• Title, Summary, Keyword: 일산화탄소

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Evaluation on Reduction Effect of CO emission by The Real-time Traffic Information Service (실시간교통정보서비스의 일산화탄소 배출저감효과 평가)

  • Kim, Jun-Hyung;Um, Jung-Sup
    • Proceedings of the Korean Association of Geographic Inforamtion Studies Conference
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    • pp.129-133
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    • 2010
  • 본 논문은 차량의 공회전시 불완전연소로 인한 일산화탄소의 배출량이 최대인 점에 착안하여 일반 네비게이션에서 제공하는 최단거리 모드로 주행했을 시와 '막힘없는 길 안내를 제공' 한다는 최신 공간정보기술인 실시간교통정보서비스를 적용했을 시의 공회전시간 및 일산화탄소 배출량을 비교 평가하여, 실시간교통정보서비스의 일산화탄소 저감효과를 추정해보기 위해 진행되었다. 대구시내의 교통정체구역인 수성구청에서 성서초등학교에 이르는 약 12km의 구간을 선정하여 2주간 동일구간을 요일별 시간대별로 주행함으로써 최단거리 안내서비스 주행시와 실시간교통정보서비스를 적용한 경로주행시의 공회전시간을 기록하고 환경부에서 제공하는 연료별 배출계수와 평균속도에 따른 일산화탄소 배출계수를 이용하여 일산화탄소 배출량을 산정하였으며, 측정결과 공회전시간이 약 28%, 일산화탄소 배출량은 약 57%의 감축효과를 보임을 확인하였다.

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Carbon Monoxide Consumption in Digestate and its Potential Applications (혐기성 소화액에서 일산화탄소 소비특성 분석과 그 활용 방안)

  • Hong, Seong-Gu
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.51 no.2
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2009
  • Acetogen과 같은 일부 혐기성미생물은 소위 acetyl-CoA 경로에 의해 아세트산, 에탄올, 그리고 몇 가지 생화학 물질을 생산한다. 이 경로에서는 일산화탄소를 기질로 이용할 수 있다. 일산화탄소 이외에 수소가 이용될 수 있다. 즉 이들 미생물은 독립영양생물로서 이산화탄소와 태양광에너지를 이용하는 녹색식물과 비유될 수 있으며, 일산화탄소는 탄소원으로서 동시에 에너지원으로서 이용된다. 본 연구에서는 혐기성 소화액 중 아세트산을 생성하는 미생물이 존재한다고 가정하고, 일산화탄소와 수소가 주 가연성분인 합성가스를 공급하면 추가의 메탄이 생성가능성을 평가하였다. 혐기성 소화과정에서 발생되는 메탄은 주로 아세트산으로부터 만들어지므로 일산화탄소를 공급하는 경우 추가로 메탄이 생성될 것으로 추측할 수 있기 때문이다. 이를 확인하기 위하여 현재 운영중인 바이오가스 생산 설비로부터 얻은 혐기성 소화액을 생물반응조에 넣은 후, 합성가스를 순환-공급하여 가스 생산량의 변화 및 조성을 분석하였다. 질소가스를 공급한 대조구와는 달리 일산화탄소 또는 합성가스를 공급한 경우에는 메탄가스가 생산되는 것을 확인하였다. 질소가스를 공급한 대조구와는 달리 일산화탄소 또는 합성가스를 공급한 경우에는 메탄가스가 생산되는 것을 확인하였다. 일산화탄소만을 공급했을 때에는 이산화탄소의 생성으로 가스 생산량이 증가하였으나, 수소가 포함된 합성가스를 공급하였을 때에는 이산화탄소가 탄소원이로 소비되어 가스 저장도 내의 가스량이 감소하는 것을 확인할 수 있었다. 가스화공정에 으해 얻어지는 합성가스는 온도와 가스 조성을 고러할 때, 바이오가스 생산을 위한 혐기성 소화조와 연계하면 소화조의 가온에 필요한 열을 공급할 수 있고 바이오가스 중 이산화탄소 농도를 낮추어 발열량을 개선할 수 있을 것으로 판단된다.

Generation of Carbon Monoxide from Saccharides (당류 중에서 일산화탄소의 발생에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Nam Yee;Seo, Joong Seok;Park, Sung Woo
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.522-529
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    • 2001
  • Carbon monoxide was generated when the saccharides which contained aldehyde group were added to alkali solution (NaOH solution) at $25^{\circ}C$ or $40^{\circ}C$. When the milk was added to 1.0 M NaOH solution at $25^{\circ}C$ and to 0.01 M NaOH solution at $40^{\circ}C$, carbon monoxide was generated. The carbon monoxide gas which was generated by 20 mL of 0.1 M lactose or 0.1 M xylose and 2 mL of 1.0 M NaOH solution at $50^{\circ}C$ for 2days was bubbled through 2 mL of fresh blood. The carboxyhemoglobin concentrations of both conditions were 31%. However, when the carbon monoxide gas which was generated by 30 mL of milk and 2 mL of 1.0 M NaOH at $50^{\circ}C$ for 2days or 3days was bubbled through 2 mL of fresh blood, the carboxyhemoglobin concentration was 32% or 42% respectively.

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Electron Transport System for Carbon Monoxide Oxidation in Acinetobacter sp.1 (Acinetobacter sp.1의 일산화탄소 산화를 위한 전자전달계)

  • 김영민;조진원
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.46-50
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    • 1986
  • Experiments with particulate fractions of Acinetobacter sp. 1 revealed that coeuzyme $Q_{10}$ is not the physiolohical electron acceptor, and that cytochromes of a, b, c, and o types are found in cells grown with carbon monoxide (CO) as the sole source of carbon and energy. It was found that cytochromes of b and o types, but not the a and c types, are functional in CO oxidation. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) is not involved in CO oxidation.

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Development of carbon monoxide removal for portable PEMFC system (휴대용 PEMFC 시스템 적용을 위한 CO 저감기 개발)

  • Kim, Kyung-Tae;Jun, Jin-Hyuk;Han, Ga-Young;Lee, Hyun-Jin;Lee, Sang-Do
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.485-488
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    • 2006
  • 고분자전해질형 연료전지(PEMFC)는 다른 연료전지에 비해 소형전원에서부터 분산용전원에 이르기 까지 넓은 응용범위를 가지고 있다. 이러한 PEMFC의 응용범위 중 메탄올 개질반응을 통하여 발생된 수소를 이용하는 휴대용 PEMFC 시스템의 경우, 개질 시 발생하는 일산화탄소가 백금촉매를 피독시켜 연료전지의 성능을 저하시키는 주요 원인이다. 따라서 연료전지의 성능저하를 막기 위해서는 개질가스의 일산화탄소의 농도를 10ppm이하로 낮추는 것이 요구된다. 본 연구에서는 이러한 개질가스의 일산화탄소 농도를 낮추기 위한 반응기를 설계 및 제작하였으며, 상용촉매를 사용하여 CO저감 성능실험을 하였다. 또한, PROX 촉매 및 methanation 촉매를 조합하여 사용함으로써 $140^{\circ}C{\sim}190^{\circ}C$ (약 $50^{\circ}C$)의 온도범위에서 일산화탄소의 농도 10ppm이하의 결과를 나타내었다.

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Selectivity Changes in CO Hydrogenation over Potassium Added Titania-supported Cobalt Catalysts (티타니아 담지 코발트 촉매를 이용한 일산화탄소 수소화 반응에서 칼륨첨가에 의한 선택성 변화)

  • Lee, Dong-Keun;Ahn, Jou-Hyeon
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.100-105
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    • 1990
  • Small amounts of potassium were added to the titania - supported cobalt catalysts in order to produce higher and olefinic hydrocarbons in CO hydrogenation. Titania and potassium played important roles not only for the enhancement of the production of higher and olefinic hydrocarbons, but also for the prevention of the catalyst deactivation by carbon deposits. Titania support induced the so - called SMSI, and potassium seemed to act as an electronic modifier, giving rise to an electron enrichment of the metallic phase.

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Oxidation Characteristics of Low Concentration CO Gas by the Natural Manganese Dioxide(NMD) in a Fixed Bed (고정층 반응기에서 망간광석(NMD)을 이용한 저농도 일산화탄소 산화특성)

  • Lee, Young Soon;Park, Jong Soo;Oh, Kwang Joong
    • Clean Technology
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.60-68
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    • 1996
  • The oxidation of carbon monoxide of low concentration on the natural manganese dioxide (NMD) has been investigated in a fixed bed reactor. The experimental variables were concentration of oxygen (500ppm~99.8%) and carbon monoxide (500ppm~10000ppm) and catalyst temperature ($50{\sim}750^{\circ}C$). The NMD(Natural Manganese Dioxide) has been characterized by temperature - program reduction(TPR) using 2.4% $CO/H_2$ as a reducing agent, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and reduction of NMD by 2.4% $CO/H_2$. It was found that the NMD catalyst activity on the unit area was greater than the $MnO_2$ catalyst for oxidation of CO at the same temperature. The thermal stability of oxidation activity was considered to be maintained when the NMD was heated to $750^{\circ}C$. The TGA, reduction by CO, and TPR of the NMD showed that the NMD had active lattice oxygen which was easily liberated on heating in the absence and low concentration of oxygen. The reaction order in CO is 0.701 between 500~3500ppm and almost zero between 3500~10000ppm of CO.

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A Study on the Development of the Charcoal with Low Carbon Monoxide Emission using Biomass Combustion Improver (바이오매스 조연제를 이용한 CO저감형 착화탄 개발에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Seunghee;Lee, Yeonkyung;Lee, Junseok;Jeon, Chunghwan
    • Journal of Energy Engineering
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.9-17
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    • 2016
  • In this study, a method for CO reduction using char-coal combustions was developed with lignin and glycerin as combustion improvers. The relationship between CO emission and the combustion improvers was confirmed by measuring the CO concentration. The experiment to determine the combustion characteristics was conducted using glycerin, which shows high combustibility at low temperatures, impregnated with lignin, which has a specific surface area. The combustibility, volatility, and CO concentration were measured using thermo-gravimetric analysis(TGA), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS). This study presents the optimal CO reduction ratio, which occurred when the combustible material contained a 20% blend of combustion improvers. This resulted in a 20-30% CO reduction rate compared to that achieved with normal char-coal.

Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase in Cell Extracts of an Acinetobacter Isolate (Acinetobacter sp.1의 일산화탄소 산화효소의 특성)

  • 조진원;김영민
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.133-140
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    • 1986
  • Extracts of CO-autotrophically grown cells of Acinetobacter sp. 1 were shown to use thionin, methylene blue, or 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol, but not NAD, NADP, FAD, or FMN, as electron acceptors for the oxidation of CO under strictly anaerobic conditions. The CO dehydrogenase (CO-DH) in the thes bacterium was found to be an inducible enzyme. The enzyme activity was determined by an assay based on the CO-dependent reduction of thionin. Maximal reaction rates were found at pH 7.5 and $60^{\circ}C$, and the Arrhenius plot revealed an activation energy of 6.1 kcal/mol(25.5kJ/mol). THe $K_m$ m/ for CO was $154{\mu}M$. Known metalchelating agents tested had no effects on the CO-DH activity. No divalent cations tested affect the enzyme activity significantly escept $Cu^{2+}$ which suppressed the activity completely. The enzyme was inhibited by glucose and succinate. The same extracts catalyzed oxidation of hydrogen gas and formate with thionin as electron acceptor. The CO-DH of Acinetobacter sp. 1 was to have no immunological relationship with that of Pseudomonas carboxydohydrogena.

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Minimization of Carbon Monoxide in the High Efficient Catalytic Shift for Fuel Cell Applications (연료전지용 고효율 촉매전이 반응의 일산화탄소 저감)

  • Park, Heon;Kim, Seong-Cheon;Chun, Young-Nam
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.528-532
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    • 2007
  • The generation of high-purity hydrogen from hydrocarbon fuels is essential for efficient operation of fuel cell. In general, most feasible strategies to generate hydrogen from hydrocarbon fuels consist of a reforming step to generate a mixture of $H_2$, CO, $CO_2$ and $H_2O$(steam) followed by water gas shift(WGS) and CO clean-up steps. The WGS reaction that shifts CO to $CO_2$ and simultaneously produces another mole of $H_2$ was carried out in a two-stage catalytic conversion process involving a high temperature shift(HTS) and a low temperature shift(LTS). In the WGS operation, gas emerges from the reformer is taken through a high temperature shift catalyst to reduce the CO concentration to about $3\sim4%$ followed to about 0.5% via a low temperature shift catalyst. The WGS reactor was designed and tested in this study to produce hydrogen-rich gas with CO to less than 0.5%.