• Title/Summary/Keyword: 적산기준

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Comparative Studies of Standard of Estimated Unit Manpower and Material of Landscape Architecture Construction in Korea and Japan (조경공사 표준품셈의 한·일간 비교 연구)

  • Yun, Ju-Cheul;Lee, Kwan-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.154-158
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    • 2011
  • This research was carried out to compare the standard of estimated unit power and material in landscape architecture construction between Korea and Japan. It has also been done to offer a practical and reasonable information to Korea landscape architecture industry. The research results are as follows. First, both Korea and Japan's standard of estimated unit power and material in landscape architecture construction are part of civil construction. Second, Korea's detailed type of construction is centered on plant's type and size while Japan's centered on architectural construction. Third, Korea's standard of estimated unit power and material are composed of workforce construction, mechanical construction and addition of soil. On the other hand, Japan's estimated unit power and material are composed of workforce construction, time of transportation, date of transportation. Fourth, the planting specification of Korea seems to be more in detail than that of Japan, Japan's showing a wider implication. Fifth, when comparing the information regarding standard of estimated unit power and material between Japan and Korea, transportation, independent stalking for plant, soil for landscape architecture is difference between the two countries. On the base of this research results, Korea's standard of estimated unit power and material in planning construction should be more elastic in its implication and independent standard of estimated unit power and material in landscape architecture construction. Also, examination of transportation, independent skating for plant and soil for landscape architecture should be done in order for better improvements.

A Studies of Amendment a Standard of Estimated Unit Manpower and Material of Landscape Architectural Construction Work Classification (조경공사 표준품셈 공종 개정에 관한 연구)

  • Yun, Ju-Cheul;Lee, Kwan-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.39 no.5
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    • pp.119-126
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    • 2011
  • The standard unit manpower and material in landscape architectural construction was consist of a standard and universal work classification. However, these constructional methods have created a number of problems in utilizing and responding on a variety of recently-developed working methods such as new constructional skills and technologies. This research decided that presenting the amendments of work classification of a standard unit manpower and material in landscape architectural construction was very important, and investigated those work classifications which required these new amendments. First of all, assessment items were selected through the literature reviews and a preliminary survey. Then, these assessment items were surveyed to the total of 60 professional landscape architecture field. The results of this study were as follows; First, the utilization level of the a standard unit manpower and material in landscape architectural construction was highest in the area of work classification of planting unit manpower and material. Second, the work classifications that needed to be added were recognized as leveling the ground construction, landscape structure construction, paving construction, water facilities construction, and outdoor facilities construction. Third, in the field of the a standard unit manpower and material in landscape architectural construction, 66.7% of the respondents replied that some amendments were necessary, and those amendments needed work classifications were identified as work classification of planting unit manpower and material was gigantic plant, topiary tree, temporary planting, exchange dead tree, etc. In the area of digging out was gigantic plant and plastic tree were recognized. The survey respondents also answered that, in keeping and management work classifications some amendments in pruning waste were necessary, and in the fields of rubble masonry work classifications some improvements were required in rubble aperture planting unit manpower and material and sodding and herbaceous sowing was a realistic lawn size unit manpower and material was needed. Based on the results explained above, this study suggests that amendments for a standard unit manpower and material in landscape architectural construction are necessary, especially in the areas of planting size and quality of work classifications unit manpower and material and in the unit manpower and material that affects the quality of lands caping constructions.

The Fact-finding and Analysis of the Environmental Management Cost in Construction Projects (건설공사의 환경관리비용 계상 및 운용 실태 분석)

  • Choi, Min-Soo;Kang, Woon-San
    • Korean Journal of Construction Engineering and Management
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    • v.6 no.5 s.27
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    • pp.186-192
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study is to find the reality of environmental management cost in construction projects and to suggest some policies in order that owners appropriate the environmental management cost reasonably in the construction budget for reducing the environmental pollution at job sites. We surveyed the actual state of appropriating and expending the environmental management cost over 122 construction sites. According to the results of the survey, while the appropriated rate of the environmental management cost was 0.59% of the total construction cost. the expended rate reached at 0.94%. When examining the antipollution facilities which were operated in job sites, the investment for equipment against air-pollution such as tire washer, dust-proof device was relatively higher than other antipollution equipment. As the method appropriating the environmental management cost, we concluded that a quantity-per-unit costing method is more reasonable than appropriating at a fixed rate of total construction cost considering that there is little correlation between total construction cost and the environmental management cost. To do so, antipollution facilities that must be examined at a design or estimation stage of a construction project should be prescribed by the law. Moreover, referenced cost data for the quantity-per-unit costing should be prepared and officially published.

Quantification of Temperature Effects on Flowering Date Determination in Niitaka Pear (신고 배의 개화기 결정에 미치는 온도영향의 정량화)

  • Kim, Soo-Ock;Kim, Jin-Hee;Chung, U-Ran;Kim, Seung-Heui;Park, Gun-Hwan;Yun, Jin-I.
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.61-71
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    • 2009
  • Most deciduous trees in temperate zone are dormant during the winter to overcome cold and dry environment. Dormancy of deciduous fruit trees is usually separated into a period of rest by physiological conditions and a period of quiescence by unfavorable environmental conditions. Inconsistent and fewer budburst in pear orchards has been reported recently in South Korea and Japan and the insufficient chilling due to warmer winters is suspected to play a role. An accurate prediction of the flowering time under the climate change scenarios may be critical to the planning of adaptation strategy for the pear industry in the future. However, existing methods for the prediction of budburst depend on the spring temperature, neglecting potential effects of warmer winters on the rest release and subsequent budburst. We adapted a dormancy clock model which uses daily temperature data to calculate the thermal time for simulating winter phenology of deciduous trees and tested the feasibility of this model in predicting budburst and flowering of Niitaka pear, one of the favorite cultivars in Korea. In order to derive the model parameter values suitable for Niitaka, the mean time for the rest release was estimated by observing budburst of field collected twigs in a controlled environment. The thermal time (in chill-days) was calculated and accumulated by a predefined temperature range from fall harvest until the chilling requirement (maximum accumulated chill-days in a negative number) is met. The chilling requirement is then offset by anti-chill days (in positive numbers) until the accumulated chill-days become null, which is assumed to be the budburst date. Calculations were repeated with arbitrary threshold temperatures from $4^{\circ}C$ to $10^{\circ}C$ (at an interval of 0.1), and a set of threshold temperature and chilling requirement was selected when the estimated budburst date coincides with the field observation. A heating requirement (in accumulation of anti-chill days since budburst) for flowering was also determined from an experiment based on historical observations. The dormancy clock model optimized with the selected parameter values was used to predict flowering of Niitaka pear grown in Suwon for the recent 9 years. The predicted dates for full bloom were within the range of the observed dates with 1.9 days of root mean square error.