• Title, Summary, Keyword: 전이계수

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Annual Transfer of $^{90}Sr$ to Rice from Paddy Soils Collected around Yonggwang and Ulchin Nuclear Power Plants (영광 및 울진 원전 주변 논 토양으로부터 벼로의 년차별 $^{90}Sr$ 전이)

  • Lim, Kwang-Muk;Choi, Yong-Ho;Park, Hyo-Guk;Kang, Hee-Suk;Choi, Heui-Joo;Lee, Han-Soo
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.271-279
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    • 2003
  • Soil blocks were taken into culture boxes from 12 paddy fields within 5 km radii of Yonggwang and Ulchin NPPs and $^{90}Sr$ was applied to the surface water at a pre-transplanting stage and $1{\sim}2$ days before the start of heading. Following the pre-transplanting application, transfer factors were investigated for $2{\sim}4$ years. In the year of application, transfer factors $(m^2\;kg^{-1}-dry)\;of\;^{90}Sr$ applied before transplanting, showing no regionally distinguishable trend, varied with soils by a factor of about 2 with averages of $2.6{\times}10^{-4}$ for hulled seeds and $1.3{\times}10^{-2}$ for straw Transfer factors of $^{90}Sr$ applied shortly before heading were about 2 times greater than those applied before transplanting. Transfer factors tended to decrease with increasing soil pH and exchangeable Ca. Generic values of $^{90}Sr$ transfer factors in the year of deposition were proposed for the Korean paddy fields. In the second year compared with the first year, the transfer factor decreased more in Ulchin soils, which were on the whole higher in sand content, than in Yonggwang soils. For Yonggwang soils as a whole, the annual decrease in transfer factor was well described by an exponential equation with a half-life of about 2.2 years.

A Improvement Method of the Speech Quality by Pitch Compensation in Transition Region in G.723.1 (전이구간에서의 피치보상에 의한 G.723.1 부호화기의 음질 향상 방법)

  • KIM JongKuk;BAE MyungJin
    • Proceedings of the Acoustical Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.43-46
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    • 2000
  • G.723.1 부호화기는 음성신호의 주기성을 피치와 피치 이득계수로, 스펙트럼 정보를 LSP(Line Spectrum Pair)로 부호화하고 있다. 그런데 주기성을 부호화 할 때 유성음의 피치가 일정한 안정구간과 피치가 변화하는 전이구간의 차이를 두지 않고 처리하여 전이구간에서의 정확한 피치검출이 이루어지지 않는다. 이러한 처리 때문에 전이구간에서의 음질의 열하가 발생하게 된다. 본 논문에서는 전이구간의 피치검출의 정확성을 높여 음질을 향상시킬 수 있는 새로운 알고리즘을 제안한다. 먼저 G.723.1 부호화기에서 검출되는 피치 이득계수를 이용하여 안정구간의 피치 이득계수의 문턱 값을 정한다. 그리고 피치 이득 계수가 문턱 값을 넘는 부분에 한하여 구해진 피치를 전후 10샘플을 조절하여 피치 이득계수를 다시 구하여 문턱 값에 가장 가까운 값을 대표피치 이득계수로 정하고 그때의 피치와 함께 부호화한다. 실험 결과 평균 0.6(dB) segmental SNR(Signal to Noise)과 평균0.12 MOS가 향상되었다.

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Soil-to-Plant Transfer Coefficients of Mn-54, Co-6O, Zn-65 and Cs-137 for Rice, Soybean and Vegetalbles (벼, 콩 및 채소류에 대한 Mn-54, Co-60, Zn-65, Cs-137의 토양-작물체간 전이계수)

  • Choi, Yong-Ho;Kim, Kug-Chan;Lee, Chang-Woo;Lee, Kang-Suk;Lee, Jeong-Ho;Pak, Chan-Kirl;Cho, Yong-Woo
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.55-65
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    • 1991
  • Soil-to-plant transfer coefficients of Mn-54, Co-60, Zn-65, and Cs-137 were estimated for the edible parts of the rice, soybean, lettuce, carrot, and squash grown in different soils by radiotracer uptake experiments using pot cultures. The transfer coefficients of radionuclides were in the order of Zn-65 > Mn-54 > Cs-137 > Co-60 in most of the cases studied. The coefficients for soybean were roughly an order of magnitude higher than those for rice. Among vegetables, lettuce mostly showed the highest value and squash, the lowest. In the strongly acidic soils, transfer coefficients were much higher than in the moderately acidic soils. From the data obtained. crop-specific transfer coefficients of the four nuclides were proposed for the use in Korean food-chain radiation dose assessment.

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Sr-90 Uptake by the Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. emend. Lamark) and Soil-to-Plant Transfer Coefficient (보리의 토양 Sr-90 흡수 및 토양 - 작물체 전이계수)

  • Choi, Yong-Ho;Chung, Kyu-Hoi;Chun, Ki-Jung;Kim, Sam-Rang;Lee, Jeong-Ho
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.33-42
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    • 1991
  • A pot experiment on the Sr-90 uptake by the barley from a loamy-sandy soil of pH 6.05 treated with Sr-90 and slaked lime was carried out in a green house. The rate of Sr-90 uptake at maturity was, on an average, 0.41% for a naked barley Neolssalbori and 0.23% for a covered one Olbori. Transfer coefficients of Sr-90 for the former were higher than those for the latter by about 30-60% depending on the plant parts. There were, on the whole, not significant differences in the rate and in the coefficient among Sr-90 concentration treatments. Slaked lime addition equivalent to about 94kg/10a was not effective for lessening Sr-90 uptake or diminishing Sr-90 transfer coefficient. As transfer coefficients, 1.51, 4.45, 0.35, and 1.30, on the dry weight basis, could be proposed for the stem, leaf, seed, and whole top of the barley, respectively. Growth inhibition or yield decrease due to Sr-90 uptake was not observed.

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Variations in Soil-to-Red Pepper Transfer Factors of Radionuclides with Time of Their Application and Fruit Harvest (고추 재배시 방사성 핵종 처리 및 열매수확 시기에 따른 토양-작물체간 전이계수의 변이)

  • Choi, Yong-Ho;Lee, Won-Yun;Lim, Kwang-Muk;Park, Doo-Won;Lee, Myung-Ho;Lee, Chang-Woo;Lee, Hyun-Duk;Lee, Jeong-Ho
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.171-181
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    • 1997
  • A mixed solution of $^{54}Mn$, $^{60}Co$, $^{85}Sr$ and $^{137}Cs$ was applied to the soil of culture boxes in a greenhouse 2 days before transplanting red pepper and at 3 different times during its growth for investigating transfer factors ($m^2/kg-dry$) for its green and red fruits. Transfer factors varied with radionuclide, application time and harvest time by factors of about $20{\sim}100$. They decreased mostly in the order of $^{85}Sr>^{54}Min>^{60}Co>^{137}Cs$ while $^{54}Mn$ and $^{60}Co$ was higher than $^{85}Sr$ when time lapse between application and harvest was short. Transfer factors of $^{85}Sr$ and $^{137}Cs$ at the last application were lower than those at the previous one by factors of $3{\sim}20$ depending on harvest time. Variations in $^{54}Mn$ and $^{60}Co$ transfer factors with application time after transplanting were comparatively low. Transfer factors of $^{54}Mn$, $^{60}Co$ and $^{85}Sr$ mixed with topsoil before transplanting were up to $3{\sim}9$ times higher than those for the application onto soil surface 2 days after transplanting while there was no difference in $^{137}Cs$. The present results can be referred to in estimating root-uptake concentrations of the radionuclides in red pepper fruit and taking proper measures for its harvest and consumption at the event of an accidental release during the growing season of red pepper.

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Soil-to-Plant Transfer Factors and Migration of Radionuclides Applied onto Soli during Growing Season of Cucumber (오이의 재배기간중 처리한 방사성 핵종의 토양;작물체간 전이계수 및 지하이동)

  • Choi, Yong-Ho;Park, Hyo-Kook;Kim, Sang-Bog;Choi, Geun-Sik;Lee, Jeong-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.304-310
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    • 1997
  • In greenhouse, a mixed solution of Mn-54, Co-60, Sr-85 and Cs-137 was applied to the soil of culture boxes 2 days before sowing cucumber and at 4 different times during its growth for measuring their transfer factors (TFs) for fruit and migration in soil. TFs varied with radionuclide, application time and harvest time by factor of up to about 60. Variations in TFs with application time showed different patterns among radionuclides. TFs decreased on the whole in the order of Sr-85 > Mn-54 > Co-60 > Cs-137. TFs of Mn-54, Co-60 and Cs-137 mixed with topsoil before sowing were a little higher than those for the soil-surface application made at an early growth stage while no difference in Sr-85 TF was found. After harvest, soil concentrations of the radionuclides applied at an early growth stage were examined. They decreased with increasing soil depth and 80${\sim}$99% of the radioactivity remained in the top 3cm. Soil pemeation of the radionuclides migration decreased in the order of Sr-85 > Mn-54 > Co-60 > Cs-137. The present data can be utilized in estimating radionuclide concentration in cucumber fruit, taking proper measures for its harvest and consumption and designing the best way of soil decontamination following an radioactive deposition during the cucummber growing season.

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