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Recent Progress in Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Research - A Review of Papers Published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering in 2002 and 2003 - (공기조화, 냉동 분야의 최근 연구 동향 -2002년 및 2003년 학회지 논문에 대한 종합적 고찰 -)

  • Chung Kwang-Seop;Kim Min Soo;Kim Yongchan;Park Kyoung Kuhn;Park Byung-Yoon;Cho Keumnam
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.16 no.12
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    • pp.1234-1268
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    • 2004
  • A review on the papers published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigerating Engineering in 2002 and 2003 has been carried out. Focus has been put on current status of research in the aspect of heating, cooling, air-conditioning, ventilation, sanitation and building environment/design. The conclusions are as follows. (1) Most of fundamental studies on fluid flow were related with heat transportation in diverse facilities. Drop formation and rivulet flow on solid surfaces were interesting topics related with condensation augmentation. Research on micro environment considering flow, heat transfer, humidity was also interesting to promote comfortable living environment. It can be extended considering biological aspects. Development of fans and blowers of high performance and low noise were continuing research topics. Well developed CFD technologies were widely applied for analysis and design of various facilities and their systems. (2) Heat transfer characteristics of enhanced finned tube heat exchangers and heat sinks were extensively investigated. Experimental studies on the boiling heat transfer, vortex generators, fluidized bed heat exchangers, and frosting and defrosting characteristics were also conducted. In addition, the numerical simulations on various heat exchangers were performed and reported to show heat transfer characteristics and performance of the heat exchanger. (3) A review of the recent studies shows that the performance analysis of heat pump have been made by various simulations and experiments. Progresses have been made specifically on the multi-type heat pump systems and other heat pump systems in which exhaust energy is utilized. The performance characteristics of heat pipe have been studied numerically and experimentally, which proves the validity of the developed simulation programs. The effect of various factors on the heat pipe performance has also been examined. Studies of the ice storage system have been focused on the operational characteristics of the system and on the basics of thermal storage materials. Researches into the phase change have been carried out steadily. Several papers deal with the cycle analysis of a few thermodynamic systems which are very useful in the field of air-conditioning and refrigeration. (4) Recent studies on refrigeration and air-conditioning systems have focused on the system performance and efficiency enhancement when new alternative refrigerants are applied. Heat transfer characteristics during evaporation and condensation are investigated for several tube shapes and new alternative refrigerants including natural refrigerants. Efficiency of various compressors and performance of new expansion devices are also dealt with for better design of refrigeration/air conditioning system. In addition to the studies related with thermophysical properties of refrigerant mixtures, studies on new refrigerants are also carried out. It should be noted that the researches on two-phase flow are constantly carried out. (5) A review of the recent studies on absorption refrigeration system indicates that heat and mass transfer enhancement is the key factor in improving the system performance. Various experiments have been carried out and diverse simulation models have been presented. Study on the small scale absorption refrigeration system draws a new attention. Cooling tower was also the research object in the respect of enhancement its efficiency, and performance analysis and optimization was carried out. (6) Based on a review of recent studies on indoor thermal environment and building service systems, it is noticed that research issues have mainly focused on several innovative systems such as personal environmental modules, air-barrier type perimeterless system with UFAC, radiant floor cooling system, etc. New approaches are highlighted for improving indoor environmental conditions and minimizing energy consumption, various activities of building energy management and cost-benefit analysis for economic evaluation.

A Study on Laboratory Treatment of Metalworking Wastewater Using Ultrafiltration Membrane System and Its Field Application (한외여과막시스템을 이용한 금속가공폐수의 실험실적 처리 및 현장 적용 연구)

  • Bae, Jae Heum;Hwang, In-Gook;Jeon, Sung Duk
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.487-494
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    • 2005
  • Nowadays a large amount of wastewater containing metal working fluids and cleaning agents is generated during the cleaning process of parts working in various industries of automobile, machine and metal, and electronics etc. In this study, aqueous or semi-aqueous cleaning wastewater contaminated with soluble or nonsoluble oils was treated using ultrafiltration system. And the membrane permeability flux and performance of oil-water separation (or COD removal efficiency) of the ultrafiltration system employing PAN as its membrane material were measured at various operating conditions with change of membrane pore sizes and soil concentrations of wastewater and examined their suitability for wastewater treatment contaminated with soluble or insoluble oil. As a result, in case of wastewater contaminated with soluble oil and aqueous or semi-aqueous cleaning agent, the membrane permeability increased rapidly even though COD removal efficiency was almost constant as 90 or 95% as the membrane pore size increased from 10 kDa to 100 kDa. However, in case of the wastewater contaminated with nonsoluble oil and aqueous or semi-aqueous cleaning agent, as the membrane pore size increased from 10 kDa to 100 kDa and the soil concentration of wastewater increased, the membrane permeability was reduced rapidly while COD removal efficiency was almost constant. These phenomena explain that since the membrane material is hydrophilic PAN material, it blocks nonsoluble oil and reduces membrane permeability. Thus, it can be concluded that the aqueous or semi-aqueous cleaning solution contaminated with soluble oil can be treated by ultrafiltration system with the membrane of PAN material and its pore size of 100 kDa. Based on these basic experimental results, a pilot plant facility of ultrafiltration system with PAN material and 100 kDa pore size was designed, installed and operated in order to treat and recycle alkaline cleaning solution contaminated with deep drawing oil. As a result of its field application, the ultrafiltration system was able to separate aqueous cleaning solution and soluble oil effectively, and recycle them. Further more, it can increase life span of aqueous cleaning solution 12 times compared with the previous process.

Two Cases of Corneal Edema Due to Vaporized Amine (기화된 아민에 의한 각막부종 2예)

  • Hwang, Yousook;Cho, Yang Kyung
    • Journal of The Korean Ophthalmological Society
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    • v.59 no.11
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    • pp.1077-1081
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: We report two cases of corneal edema in patients who presented with bilateral blurry vision due to vaporized amines while working in a polyurethane processing plant. Case summary: A 28-year-old male presented with bilateral blurred vision. His work involved solidifying polyurethane liquid and he often found himself exposed to polyurethane heat and gas. Purpose: We report two cases of corneal edema in patients who presented with bilateral blurry vision due to vaporized amines while working in a polyurethane processing plant. Case summary: A 28-year-old male presented with bilateral blurred vision. His work involved solidifying polyurethane liquid and he often found himself exposed to polyurethane heat and gas. On examination, the patient's uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) was 20/40 (right) and 30/50 (left). A slit lamp examination revealed subepithelial microbullae in both eyes. The central corneal thickness (CCT) was also increased in both eyes, measuring $698{\mu}m$ (right) and $672{\mu}m$ (left). After prescribing 0.5% moxifloxacin and, 1% fluorometholone eye drops for 3 days in both eyes, the UCVA recovered to 20/40 (right) and 20/20 (left). The CCT decreased to $644{\mu}m$ (right) and $651{\mu}m$ (left), and the microbullae improved significantly in the left eye. The second patient was a 34-year-old female who presented with bilateral decreased visual acuity while at work. She worked in a factory that produced car seat filling. Her UCVA was 20/25 (right) and 20/20 (left). The CCT by specular microscopy was $537{\mu}m$ (right) and $541{\mu}m$ (left). On slit lamp examination, both eyes demonstrated bilateral central subepithelial edema. The patient did not attend any follow-up outpatient appointments after the initial presentation. Conclusions: Exposure to vaporized amines such as polyurethane may causereversible corneal toxicityeven without direct contact. Further consideration should be given to ocular safety and protection from amine compounds in the industrial field.On examination, the patient's uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) was 20/40 (right) and 30/50 (left). A slit lamp examination revealed subepithelial microbullae in both eyes. The central corneal thickness (CCT) was also increased in both eyes, measuring $698{\mu}m$ (right) and $672{\mu}m$ (left). After prescribing 0.5% moxifloxacin and, 1% fluorometholone eye drops for 3 days in both eyes, the UCVA recovered to 20/40 (right) and 20/20 (left). The CCT decreased to $644{\mu}m$ (right) and $651{\mu}m$ (left), and the microbullae improved significantly in the left eye. The second patient was a 34-year-old female who presented with bilateral decreased visual acuity while at work. She worked in a factory that produced car seat filling. Her UCVA was 20/25 (right) and 20/20 (left). The CCT by specular microscopy was $537{\mu}m$ (right) and $541{\mu}m$ (left). On slit lamp examination, both eyes demonstrated bilateral central subepithelial edema. The patient did not attend any follow-up outpatient appointments after the initial presentation. Conclusions: Exposure to vaporized amines such as polyurethane may causereversible corneal toxicityeven without direct contact. Further consideration should be given to ocular safety and protection from amine compounds in the industrial field.

A Study on the Characteristics of PM1.0 Chemical Components Using a Real-time Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (실시간 에어로졸 질량분석기를 이용한 PM1.0의 화학적성분의 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Jinsoo;Choi, Jinsoo;Kim, Hyunjae;Oh, Jun;Sung, Minyoung;Ahn, Joonyoung;Lee, Sangbo;Kim, Jeongho
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Urban Environment
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.485-494
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    • 2018
  • This study aims to identify the characteristics of oxidation and chemical composition of PM in winter season, 2017 at Incheon area. The mean concentration of air pollutants were $46{\pm}22{\mu}g/m^3-PM_{10}$, $29{\pm}18{\mu}g/m^3/-PM_{2.5}$, $5{\pm}3ppb-SO_2$, $0.56{\pm}0.24ppm-CO$, $21{\pm}13ppb-O_3$ and $28{\pm}17ppb-NO_2$, respectively. The dominant ion of the $PM_{1.0}$ chemical component were organic with $3.2{\mu}g/m^3$ and nitrate with $1.9{\mu}g/m^3$. The day and night variation of the $PM_{1.0}$ chemical components was higher in nighttime than those of daytime. The averaged nitrate oxidation rate (SOR) was 0.06 and sulfate oxidation rate was 0.11 during the field campaign. In the high mass loading period, nitrate oxidation rate (NOR) was up to 0.6 and also the nitrate in $PM_{1.0}$ was increased. The averaged ratio of $NO_x/SO_2$ was 8.7 and nitrate/sulfate was 3.1, respectively. In this results, the nitrate component in $PM_{1.0}$ was influenced by NOx from the stationary source as power plant and the mobile source around the measurement site.