisms (RTO) and its feasibility, in developing a technology for the removal of RTO bloom in coastal sea. The physicochemical characteristics of loess were examined for a particle size distribution, surface characteristics by scanning electron microscope, zeta potential, and alkalinity and pH variations in sea water. Two kinds of RTO that were used in this study, Cylindrothen closterium and Skeietonema costatum, were sampled in Masan bay and were cultured in laboratory. Coagulation experiments were conducted using various concentrations of loess, RTO, and a jar tester. The supernatant and RTO culture solution were analyzed for pH, alkalinity, RTO cell number. A negative zeta potential of loess increased with increasing pH at $10^(-3)M$ NaCl solution and had -71.3 mV at pH 9.36. Loess had a positive zeta potential of +1,8 mV at pH 1.98, which resulted in a characteristic of material having an amphoteric surface charge. In NaCl and $CaCl_2$, solutions, loess had a decreasing negative zeta potential with increasing $Na^+\;and\;Ca^(+2)$ ion concentration and then didn't result in a charge reversal due to not occurring specific adsorption for $Na^+$ ion while resulted in a charge reversal due to occurring specific adsorption for $Ca^(+2)$ ion. In sea water, loess and RTO showed the similar zeta potential values of -112,1 and -9.2 mV, respectively and sea sand powder showed the highest zeta potential value of -25.7 mV in the clays. EDLs (electrical double-layers) of loess and RTO were extremely compressed due to high concentration of salts included in sea water, As a result, there didn't almost exist EDL repulsive force between loess and RTO approaching each other and then LVDW (London-yan der Waals) attractive force was always larger than EDL repulsive force to easily form a floe. Removal rates of RTO exponentially increased with increasing a loess concentration. The removal rates steeply increased until $800 mg/l$ of loess, and reached $100{\%}$ at 6,400 mg/l of loess. Removal rates of RTO exponentially increased with increasing a G-value. This indicated that mixing (i.e., collision among particles) was very important for a coagulation reaction. Loess showed the highest RTO removal rates in the clays.

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A Preliminary Study of Ecological Aspects of Food on a Kind of Gom-Tang(Beef Soup made with Internal Organs and Bone) Intake (식생태학적(食生態學的) 관점(觀點)에서 본 곰탕류(類) 섭취(攝取)에 관한 예비적연구(豫備的硏究))

  • Kwon, Sun-Ja;Adachi, Miyuki;Mo, Su-Mi;Choi, Kyung-Suk;Kim, Ju-Hye;Koh, Hee-Jung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.421-432
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    • 1991
  • This study was conducted to investigate the intake of a kind of Gom-Tang (Beef soup made with internal organs and bone), which is the Korean traditional food, and factors affecting the eating behavior of customers. Two hundred male customers of a H Korean Restaurant specialized in Gom-Tang, which is a well-known restaurant in Seoul, were surveyed from June 26 to 29, 1990. The results were shown as follows. (1) ${\ulcorner}$Frequency of intake${\lrcorner}$ and ${\ulcorner}$preference${\lrcorner}$ were very high. Those who took a kind of Gom-Tang ${\ulcorner}$more than once a week${\lrcorner}$ were 66.5% of the subjects. Those who evaluated ${\ulcorner}$good${\lrcorner}$ for the taste and flavor were 86.5% and 59.0% of the subjects, respectively. (2) The reasons why they chose a kind of Gom-Tang from among many Korean traditional foods were ${\ulcorner}$preference${\lrcorner}$ and ${\ulcorner}$phygiological condition${\lrcorner}$ in ${\ulcorner}$high frequency of intake${\lrcorner}$ group. ${\ulcorner}$Phygiological condition${\lrcorner}$ was more critical factor than ${\ulcorner}$preference${\lrcorner}$ in ${\ulcorner}$low frequency of intake${\lrcorner}$ group. (3) The effect of the intake of a kind of Gom-Tang on health was evaluated as ${\ulcorner}$healthy${\lrcorner}$ (80.5%). ${\ulcorner}$No effect${\lrcorner}$ and ${\ulcorner}$harmful${\lrcorner}$ were 30.5% and 6.5%, respectively. (4) ${\ulcorner}$High frequency of intake${\lrcorner}$ group, mainly more than 50 years of age, had a high ${\ulcorner}$preference${\lrcorner}$ and ${\ulcorner}$food knowledge${\lrcorner}$ as well as positive ${\ulcorner}$eating behavior${\lrcorner}$ and ${\ulcorner}$healthy state${\lrcorner}$, ${\ulcorner}$Middle frequency of intake${\lrcorner}$ group, mainly the forties, had a high ${\ulcorner}$preference${\lrcorner}$, but had less positive ${\ulcorner}$eating behavior${\lrcorner}$ than ${\ulcorner}$high frequency of intake${\lrcorner}$ group. ${\ulcorner}$Low frequency of intake${\lrcorner}$ group, mainly the twenties and thirties, had a medial ${\ulcorner}$preference${\lrcorner}$. They took a kind of Gom-Tang for reasons of ${\ulcorner}$on the recommendation of friends${\lrcorner}$ better than ${\ulcorner}$preference${\lrcorner}$. Foregoing results showed that ${\ulcorner}$a kind of Gom-Tang${\lrcorner}$ was a typical food recognized as ${\ulcorner}$healthy${\lrcorner}$ as well as ${\ulcorner}$delicious${\lrcorner}$. This may suggest that ${\ulcorner}$a kind of Gom-Tang${\lrcorner}$ is a candidate for the effective food on nutritional education.

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Chinese relationship between animation and best pole - Focused on the aesthetic principles of the Cultural Revolution period (중국 애니메이션과 모범극의 상관관계 연구 - 문화대혁명 시기의 미학 원칙을 중심으로)

  • Kong, De Wei
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
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    • pp.215-231
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    • 2015
  • The Cultural Revolution in the history of Chinese animation hinder the development of the initial animation, and after a negative assessment instrument provided the cause is to become sluggish growth of the Chinese animation. So this time animation are things that are the subject of academic research studies or analysis has been depreciating almost uniformly without evaluation. However, of all the cultural and artistic creation it is developing in its own specific historical conditions and has the aesthetic results. This paper puts the primary purpose is to hold in consideration the aesthetic principles that led to cultural and artistic creativity and objective perspective the achievements the Chinese animation of the time period of the Cultural Revolution. Cultural Revolution is avoided to the previous period in accordance with the socialist ideology of Mao Ze-dong(毛澤東) sikindaneun highlight the culture of the proletariat and placed our goal to create a new class culture. Therefore, cultural and artistic creation of this period is often inconsistent with this part of our aesthetic principles generally accepted character has a non- elitist and anti properties. Best drama is a creative one hand as a model to implement the principles of aesthetics, art and culture Cultural Revolution period kkophimyeo reference for understanding the aesthetic principles that animated the Chinese Cultural Revolution period of orientation. This paper has San Tu Chu(三突出), Hong Guang Liang(紅光亮), and Gao Da Quan(高大全) at the time of the Cultural Revolution aesthetic principles are reflected in how the concrete work, the Cultural Revolution when the animation is how to accommodate these aesthetic principles and placed emphasis on comparative studies on best pole and correlation of the Cultural Revolution when the Chinese animation to ensure that adaptation in own way. First, after analyzing whether the aesthetic principles of focusing on the similarities of the best pole time of the Cultural Revolution and China, and how to implement animation in the works, these aesthetic principles according to the analysis of positive and negative influence on the creation of Chinese animation It was described as neutral. The detailed analysis and comparative study courses were trying to access in two significant aspects of the characters and scenes directing. In terms of character animation of the Cultural Revolution in China when a young boy or girl, emphasis should emphasize the health tinged with red lips and cheek blush to highlight the desired Gong Nong Bing(工農兵) shape as the main character and smooth texture and sophisticated highlights the glittering feeling to the touch, it was confirmed focused hayeoteum to implement the principle of 'Hong Guang Liang', highlighting the brilliant colors with a clean, bright colors. Highlighting a number of protagoniste compared to the antagonist in the animated scene of the Cultural Revolution a few times in terms of production and, among a number of protagoniste also emphasizes the outstanding hero figure, "yet three outstanding heroes heroic figures also emphasize the leading figures among the the director of the extrusion step-by-step approach "('San Tu Chu')was used. In addition, the hero figure is generally high and low angle by directing a large and perfect aesthetic appearance was to faithfully implement the principle of 'high-charged'('Gao Da Quan').

An Intelligence Support System Research on KTX Rolling Stock Failure Using Case-based Reasoning and Text Mining (사례기반추론과 텍스트마이닝 기법을 활용한 KTX 차량고장 지능형 조치지원시스템 연구)

  • Lee, Hyung Il;Kim, Jong Woo
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.47-73
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    • 2020
  • KTX rolling stocks are a system consisting of several machines, electrical devices, and components. The maintenance of the rolling stocks requires considerable expertise and experience of maintenance workers. In the event of a rolling stock failure, the knowledge and experience of the maintainer will result in a difference in the quality of the time and work to solve the problem. So, the resulting availability of the vehicle will vary. Although problem solving is generally based on fault manuals, experienced and skilled professionals can quickly diagnose and take actions by applying personal know-how. Since this knowledge exists in a tacit form, it is difficult to pass it on completely to a successor, and there have been studies that have developed a case-based rolling stock expert system to turn it into a data-driven one. Nonetheless, research on the most commonly used KTX rolling stock on the main-line or the development of a system that extracts text meanings and searches for similar cases is still lacking. Therefore, this study proposes an intelligence supporting system that provides an action guide for emerging failures by using the know-how of these rolling stocks maintenance experts as an example of problem solving. For this purpose, the case base was constructed by collecting the rolling stocks failure data generated from 2015 to 2017, and the integrated dictionary was constructed separately through the case base to include the essential terminology and failure codes in consideration of the specialty of the railway rolling stock sector. Based on a deployed case base, a new failure was retrieved from past cases and the top three most similar failure cases were extracted to propose the actual actions of these cases as a diagnostic guide. In this study, various dimensionality reduction measures were applied to calculate similarity by taking into account the meaningful relationship of failure details in order to compensate for the limitations of the method of searching cases by keyword matching in rolling stock failure expert system studies using case-based reasoning in the precedent case-based expert system studies, and their usefulness was verified through experiments. Among the various dimensionality reduction techniques, similar cases were retrieved by applying three algorithms: Non-negative Matrix Factorization(NMF), Latent Semantic Analysis(LSA), and Doc2Vec to extract the characteristics of the failure and measure the cosine distance between the vectors. The precision, recall, and F-measure methods were used to assess the performance of the proposed actions. To compare the performance of dimensionality reduction techniques, the analysis of variance confirmed that the performance differences of the five algorithms were statistically significant, with a comparison between the algorithm that randomly extracts failure cases with identical failure codes and the algorithm that applies cosine similarity directly based on words. In addition, optimal techniques were derived for practical application by verifying differences in performance depending on the number of dimensions for dimensionality reduction. The analysis showed that the performance of the cosine similarity was higher than that of the dimension using Non-negative Matrix Factorization(NMF) and Latent Semantic Analysis(LSA) and the performance of algorithm using Doc2Vec was the highest. Furthermore, in terms of dimensionality reduction techniques, the larger the number of dimensions at the appropriate level, the better the performance was found. Through this study, we confirmed the usefulness of effective methods of extracting characteristics of data and converting unstructured data when applying case-based reasoning based on which most of the attributes are texted in the special field of KTX rolling stock. Text mining is a trend where studies are being conducted for use in many areas, but studies using such text data are still lacking in an environment where there are a number of specialized terms and limited access to data, such as the one we want to use in this study. In this regard, it is significant that the study first presented an intelligent diagnostic system that suggested action by searching for a case by applying text mining techniques to extract the characteristics of the failure to complement keyword-based case searches. It is expected that this will provide implications as basic study for developing diagnostic systems that can be used immediately on the site.

An Examination into the Illegal Trade of Cultural Properties (문화재(文化財)의 국제적 불법 거래(不法 去來)에 관한 고찰)

  • Cho, Boo-Keun
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.37
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    • pp.371-405
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    • 2004
  • International circulation of cultural assets involves numerous countries thereby making an approach based on international law essential to resolving this problem. Since the end of the $2^{nd}$ World War, as the value of cultural assets evolved from material value to moral and ethical values, with emphasis on establishing national identities, newly independent nations and former colonial states took issue with ownership of cultural assets which led to the need for international cooperation and statutory provisions for the return of cultural assets. UNESCO's 1954 "Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict" as preparatory measures for the protection of cultural assets, the 1970 "Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property" to regulate transfer of cultural assets, and the 1995 "Unidroit Convention on Stolen or Illegally Exported Cultural Objects" which required the return of illegally acquired cultural property are examples of international agreements established on illegal transfers of cultural assets. In addition, the UN agency UNESCO established the Division of Cultural Heritage to oversee cultural assets related matters, and the UN since its 1973 resolution 3187, has continued to demonstrate interest in protection of cultural assets. The resolution 3187 affirms the return of cultural assets to the country of origin, advises on preventing illegal transfers of works of art and cultural assets, advises cataloguing cultural assets within the respective countries and, conclusively, recommends becoming a member of UNESCO, composing a forum for international cooperation. Differences in defining cultural assets pose a limitation on international agreements. While the 1954 Convention states that cultural assets are not limited to movable property and includes immovable property, the 1970 Convention's objective of 'Prohibiting and preventing the illicit import, export and transfer of ownership of cultural property' effectively limits the subject to tangible movable cultural property. The 1995 Convention also has tangible movable cultural property as its subject. On this point, the two conventions demonstrate distinction from the 1954 Convention and the 1972 Convention that focuses on immovable cultural property and natural property. The disparity in defining cultural property is due to the object and purpose of the convention and does not reflect an inherent divergence. In the case of Korea, beginning with the 1866 French invasion, 36 years of Japanese colonial rule, military rule and period of economic development caused outflow of numerous cultural assets to foreign countries. Of course, it is neither possible nor necessary to have all of these cultural properties returned, but among those that have significant value in establishing cultural and historical identity or those that have been taken symbolically as a demonstration of occupational rule can cause issues in their return. In these cases, the 1954 Convention and the ratification of the first legislation must be actively considered. In the return of cultural property, if the illicit acquisition is the core issue, it is a simple matter of following the international accords, while if it rises to the level of diplomatic discussions, it will become a political issue. In that case, the country requesting the return must convince the counterpart country. Realizing a response to the earnest need for preventing illicit trading of cultural assets will require extensive national and civic societal efforts in the East Asian area to overcome its current deficiencies. The most effective way to prevent illicit trading of cultural property is rapid circulation of information between Interpol member countries, which will require development of an internet based communication system as well as more effective deployment of legislation to prevent trading of illicitly acquired cultural property, subscription to international conventions and cataloguing collections.

Anatomical Studies on Root Formation in Hypocotyl and Epicotyl Cuttings of Woody Plants (임목(林木)의 배축(胚軸) 및 유경삽수발근(幼茎揷穗発根)의 해부학적(解剖学的) 연구(研究))

  • Choi, Man Bong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.52 no.1
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    • pp.1-30
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    • 1981
  • The origin and development of adventitious roots was studied using hypocotyl and epicotyl cuttings of 34 species, 24 genus of woody plants. These cuttings obtained from young seedlings cultured in vials containing distilled water only. The several characteristics of cuttings materials studied are shown in Table 1. The results are summerized as follows: 1. The circumference shapes of cross-sections of hypocotyl and epicotyl cuttings can be divided into six categories, namely, round, irregular round, ellipse, irregular ellipse, square, and triangle. Species differences within a genus did not show any difference of hypocotyl and epicotyl cross-sections shape, however, a noticeable variation among genus or higher taxa. 2. The arrangements of vascular bundles in the cross-sections of hypocotyls or epicotyls were almost all collateral types and generally showed generic characteristics differing one to the other. However, there were some variations between species within the genus. Six models of vascular bundle arrangement were proposed for all the above speices. 3. The rooting portions of hypocotyl and epicotyl cuttings in this experimental materials can be grouped as follows: (1) Interfascicular parenchyma; (Thuja orientalis. T. orientalis for. sieboldii, Acer microsieboldianum, A. palmatum, A. saccharinum, Cercis chinensis, Lespedeza bicolor, Magnolia obovata, M. sieboldii, Mallotus japonicus, Staphylea bumalda) (2) Cambial and phloem parenchyma: (Chamaecyparis obtusa, C. pisifera, Albizzia julibrissin, Buxus microphylla var. Koreana, Cereis chinensis, Euonymus japonica, Firmiana platanifolia, Lagerstroemia indica, Ligustrum salicinum, L. obtusifolium, Magnolia kobus, M. obovata, Mallotus japonicus, Morus alba, Poncirus trifoliata, Quercus myrsinaefolia, Rosa polyantha, Styrax japonica, Styrax obassia) (3) Primary ray tissues; (Euonymus japonica, Styrax japonica) (4) Leaf traces; (Quercus acutissima, Q. aliena) (5) Cortex parenchyma; (Ailanthus altissima) (6) Callus tissues; (Castanea crenata, Quercus aliena, Q. myrsinaefolia, Q. serrata) 4. As a general tendency throughout the species studied, in hypocotyl cuttings, the adventitious root primordia were originated from the interfascicular parenchyma tissue, however, leaf traces and callus tissues were contributed to the root primordia formation in epicotyl cuttings. The hypocotyl cuttings of Ailanthus altissima exhibited a special performance in the root primordia formation, this means that cortex parenchyma was participated to the origin tissue. And in Firmiana platanifolia, differening from the other most species, the root primordia were formed at the phloem parenchyma adjacent outwardly to xylem tissue of vascular bundle system as shown photo. 48. 5. All the easy-to, or difficult-to root species developed adventitious roots in vials filled with distilled water. In the difficult-to-root species, however, root formations seemed to be delayed because they almost all had selerenchyma or phloem fiber which gave some mechanical hindrance to protrusion of root primordia. On the other hand, in the easy-to-root species they seemed to form them more easily because they did not have the said tissues. The rooting portions between easy-to-root and difficult-to-root species have not clearly been distinguished, and they have multitudinous variations. 6. The species structured with the more vascular bundles in number compared with the less vascular bundles exhibited delayed rooting. In the cuttings preparation, the proximal end of cuttings was closer to root-to-stem transition region, the adventitious root formation showed easier. 7. A different case occured however with the mature stem cuttings, in both the needle-leaved and the broad-leaved species. In the hypocotyl cuttings, parenchymatous tissues sited near the vascular bundles become the most frequent root forming portions in general and relevant distinctions between both species were hardly recognizable. 8. In the epicotyl cuttings, root primordia originated mainly in leaf traces in connection with cambial and phloems or callus tissues itself. In the hypocotyl cuttings, interfascicular parenchyma was the most frequent portion of the root primordia formation. The portions of root primordia had more connection with vascular cambium system, as the tissues were continuing to be developed.

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