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A Design and Implementation of a Content_Based Image Retrieval System using Color Space and Keywords (칼라공간과 키워드를 이용한 내용기반 화상검색 시스템 설계 및 구현)

  • Kim, Cheol-Ueon;Choi, Ki-Ho
    • The Transactions of the Korea Information Processing Society
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    • v.4 no.6
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    • pp.1418-1432
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    • 1997
  • Most general content_based image retrieval techniques use color and texture as retrieval indices. In color techniques, color histogram and color pair based color retrieval techniques suffer from a lack of spatial information and text. And This paper describes the design and implementation of content_based image retrieval system using color space and keywords. The preprocessor for image retrieval has used the coordinate system of the existing HSI(Hue, Saturation, Intensity) and preformed to split One image into chromatic region and achromatic region respectively, It is necessary to normalize the size of image for 200*N or N*200 and to convert true colors into 256 color. Two color histograms for background and object are used in order to decide on color selection in the color space. Spatial information is obtained using a maximum entropy discretization. It is possible to choose the class, color, shape, location and size of image by using keyword. An input color is limited by 15 kinds keyword of chromatic and achromatic colors of the Korea Industrial Standards. Image retrieval method is used as the key of retrieval properties in the similarity. The weight values of color space ${\alpha}(%)and\;keyword\;{\beta}(%)$ can be chosen by the user in inputting the query words, controlling the values according to the properties of image_contents. The result of retrieval in the test using extracted feature such as color space and keyword to the query image are lower that those of weight value. In the case of weight value, the average of te measuring parameters shows approximate Precision(0.858), Recall(0.936), RT(1), MT(0). The above results have proved higher retrieval effects than the content_based image retrieval by using color space of keywords.

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Studies on the Production of Alcohol from Woods (목재(木材)를 이용(利用)한 Alcohol 생산(生産)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Cheong, Jin Cheol
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.59 no.1
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    • pp.67-91
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    • 1983
  • In order to examine the alcohol production from softwoods (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc., Pinus rigida Miller, Larix leptolepis Gordon) and hardwoods (Alnus japonica Steud., Castanea crenata Sieb. et Zucc. Populus euramericana CV 214), chemical compositions were analyzed and conditions of acid hydrolysis with wood meals were established. Also strains which could remarkably decompose the cellulose were identified, and conditions of cellulase production of strains, characteristics of cellulase, and alcohol fermentation were examined. The results were summarized as follows. 1) In acid hydrolysis of wood, the high yield of reducing sugars was shown from 1.0% to 2.0% of hydrochloric acid and 2.0% of sulfuric acid. The highest yield was produced 23.4% at wood meals of Alnus japonica treated with 1.0% of hydrochloric acid. 2) The effect of raising the hydrolysis was good at $1.5kg/cm^2$, 30 times (acid/wood meal), and 45 min in treating hydrochloric acid and 30 min in treating sulfuric acid. 3) The pretreatments with concentrated sulfuric acid were more effective concentration ranged from 50% to 60% than that with hydrochloric acid and its concentration ranged from 50% to 60%. 4) The quantative analysis of sugar composition of acid hydrolysates revealed that glucose and arabinose were assayed 137.78mg and 68.24mg with Pinus densiflora, and 102.22mg and 65.89mg with Alnus janonica, respectively. Also xylose and galactose were derived. 5) The two strains of yeast which showed remarkably high alcohol productivity were Saccharomyces cerevisiae JAFM 101 and Sacch. cerevisiae var. ellipsoldeus JAFM 125. 6) The production of alcohol and the growth of yeasts were effective with the neutralization of acid hydrolysates by $CaCO_3$ and NaOH. Production of alcohol was excellent in being fermented between pH 4.5-5.5 at $30^{\circ}C$ and growth of yeasts between pH 5.0-6.0 at $24^{\circ}C$. 7) The production of alcohol was effective with the addition of 0.02% $(NH_2)_2CO$ and $(NH_4)_2SO_4$, 0.1% $KH_2PO_4$, 0.05% $MgSO_4$, 0.025% $CaCl_2$, 0.02% $MnCl_2$. Growth of yeasts was effective with 0.04-0.06% $(NH_2)_2CO$ and $(NH_4)_2SO_4$, 0.2% $K_2HPO_4$ and $K_3PO_4$, 0.05% $MgSO_4$, 0.025% $CaCl_2$, and 0.002% NaCl. 8) Among various vitamins, the production of alcohol was effective with the addition to pyridoxine and riboflavin, and the growth of yeasts with the addition to thiamin, Ca-pantothenate, and biotin. The production of aocohol was increased in 0.1% concentration of tannin and furfural, but mas decreased in above concentration. 9) In 100ml of fermented solution, alcohol and yeast were produced 2.201-2.275ml and 84-114mg for wood meals of Pinus densiflora, and 2.075-2.125ml and 104-128mg for that of Alnus japonica. Residual sugars were 0.55-0.60g and 0.60-0.65g for wood meals of Pinus densiflora and Alnus japonica, respectively, and pH varied from 3.3 to 3.6. 10) A strain of Trichoderma viride JJK. 107 was selected and identified as its having the highest activity of decomposing cellulose. 11) The highest cellulase production was good when CMCase incubated for 5 days at pH 6.0, $30^{\circ}C$ and xylanase at pH 5.0, $35^{\circ}C$. The optimum conditions of cellulase activity were proper in case of CMCase at pH 4.5, $50^{\circ}C$ and xylanase at pH 4.5, $40^{\circ}C$. 12) In fermentation with enzymatic hydrolysates, the peracetic acid treatment for delignification showed the best yields of alcohol and its ratio was effective with the addition of about 10 times. 13) The production of alcohol was excellent when wood meals and Koji of wheat bran was mixed with 10 to 8 and the 10g of wood meals of Pinus densiflora produced 2.01-2.14ml of alcohol and Alnus japonica 2.11-2.20ml.

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