• Title, Summary, Keyword: 인공수유

Search Result 31, Processing Time 0.058 seconds

The characteristics of a fine O/W emulsion by non-aqueous method (비수유화법에 의한 미세 o/w에멀젼의 특성)

  • Lee, Seong-Jun;Yun, Myeong-Seok;Gang, Se-Hun
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
    • /
    • v.21 no.1
    • /
    • pp.19-37
    • /
    • 1995
  • A fine oil -in-water (O/W) emulsion using non-aqueous emulsification technique was developed. And the behaviors of POE(25)octyldodecyl ether in non-aqueous polyol/oil systems were studied by observing the surface tension, interfacial tension, turbidity and transition temperature. It was found that POE(25)octyldodecy1 ether hardly existed as the micelle in the non-aqueous polyol system while, in water, it formed micelles very easily. So, when a polyol, like glycerine in which POE(25)octyldodecyl ether has a poor solubility, was added, POE(25)octyldodecyl ether moved to the surface. After saturated at surface, POE(25)octyldodecyl ether began to precitate. The mean particle size of the final emulsion was 230nm. Also, the emulsion system was stable at 0$^{\circ}C$, 25$^{\circ}C$, 40$^{\circ}C$, 50 $^{\circ}C$ and freeze-thaw cycle chamber for a month, while a conventional emulsion system was unstable. It is concluded that, by pertinent combination of polyols, we can improve the adsorption efficiency of surfactant.

  • PDF

A clinical study of congenital chylothorax and octreotide therapy (선천성 유미흉의 임상적 고찰과 옥트레오타이드 치료)

  • Oh, Ung Geon;Choi, Kyoung Eun;Kim, Kyung Ah;Ko, Sun Young;Lee, Yeon Kyung;Sin, Son Moon
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
    • /
    • v.51 no.11
    • /
    • pp.1172-1178
    • /
    • 2008
  • Purpose : Congenital chylothorax is an accumulation of lymphatic fluid within the pleural space. It is a common cause of unidentified hydrops fetalis. We examined the perinatal history, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome in 6 newborns diagnosed to have congenital chylothorax with hydrops fetalis. We also studied the effect of octreotide therapy for congenital chylothorax in relation to conservative treatment. Methods : We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 6 patients diagnosed to have congenital chylothorax with hydrops fetalis among 27,907 newborns who were born at the Cheil General Hospital and Womens Healthcare Center between January 2004 and July 2007. The diagnosis of chylothorax is based on the analysis of pleural fluid before and after milk feeding. Results : Incidence of congenital chylothorax in this study was 0.021%. All 6 cases were noted in over the 92% lymphocyte in pleural analysis. Transudate was changed into chyle with increasing triglyceride levels above 200 mg/dL after milk feeding. Three of 6 infants improved with conservative treatment, including thoracostomy and assisted ventilation. The others had persistent symptoms despite conservative treatment and responded to octreotide therapy. A complication, specifically vomiting was noted in 1 case during octreotide therapy. Conclusion : In this study, octreotide therapy resulted in a safe and excellent outcome. Therefore, octreotide therapy is considered in severe refractory congenital chylothorax in conservative treatment. Further studies are required to determine appropriate guidelines for octreotide therapy.

A Clinical Study of Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis (비후성 유문 협착증의 임상적 고찰)

  • Kim, Yoon Hee;Jung, Myung Sup;Byun, Soon Ok
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
    • /
    • v.45 no.11
    • /
    • pp.1389-1396
    • /
    • 2002
  • Purpose : This study was done to analyze the changes in the clinical conditions and the diagnosis of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. Methods : We report a retrospective clinical analysis of 39 patients with hypertrophic pyloric stenosis from Jan. 1992 to Aug. 2001. The age and sex distribution, family and birth history, clinical symptoms, the ultrasonographic and the operative sizes of pyloric canals were compared. Results : The body weight was below the 3 percentile at admission in eight cases(20.5%). "Olive like mass" in right upper quadrant was palpated during physical examination in 23 cases(59%) and gastric peristaltic wave observed in six cases(15%). The ultrasonographic measurements showed that the pyloric muscle thickness to be $4.95{\pm}0.99mm$($mean{\pm}SD$), pyloric diameter $14.42{\pm}2.64mm$, and pyloric length $20.17{\pm}3.92mm$. Fredet-Ramstedt pyloromyotomy was employed in all cases. The operative measurements of the pyloric muscle thickness was $5.11{\pm}1.01mm$, pyloric diameter $15.01{\pm}2.47mm$, and pyloric length $22.32{\pm}3.43mm$. Conclusion : There was no significant difference between the ultrasonographic and operative measurements. Currently, the hypertrophic pyloric stenosis patients showed lesser clinical hallmarks of the disease. The earlier diagnosis using imaging studies before development of significant metabolic abnormalities is becoming an important factor that change the future outcomes of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis.

Evaluation of Acid Steatocrit in Korean Infants (한국인 영아에서의 Acid Steatocrit 표준치에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Kyo-Sun;Park, Ji-He;Sim, Jae-Geon
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
    • /
    • v.4 no.1
    • /
    • pp.77-82
    • /
    • 2001
  • Purpose: The fecal acid steatocrit is an improved steatocrit method for the evaluation of fecal fat. The present study was set up in order to define the normal range of acid steatocrit values during the first 3 months of life. Methods: Fecal acid steatocrit values were determined in 78 healthy full term and in 21 healthy prematurely born infants between May 1998 and April 2000. The acid steatocrit method was performed in these babies during the first 3 months of life. Results: Steatorrhea occurs during the first month and then decreases, as shown by the fall in the acid steatocrit curve from 1st to 3rd month in our subject. Very high acid steatocrit results (above 90%) were found in all full term and premature infants during the first month of age. Acid steatocrit results of human milk-fed infants were significantly lower than those of formula-fed infants (p=0.0018). Conclusion: We conclude that high acid steatocrit results during the first 1 month of age can be due to physiologic steatorrhea. The acid steatocrit micromethod can be used for the evaluation of milk fat absorption in infants and monitoring steatorrhea instead of other more cumbersome methods.

  • PDF

Effect of Length of Maternal Diet Intake on Production of Newborn Rats with Brain n-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency: Pre-pregnancy Method vs. Use of Time-pregnant Animals (엄마 쥐의 식이 섭취기간이 뇌의 오메가 3 지방산 결핍 동물 생성에 미치는 영향: 임신전 단계 실험식이 섭취 방법 vs 임신동물을 이용하는 방법)

  • Lim, Sun-Young
    • Journal of Life Science
    • /
    • v.16 no.6
    • /
    • pp.942-948
    • /
    • 2006
  • This study was performed to determine whether the length of the feeding of the controlled experimental diet to the dam resulted in changes to the dam milk or pup brain fatty acid composition. As a first method, females have been obtained at 3 weeks of age and fed the experimental diet throughout their growth to adulthood including mating, pregnancy, and lactational periods. As a second method, in order to shorten this long and expensive process, time-pregnant dams were obtained as early as possible from a commercial supplier, on day 3 of gestation, and immediately switched to the experimental diet. At birth, the milk of dams prepared by these two different methods was compared by collecting the stomach contents of the pups. This showed a slight increase in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) in the pup stomach contents from the time-pregnant dams. There were no significant changes in the brain fatty acid composition of pups between the two different lengths of the experimental diet intake. By the 10 days of age, there were only minor differences in the milk fatty acid composition of pup stomach contents from the two sets of dams. However, the pup brains of the time-pregnant groups at 10 days showed increased AA and DHA due to intake of the chow diet including AA, DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Thus, the history of the maternal feeding could affect the results under these particular circumstances, but the differences were minimal.

Risk factors associated with complicated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in neonates (신생아의 MRSA 균혈증에서 합병증 발생과 연관된 위험인자)

  • Lee, Young Jin;Kim, Hyen Jin;Byun, Shin Yun;Park, Su Eun;Park, Hee Ju
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
    • /
    • v.53 no.2
    • /
    • pp.173-177
    • /
    • 2010
  • Purpose : Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important pathogen that causes nosocomial infection in NICU. It contributes to neonatal morbidity and mortality with variable complications. This study was conducted to identify the risk factors associated with complicated MRSA bacteremia in neonates. Methods : We reviewed the medical records of 44 neonates with positive blood culture for MRSA who were admitted to the NICU of Pusan National University Hospital from January 2002 to December 2007. We compared various factors of the complicated and uncomplicated MRSA bacteremia cases. Results : Of the 44 neonates, 31 were male and 13, female. The mean gestational age and birth weight were $33.2{\pm}4.9$ weeks and $1,859.9{\pm}962.2g$, respectively. Twenty-one of infants were treated with a mechanical ventilator during a mean of $8.8{\pm}13.8$ days. There were 13 cases of complicated and 31 cases of uncomplicated MRSA bacteremia. Between the 2 groups, we compared the following variables: gestational age, birth weight, ventilator use, umbilical catheter use and central catheter insertion, $O_2$ inhalation, first oral feeding day after birth, underlying disease, transfusion, and initial vancomycin use. The underlying disease and transfusion were the risk factors related to complicated MRSA bacteremia. Conclusion : Complicated MRSA bacteremia is related to underlying disease and transfusion. Since this was a retrospective study with a small sample size, it offered limited capacity to compare complicated and uncomplicated MRSA bacteremia. A prospective study with a larger population is needed to determine the exact characteristics of MRSA bacteremia in NICU.

Risk Factors Related to Uterine Leiomyoma in Korean Women - A Retrospective Study - (한국인 여성에서 자궁근종 발생에 관여하는 인자들에 대한 연구 - 후향적 연구 -)

  • Hong, D.G.;Chung, M.J.;Kim, B.S.;Lee, J.M.;Cho, Y.L.;Lee, T.H.;Chun, S.S.
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
    • /
    • v.33 no.3
    • /
    • pp.159-170
    • /
    • 2006
  • Objective: The purpose of this study is to find out risk factors related to uterine leiomyoma in Korean women and to compare with the results of previous western studies. Methods: A retrospective analysis was carried out. All the cases of uterine leiomyoma (n=244) were diagnosed surgically or sonographically between Jannuary 1998 and December 2004. Total of 269 controls not having uterine leiomyoma were collected from patients who visited Kyungpook national university hospital for routine gynecologic check-up or treatment of their gynecologic or obstetric diseases other than uterine leiomyoma. Data were collected through review of medical records and interviews and analyzed with $x^2$ and logistic regression model. Results: In multivariate analysis, patient's age (OR 1.070; 95% CI 1.041~1.099), number of artificial abortion (OR 1.182; 95% CI 1.018~1.374) and alcohol drinking (OR 1.865; 95% CI 1.231~2.824) had significantly positive correlation with uterine leiomyoma. The duration of lactation was the only factor which had negative correlation (OR 0.985; 95% CI 0.972~0.998). BMI, parity, age at menarche, the duration and interval of menstruation, caffeine consumption and marital status did not show any correlations. Conclusion: In this study, patient's age, number of artificial abortion, and alcohol drinking were the risk factors of uterine leiomyoma in Korean women and the result was similar to that of western studies. Though we couldn't find out the specific risk factors related to the development of uterine leiomyoma in this study, but it has a great meaning to be the first trial in Korean women. The role of information bias should be carefully evaluated and further multicentered, randomized, controlled prospective studies will be needed to know the possible risk factors among Korean women.

A Study on Risk Factors of Recurrent Otitis Media (소아 재발성 중이염의 위험인자에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Eun Jin;Kwon, Young Ran;Song, Kang Hoon;Jang, Won Nyung;Lee, Jin;Chang, Jin Keun;Cha, Sung Ho
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
    • /
    • v.17 no.2
    • /
    • pp.91-100
    • /
    • 2010
  • Purpose : Recurrent otitis media (ROM) is usually defined as ${\geq}$3 distinct and well-documented episodes within 6 months or ${\geq}$4 episodes within 12 months. ROM is sufficiently important to warrant consideration of chemoprophylaxis, tympanostomy tube placement. There also is evidence that children with ROM are at risk for both hearing loss and speech delay. However, studies of ROM have been notably insufficient. In addition, even though environmental, racial, and sociocultural differences can affect risk factors, few studies have been conducted with regard to recurrent otitis media in Korea. Methods : This study was conducted from July 2009 to January 2010 with infants and children who were younger than 60 months old, who visited the out-patient clinics at Han-Il General Hospital and Kyunghee University Hospital. Data were collected by interview using a pre-formed sheet. Among a total of 892 infants and children, 457 were excluded, and the remaining 435 were allocated to 104 with ROM and 331 as a control group. Results : Attendance at daycare centers (P<0.001, OR=2.85), allergic rhinitis (P=0.026, OR=2.32), past history of bronchiolitis (P=0.003, OR=2.33), and low socioeconomic status (P=0.005, OR=2.00) were found to have a close significant correlation with ROM. Risk factors such as sex, having a sibling, breast-feeding, use of pacifiers, atopy, pneumococcal vaccination, influenza vaccination, smoking of parents, and indoor smoking are not relevant. Conclusion : Attendance at daycare centers, allergic rhinitis, past history of bronchiolitis, and low socioeconomic status have been identified as risk factors for ROM.

Delayed closure effect in preterm infants with patent ductus arteriosus (미숙아 동맥관개존증의 지연된 폐쇄가 예후에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Hyun Ju;Sim, Gyu Hong;Jung, Kyung Eun;Lee, Jin A;Choi, Chang Won;Kim, Ee Kyung;Kim, Han Suk;Kim, Beyong Il;Choi, Jung-Hwan
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
    • /
    • v.51 no.10
    • /
    • pp.1065-1070
    • /
    • 2008
  • Purpose : This study aims to determine whether early closure (within 7 d) of significant patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) with indomethacin or ligation reduces neonatal morbidity when compared with delayed closure (after 7 d). Methods : Fifty-eight extremely-low-birth-weight infants admitted to the NICU of Seoul National University Hospital from April 2005 to May 2007 with PDA were studied retrospectively. Results : The mean gestational age (GA) was $26{\pm}2weeks$ (range, 23-32 wk), and the birth weight was $782{\pm}146g$ (range, 430-990 g). The delayed closure group was associated with early GA ($25.7{\pm}1.7wk$ vs $27.1{\pm}2.0wk$, P=0.013), in vitro fertilization (IVF) (55% vs 24%, P=0.017), and the absence of preeclampsia (5% vs. 34%, P=0.013). There was no difference in ductal size between the early closure and delayed closure groups. The incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (95% vs 65%, P=0.012) and intraventricular hemorrhage (70% vs. 39%, P=0.027) increased in the delayed closure group. Using regression analysis adjusted for gestational age, delayed closure correlated positively with the duration of ventilator support (P=0.008), hospitalization (P=0.020), time to full enteral feeding (P<0.001), and total parenteral nutrition (P=0.010). Conclusion : Delayed closure of the hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus in extremely-low-birth-weight infants is significantly related to the development of various morbidities. Thus, early closure of PDA is needed within the first week of life.

Effect of n-3 fatty acid deficiency on fatty acid compositions of nervous system in rats reared by artificial method. (N-3 지방산 결핍이 혈청 및 신경조직의 지방산 조성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lim, Sun-Young
    • Journal of Life Science
    • /
    • v.17 no.5
    • /
    • pp.634-640
    • /
    • 2007
  • Our previous study suggested that n-3 fatty acid deficiency was associated with significantly reduced spatial learning as assessed by Morris water maze test. Here we investigated an effect of n-3 fatty acid deficiency on rat brain, retina and serum fatty acyl compositions at 15 wks age using a first generational artificial rearing technique. Newborn Rat pups were separated on day 2 and assigned to two artificial rearing groups or a dam-reared control group. Pups were hand fed artificial milk via custom-designed nursing bottles containing either 0.02%(n-3 Deficient) or 3.1% (n-3 Adequate) of total fatty acids as a-linolenic acid(LNA). At day 21, rats were weaned to either n-3 deficient or n-3 adequate pelleted diets and fatty acid compositions of brain, retina and liver were analyzed at 15 wks age. Brain docosahexaenoic acid(DHA) was lower(58% and 61%, P<0.05) in n-3 deficient in comparison to n-3 adequate and dam-reared groups, receptively, while brain docosapentaenoic acid(DPAn-6) was increased in the n-3 deficient group. In retina and serum fatty acid compositions, the decreased precentage of DHA and increased precentage of DPAn-6 were observed. These results suggested that artificial rearing method can be used to produce n-3 fatty acid deficiency in the first generation and that adequate brain DHA levels are required for optimal brain function.