• Title, Summary, Keyword: 자본집약도

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A Study on Characteristics of Green Companies and Environment Rule Violation Companies (ISO14001인증 녹색기업과 환경위반 기업의 특성 연구)

  • Kim, In-Su;Chung, Bhum-Suk
    • Management & Information Systems Review
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.157-174
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    • 2013
  • In this research I investigate different firm characteristics between environment-friendly companies which are awarded by the Government and companies which violate environmental regulations. I set up three hypotheses in terms of managers' environmental attitude and firms' characteristic in technical, financial and structural aspects, considering environmental experts' opinions and findings of previous papers. Main research findings are as follows. First, both acquisition of the ISO 14001 certificate and ownership structure are used as proxy of top management attitude towards environmental decision-making. It is hypothesized that it is found that the certificates of ISO 14001 is a good proxy to represent top management environmental attitude and a firm with the certificate would have less likelihood of violation. Second, it is hypothesized that technical ability affects violation tendency of environmental regulations. It is found that as R&D investment increases, violation likelihood of environmetal regulations decrease. It can be conjectured that R&D investment may improve technical abilities of observing environment regulations. Third, it is investigated whether a firm's financial capability affects violation tendency of environmental regulations. Fourth structural aspects of a firm such as capital intensity, the number of employees and export ratio are investigated. It is found that a firm with more employees per sale amount tends to violate environmental regulations. It is not found any effects of expert ratio nor capital intensity on violation tendency of environmental regulation.

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Institutional Approach to Innovation: the Knowledge Spillovers in Regional Innovation System and Innovative Cluster - Review and New Issue of Antecedent Research - (혁신의 제도적 접근: 지역혁신체제와 혁신클러스터의 지식파급효과 -선행연구의 검토와 새로운 쟁점-)

  • Bae, Eong Hwan
    • Journal of the Economic Geographical Society of Korea
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.115-135
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    • 2015
  • In the glocalization a common phenomenon of several nations reveals knowledge innovation and growth by the important subject of region and state and is studied at theory and practice. the successful cases of regional development in an advanced country have leading innovation through regional innovation system and cluster. therefore we are necessary to analyse how the knowledge spillovers in innovative cluster as the reduced model of regional innovation system guide firm innovation and region growth. this article reviews theories and empirical studies of the knowledge spillovers in the regional innovation system and innovative cluster of innovative geography and proposes a new research issues for further explorations of the knowledge spillovers. Previous studies assist that knowledge spillovers exist in knowledge-based industries of specific local area and local innovation accomplishes through pure knowledge spillover. but limits of these studies include narrow region and technological area, few analytical variable and exclusion of rent knowledge spillover. therefore new research topics related with that exemplifies geographical dimension(concentration and decentralization), technological dimension(knowledge based industry), category of analytic variables(previous indicators, time, and social capital), conceptualization(appropriation means, markets for technology) etc.

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Chronotope and Feeling: Gangnam Blues (시공간과 감정- 『강남1970』)

  • Kim, Miehyeon
    • Cross-Cultural Studies
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    • v.53
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    • pp.193-218
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    • 2018
  • In this essay, I examine the interactions of chronotopes in the narrative of Gangnam Blues, a film written and directed by Yu Ha and released in 2015. Bakhtin's chronotope, the connectedness of temporal and spatial relationships in literary narratives, provides the background for the representability of events and becomes the organizing center for the events. Each chronotope offers a different way of acting, interacting and understanding experience, and chronotopes can interact with each other in a single text or between the reader and the represented world. Gangnam Blues is a gangster movie, first of all, showing an individual's illusion of an unlimited possibility for achieving wealth and power. At the same time, the film describes the government's project to transform Gangam, a rural area in the south of the Han, into a new downtown and residential area for Seoul. As the world in the narrative and the world of the author or the reader are all chronotopic, we can see the interactions of chronotopes between the narrative of an individual and the historical narrative, as well as between the narrative about the beginning of Gangnam and the audience's perception of the present Gangnam. In this film, the main character's ambition is shown as part of the social desire for rapid economic achievements in the 1970s, along with high social mobility. The social desire can be explained as envy, as it is fueled by social comparisons and competitions. The main character's pursuit of money and power through the possession of Gangnam land overlaps with the envious desire for the present Gangnam shared by many. The individual's exceptional ambition and violence are not fully examined in this text. Moreover, the film's dependence on the feelings of envy to represent the individual's choice and violence can be a symptom of the lack of critical distance from social desire and envy.

Bankruptcy Forecasting Model using AdaBoost: A Focus on Construction Companies (적응형 부스팅을 이용한 파산 예측 모형: 건설업을 중심으로)

  • Heo, Junyoung;Yang, Jin Yong
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.35-48
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    • 2014
  • According to the 2013 construction market outlook report, the liquidation of construction companies is expected to continue due to the ongoing residential construction recession. Bankruptcies of construction companies have a greater social impact compared to other industries. However, due to the different nature of the capital structure and debt-to-equity ratio, it is more difficult to forecast construction companies' bankruptcies than that of companies in other industries. The construction industry operates on greater leverage, with high debt-to-equity ratios, and project cash flow focused on the second half. The economic cycle greatly influences construction companies. Therefore, downturns tend to rapidly increase the bankruptcy rates of construction companies. High leverage, coupled with increased bankruptcy rates, could lead to greater burdens on banks providing loans to construction companies. Nevertheless, the bankruptcy prediction model concentrated mainly on financial institutions, with rare construction-specific studies. The bankruptcy prediction model based on corporate finance data has been studied for some time in various ways. However, the model is intended for all companies in general, and it may not be appropriate for forecasting bankruptcies of construction companies, who typically have high liquidity risks. The construction industry is capital-intensive, operates on long timelines with large-scale investment projects, and has comparatively longer payback periods than in other industries. With its unique capital structure, it can be difficult to apply a model used to judge the financial risk of companies in general to those in the construction industry. Diverse studies of bankruptcy forecasting models based on a company's financial statements have been conducted for many years. The subjects of the model, however, were general firms, and the models may not be proper for accurately forecasting companies with disproportionately large liquidity risks, such as construction companies. The construction industry is capital-intensive, requiring significant investments in long-term projects, therefore to realize returns from the investment. The unique capital structure means that the same criteria used for other industries cannot be applied to effectively evaluate financial risk for construction firms. Altman Z-score was first published in 1968, and is commonly used as a bankruptcy forecasting model. It forecasts the likelihood of a company going bankrupt by using a simple formula, classifying the results into three categories, and evaluating the corporate status as dangerous, moderate, or safe. When a company falls into the "dangerous" category, it has a high likelihood of bankruptcy within two years, while those in the "safe" category have a low likelihood of bankruptcy. For companies in the "moderate" category, it is difficult to forecast the risk. Many of the construction firm cases in this study fell in the "moderate" category, which made it difficult to forecast their risk. Along with the development of machine learning using computers, recent studies of corporate bankruptcy forecasting have used this technology. Pattern recognition, a representative application area in machine learning, is applied to forecasting corporate bankruptcy, with patterns analyzed based on a company's financial information, and then judged as to whether the pattern belongs to the bankruptcy risk group or the safe group. The representative machine learning models previously used in bankruptcy forecasting are Artificial Neural Networks, Adaptive Boosting (AdaBoost) and, the Support Vector Machine (SVM). There are also many hybrid studies combining these models. Existing studies using the traditional Z-Score technique or bankruptcy prediction using machine learning focus on companies in non-specific industries. Therefore, the industry-specific characteristics of companies are not considered. In this paper, we confirm that adaptive boosting (AdaBoost) is the most appropriate forecasting model for construction companies by based on company size. We classified construction companies into three groups - large, medium, and small based on the company's capital. We analyzed the predictive ability of AdaBoost for each group of companies. The experimental results showed that AdaBoost has more predictive ability than the other models, especially for the group of large companies with capital of more than 50 billion won.

The Short-and Long-term Employment Effects of reduced Working Hours in a Putty-Clay-Model (법정근로시간 단축의 단기 및 중·장기적 고용효과 : Putty-Clay-Approach)

  • Lee, Sang-Mok
    • Journal of Labour Economics
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.13-38
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    • 2001
  • The question about whether a shorter workweek may increase employment has been a serious issue and been furiously debated among collective bargainers. The advocators recommend publicly that a reduction in standard working hours will provide benefits to the unemployed through the provision of new jobs, and also can improve the quality of life workers. The opponents argue that a shorter workweek will increase labor costs and induce firms to reduce their production levels, and consequently cut back their demand for labor. Although the debate is still continuing, considerable has been made toward achieving the goal workweek reduction. The analytical framework of this paper is a Putty-clay-model, in which the short-and long-term impacts of changes in working time on the employment associated with the interrelations of wages, prices, hourly labour productivity, the firm's labor demand, business cycle and economic growth etc. must be analyzed.

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Patent Production and Technological Performance of Korean Firms: The Role of Corporate Innovation Strategies (특허생산과 기술성과: 기업 혁신전략의 역할)

  • Lee, Jukwan;Jung, Jin Hwa
    • Journal of Technology Innovation
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.149-175
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    • 2014
  • This study analyzed the effect of corporate innovation strategies on patent production and ultimately on technological change and new product development of firms in South Korea. The intent was to derive efficient strategies for enhancing technological performance of the firms. For the empirical analysis, three sources of data were combined: four waves of the Human Capital Corporate Panel Survey (HCCP) data collected by the Korea Research Institute for Vocational Education and Training (KRIVET), corporate financial data obtained from the Korea Information Service (KIS), and corporate patent data provided by the Korean Intellectual Property Office (KIPO). The patent production function was estimated by zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression. The technological performance function was estimated by two-stage regression, taking into account the endogeneity of patent production. An ordered logit model was applied for the second stage regression. Empirical results confirmed the critical role of corporate innovation strategies in patent production and in facilitating technological change and new product development of the firms. In patent production, the firms' R&D investment and human resources were key determinants. Higher R&D intensity led to more patents, yet with decreasing marginal productivity. A larger stock of registered patents also led to a larger flow of new patent production. Firms were more prolific in patent production when they had high-quality personnel, intensely investing in human resource development, and adopting market-leading or fast-follower strategy as compared to stability strategy. In technological performance, the firms' human resources played a key role in accelerating technological change and new product development. R&D intensity expedited new product development of the firm. Firms adopting market-leading or fast-follower strategy were at an advantage than those with stability strategy in technological performance. Firms prolific in patent production were also advanced in terms of technological change and new product development. However, the nexus between patent production and technological performance measures was substantially reduced when controlling for the endogeneity of patent production. These results suggest that firms need to strengthen the linkage between patent production and technological performance, and take strategies that address each firm's capacities and needs.

A Study on Subcontract Animation in Korea during the Industrialization Era - Centered around Animations in 1970-80s - (산업화시대 한국 하청애니메이션에 대한 연구 - 1970-80년대 애니메이션을 중심으로 -)

  • Kim, Jong-Ok
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
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    • pp.47-75
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    • 2016
  • This study has analyzed the history of the subcontract animation in Korea that began with Golden Bat of TBC Animation Division in 1966 to 1980s and shed the light on the history of subcontract animation that has been processed over 30 years in Korean animation. For this purpose, through the outlined status of subcontract animation, such as, production company, production status, scale of industry and so forth, the status of the OEM industry then has been checked and it links the solidified background of animation into subcontract production industry with the situation in time for analysis. In addition, on the basis of the foregoing, it is intended to broaden the horizon of the history of animation through the analysis on new search for facilitating the creative animation by overcoming the issues and limits generated by the subcontract animation industry. 1970s was the time that the national objective is to advance heavy-chemical industry and export-led economic growth. From the late 1970s, the animation has been spot lighted as the main-stream export industry through the overseas subcontract orders for animation. Expansion of the subcontract animation production has been influenced from the national policies on public culture, dispersion of color TV, facilitation of video production market and other media changes of the time that led the decline of animation audiences in theaters, and another cause would be in lack of platform of broadcasting companies that avoided the independent animation production for its economic theory. The subcontract animation industry may have the positive evaluation in the aspect of expanding the animation environment, such as, structuring of animation infra, development of new human resources and etc. However, the technology-incentive 'production'-oriented advancement has created distorted structure in advancing the professional human resources due to the absence of 'pre-production' of planning and others as well as the insufficient perception on 'post production (post work)', and it was unable to formulate domestic market by re-investing the capital accumulated for OEM industry into the production of creative animation and it has been assessed as negative aspect. Animation is a cultural and spiritual product of a country. Therefore, the systematic support policy for the facilitation of the creative animation, such as, development of professional human resources, creation of outstanding work, formation of market to make the pre-circulation structure and so forth has to be sought. However, animation is an industry, but there is no perception that it is a cultural industry based on the creativeness, not hardware-oriented manufacturing business. Such a lack of recognition, there was no policies to make the market and facilitate the creative animation by the animation of Korea for this period through the long-term plan and investment for independent work production. Such an attempt is newly begun through diverse searches for protection and advancement of creative animation in Korea after 1990s.

Vietnam in 2016: The Situations and Prospects of Politics, Economy, and International Relations (베트남 2016: 정치, 경제, 대외관계의 현황과 전망)

  • LEE, Han Woo;CHAE, Su Hong
    • The Southeast Asian review
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.163-191
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    • 2017
  • This article aims to review the recent, especially focusing on the year of 2016, situations and prospects of the Vietnamese politics, economy, and international relations. Politically, Vietnam completed the election of members for the National Assembly and organized new leadership at the 12th National Congress of the Vietnamese Communist Party in 2016. One characteristic of the new leadership is that the politicians, especially the members of politburo, from the North continue to occupy the position of majority. The other one is that the new leadership promised to carry out the restructuring of economy toward industries producing higher value-added commodities even though Vietnam industries admittedly need to accelerate present industrialization and modernization as a developing country under the seemingly contradictory slogan of "the development of market economy for socialism." The declared goals of the new leadership in Vietnam are inevitable in a sense since the development of Vietnamese economy has been heavily dependent upon Foreign Direct Investment(FDI) taking advantage of Vietnamese cheap labor and simultaneously it is evident that its future is unsecure if it maintains status quo. In fact, the Vietnamese economy has impressively showed high growth rate by the help of foreign capitals since 1990s despite the repetitive recessions of global economy but its growth is not likely to be sustainable anymore if it will not reduce foreign dependency and social economic inequality in a long term. In a short run, global economic recession, the financial and monetary policies of global powers, and recent protectionism and uncertainty of trade agreements will be three crucial variables to affect Vietnamese economy. In terms of international relations, Vietnam is continuously expected to practise the policy of checks and balances among the powerful countries. Vietnam has seriously disputed with China on islands sovereignty in the South China Sea and attempted to maintain close relationship with other powerful countries including especially America. However, mainly due to the new protectionism by the regime of American president Donald Trump, the Vietnamese government also need to keep close relationship with China increasingly for both economic and diplomatic security. Under the circumstances, Vietnam is expected to maintain more practical and balanced international relations.