• Title, Summary, Keyword: 전신개인선량계

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Assessment of Occupational Dose to the Staff of Interventional Radiology Using Monte Carlo Simulations (몬테카를로 방법을 이용한 중재방사선시술자에 대한 선량평가)

  • Lim, Young-Khi
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.213-217
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    • 2014
  • Medical operations and diagnosis using interventional radiology techniques have been increased. The management and monitoring of occupational radiation exposure to the staff of interventional radiology become important, specially because they stand in close proximity to the patient. The operational radiation protection quantity, Hp(10) which can be obtained from personal dosimeter do not always represent the effective dose to the staff. So, in this study, to estimate the critical organ doses to the staff of interventional radiology, Monte Carlo calculations with mathematical human phantom and dose measurements with personal dosimeters were carried out for the major interventional radiology procedures using C-arm. Results showed that the values of Hp(10) measured by personal dosimeters were higher than critical organ doses which were calculated. And the calculated dose to thyroids was much higher than those of other critical organ doses. For the proper radiation protection of the medical staff of interventional radiology, additional radiation protection for thyroids as well as for whole body shielding like wearing a lead apron should be considered.

Personnel Dosimetry Performance Test (개인방사선 피폭선량판독 성능시험)

  • Na, Seong-Ho;Han, Seung-Jae;Lee, Dew-Hey;Cho, Dae-Hyung
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.131-138
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    • 1996
  • This paper describes the methods and results of the personnel dosimetry performance tests which were been implemented for the first time in Korea in 1995. Seven categories, except the neutron category prescribed in the ANSI N13.11-1993, were adopted in the test. Fifteen types of dosimeters were participated by fourteen dosimeter processing institutes. A total of 129 dosimeters were selected to test-each type - 15 dosimeters for each of the seven categories and 24 for the controls. A total of 144 radiation categories were employed in the test and a total of 2560 (including 400 controls)dosimeters were submitted-7 categories for each type of the fifteen types dosimeters and 39 categories for the retest. The performance index in each category. sum of the absolute value of the bias and the standard deviation value of the performance quotient. was estimated by the use of delivered and processed dose equivalents according to the standard procedure. The performance in a given category was assessed as acceptable, for the deep and shallow dose equivalents (or the absorbed dose), if the performance index was less than 0.5. The test results showed 54% of the processors passed in the first test, 33% in the retest and 13% in the second retest.

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Effective Half-life of I-131 in Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Treated by Radioactive I-131 (I-131 치료를 받은 분화갑상선암 환자에서 I-131의 유효반감기)

  • Park, Seok-Gun
    • Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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    • v.42 no.6
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    • pp.464-468
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: Effective half life of I-131 ($T_{eff}$) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer treated by I-131 is must-know value for dose calculation and determination of release time from isolation room. There has been no report about $T_{eff}$ in Koreans. Thus, author tried to measure dose rate without radiation exposure to faculty members and calculated $T_{eff}$. Methods: Probe of radiation survey meter was fixed at the wall of isolation room, and body of survey meter was placed outside the room. With this simple arrangement, author could measure radiation frequently without radiation exposure to faculty members in 68 patient (F=55, M=13, age=$47{\pm}13.7$) treated by I-131 ($3.7{\sim}7.4\;GBq$) for differentiated thyroid cancer from Jan 2006 to Dec 2006. From this data, $T_{eff}$, 48 hr retention rate, and the time necessary to whole body retention of I-131 become less than 1.1 GBq were calculated. Serum creatinine levels were measured before and after thyroid hormone withdrawal. Results: $T_{eff}$ was $15.4{\pm}4.3\;hr$ ($9.4{\sim}32.5\;hr$). There was a loose correlation between $T_{eff}$ and serum creatinine concentration (r=0.45). 48hr retention was $4.9{\pm}4.2%$ ($1{\sim}23%$). Time necessary to whole body retention of I-131 become less than 1.1 GBq was calculated as $47.1{\pm}13.2\;hr$ for 9.25 GBq, $42.1{\pm}11.9\;hr$ for 7.4 GBq, $35.7{\pm}10.0\;hr$ for 5.55 GBq, and $26.7{\pm}7.5\;hr$ for 3.7 GBq dose of I-131. Conclusion: Author successfully measured radiation dose rates in isolated patients treated by high dose of I-131 without radiation exposure to the faculty members with simple arrangement of survey meter probe. Using those data, $T_{eff}$ and some other indices were calculated.

Review of the Radiation Risk and Clinical Efficacy Associated with Computed Tomography Cancer Screening (암의 조기발견을 위한 CT촬영에서의 임상적 효능과 방사선위해에 대한 고찰)

  • Kim, Hyun Ja
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.214-227
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    • 2013
  • Computed tomographic scan as a screening procedures in asymptomatic individuals has seen a steady increase with the introduction of multiple-raw detector CT scanners. This report provides a brief review of the current controversy surrounding CT cancer screening, with a focus on the radiation induced cancer risks and clinical efficacy. 1. A large study of patients at high risk of lung cancer(the National Lung Screening Trial[NLST]) showed that CT screening reduced cancer deaths by 20%(1.33% in those screened compared with 1.67% in those not screened). The rate of positive screening tests was 24.2% and 96.4% of the positive screening results in the low-dose CT group were false-positive. Radiation induced lung cancer risk was estimated the most important in screening population because ERR of radiation induced lung cancer does not show the decrease with increasing age and synergistic connection between smoking and radiation risk. Therefore, the radiation risk may be on the same order of magnitude as the benefit observed in the NLST. Optimal screening strategy remain uncertain, CT lung cancer screening is not yet ready for implementation. 2. Computed tomographic colonography is as good as colonoscopy for detecting colon cancer and is almost as good as colonoscopy for detecting advanced adenomas, but significantly less sensitive and specific for smaller lesions and disadvantageous for subsequent therapeutic optical colonoscopy if polyps are detected. The average effective dose from CT colonography was estimated 8-10 $mS{\nu}$, which could be a significant dose if administered routinely within the population over many years. CT colonography should a) achieve at least 90% sensitivity and specificity in the size category from 6 and 10 mm, b) offer non-cathartic bowl preparation and c) be optimized and standardized CT parameters if it is to be used for mass screening. 3. There is little evidence that demonstrates, for whole-body scanning, the benefit outweighs the detriment. This test found large portion of patient(86~90.8%) had at least one abnormal finding, whereas only 2% were estimated to have clinically significant disease. Annual scans from ages 45 to 75 years would accrue an estimated lifetime cancer mortality risk of 1.9%. There is no group within the medical community that recommends whole-body CT. No good studies indicate the accuracy of screening CT, at this time. The benefit/risk balance for any of the commonly suggested CT screening techniques has yet to be established. These areas need further research. Therefore wild screening should be avoided.