• Title, Summary, Keyword: 이효석

Search Result 40, Processing Time 0.039 seconds

A Case-Control Study of Primary Liver Cancer and Liver Disease History (간 질환력과 원발성 간암에 관한 환자-대조군 연구)

  • Kim, Dong-Hyun;Park, Byung-Joo;Yoo, Keun-Young;Ahn, Yoon-Ok;Lee, Hyo-Suk;Kim, Chung-Yong;Lee, Sang-Il;Lee, Moo-Song;Ahn, Hyung-Sik;Kim, Heon;Park, Tae-Soo
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
    • /
    • v.27 no.2
    • /
    • pp.217-225
    • /
    • 1994
  • The relationship between past liver disease history and the risk of primary liver cancer was analyzed in a hospital-based case-control study conducted in Seoul on 165 patients with histologically or serologically confirmed hepatocellular carcinoma and individually age- and sex-matched 165 controls in hospital for ophthalmologic, otologic, or nasopharyngeal problems. Significant association were observed for liver deseases occurring 5 or more years before liver cancer diagnosis [OR,4.9;95% confidence interval (CI), $1.6{\sim}14.0$) and family history of liver disease(OR, 9.0;95% CI, $2.1{\sim}38.8$). These associations were not appreciably modified by allowance for major identified potential confounding factors. From these results, it is possible to speculate that liver cell injuries caused by various factors might be a common pathway to developing primary liver carcinoma. Considering the significant effect of family history of liver diseases on PLCA risk after adjusting past liver disease history, there might be genetic susceptibility in the carcinogenic mechanism of liver cancer. Further investigations are needed to clarify the effect of family history of liver disease on PLCA risk.

  • PDF

Ngugi wa Thiong'o's Cultural Theory and Its Significance in Translation (응구기 와 시옹오의 문화이론과 번역의 의미)

  • Lee, Hyoseok
    • Cross-Cultural Studies
    • /
    • v.46
    • /
    • pp.411-434
    • /
    • 2017
  • With emphasis on various local cultures to confront the Western central culture, Ngugi wa Thiong'o proposes them 'to move horizontally' so as not to repeat the oppressive culture of the West. We need not only dialogues between dominant languages and peripheral languages, but also between marginal languages. With respect to this point, Ngugi thinks that translation itself could be very effective. Ngugi wants to stimulate writing and speaking in marginalized languages and promote translation as a means of making these languages visible. He regards translation as a conversational tool among languages and cultures in the multicultural global community. As is already well known, his determination to write his later works only in his native Gikuyu language has a great meaning in his anti-colonial as well as anti-neocolonial movement. Its proof is his recent effort to cooperate with Jalada Africa. Simon Gikandi criticized the English translation of Matigari as a denial of cultural hegemony of Gikuyu language and its subordination to the global cultural market. However, the concept of 'thick translation', helps us move from Gikandi's doubt of the 'epistemology of translation' to a meaningful strategy of postcolonial translation. Facing some of the scholars' doubts related to his over-stressing language problem, Ngugi points out that the world has managed to function well through translation: the possibility of translation between cultures and translation as a mediating tool for communication nationally as well as internationally. Based on this two-sided solution of translation, he believes that we can overcome the opposition between relativity and universality, center and periphery, and the dominant and the subordinate.

Arthropod Diversity in Walnut Orchards (호두나무 포장 내 절지동물의 다양성)

  • Jung, Jong-Kook;Lee, Hyoseok;Lee, Seung Kyu;Koh, Sanghyun
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
    • /
    • v.56 no.2
    • /
    • pp.121-133
    • /
    • 2017
  • This study was conducted to investigate the community structure of arthropods, including various insect pests and their natural enemies, in walnut orchards. Furthermore, we tried to compare the species richness and community structure of arthropods by three different sampling methods, including beating, funnel trap, and pitfall trap. Arthropods were surveyed in three walnut orchards located at Gimcheon, Buyeo, and Hwaseong in South Korea from May to September, 2016. A total of 408 arthropod species were identified from 4,372 individuals, and 63 species were collected in all study sites. The species richness was the highest in funnel trap, while the abundance was the highest in pitfall trap. The species composition of the insects collected by the beating method was more similar to that of the funnel trap than the pitfall trap. Although the distributions of the economically important pests were different according to the study sites, six species, including Dichocrocis punctiferalis, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona, Gastrolina depressa, Lycorma delicatula, Metcalfa pruinosa, and Pochazia shantungensis, are the potentially important pests in walnut orchards. We also found a variety of predators and parasitoids, which will be important for walnut pest management.

The growth of GaN on the metallic compound graphite substrate by HVPE (HVPE 방법에 의한 금속 화합물 탄소체 기판 위의 GaN 성장)

  • Kim, Ji Young;Lee, Gang Seok;Park, Min Ah;Shin, Min Jeong;Yi, Sam Nyung;Yang, Min;Ahn, Hyung Soo;Yu, Young Moon;Kim, Suck-Whan;Lee, Hyo Suk;Kang, Hee Shin;Jeon, Hun Soo;Sawaki, Nobuhiko
    • Journal of the Korean Crystal Growth and Crystal Technology
    • /
    • v.23 no.5
    • /
    • pp.213-217
    • /
    • 2013
  • The GaN layer was typical III-V nitride semiconductor and was grown on the sapphire substrate which cheap and convenient. However, sapphire substrate is non-conductivity, low thermal conductivity and has large lattice mismatch with the GaN layer. In this paper, the poly GaN epilayer was grown by HVPE on the metallic compound graphite substrate with good heat dissipation, high thermal and electrical conductivity. We tried to observe the growth mechanism of the GaN epilayer grown on the amorphous metallic compound graphite substrate. The HCl and $NH_3$ gas were flowed to grow the GaN epilayer. The temperature of source zone and growth zone in the HVPE system was set at $850^{\circ}C$ and $1090^{\circ}C$, respectively. The GaN epilayer grown on the metallic compound graphite substrate was observed by SEM, EDS, XRD measurement.

Research Status and Future Subjects to Predict Pest Occurrences in Agricultural Ecosystems Under Climate Change (기후변화에 따른 농업생태계 내 해충 발생 예측을 위한 연구 현황 및 향후 과제)

  • Jung, Jong-Kook;Lee, Hyoseok;Lee, Joon-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
    • /
    • v.16 no.4
    • /
    • pp.368-383
    • /
    • 2014
  • Climate change is expected to affect population density, phenology, distribution, morphological traits, reproduction and genetics of insects, and even in the extinction of insects. To develop novel research subjects for predicting climate change effect, basic information about biological and ecological data on insect species should be compiled and reviewed. For this reason, this study was conducted to collect the biological information on insect pests that are essential for predicting potential damage caused by insect pests in future environment. In addition, we compared domestic and foreign research trends regarding climate change effect and suggested future research subjects. Domestic researchers were rather narrow in the subject, and were mostly conducted based on short-term monitoring data to determine relationship between insects and environmental variables. On the other hand, foreign researches studied on various subjects to analyze the effect of climate change, such as changes in distribution of insect using long-term monitoring data or their prediction using population parameters and models, and monitoring of the change of the insect community structure. To determine change of the phenology, distribution, overwintering characteristics, and genetic structures of insects under climate change through development of monitoring technique, in conclusion, further researches are needed. Also, development of population models for major or potential pests is important for prediction of climate change effects.

Characterization of carbon microspheres grown by HVPE (HVPE 방법에 의해 성장된 탄소 마이크로구의 특성)

  • Lee, Chanmi;Jeon, Hunsoo;Park, Minah;Lee, Chanbin;Yang, Min;Yi, Sam Nyung;Ahn, Hyung Soo;Kim, Suck-Whan;Yu, Young Moon;Shin, Keesam;Bae, Jong Seong;Lee, Hyo Suk;Sawaki, Nobuhiko
    • Journal of the Korean Crystal Growth and Crystal Technology
    • /
    • v.25 no.2
    • /
    • pp.62-67
    • /
    • 2015
  • The carbon microspheres of a core-shell type were grown by the method of mixed-source hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). The surface and the cross section of the carbon microsphere grown by a new method were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The characteristics of the carbon microsphere were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and a high resolution-transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM). From these measurements, the diameters of carbon sphere were about few hundred micrometers. Furthermore, we show that the carbon microsphere of the core-shell type by mixed-source HVPE method can be grown successfully with the larger size than those of the existing one. This mixed-source HVPE method is proposed a new method for making of carbon microsphere.

Predicting the Occurrence of Generation for Riptortus pedestris (Fabricius) Using Their Body Color (톱다리개미허리노린재의 체색변이를 이용한 발생세대 예측)

  • Lee, Hyoseok;Jung, Jong-Kook;Im, Jae Seong;Park, Marana;Lee, Seunghyun;Lee, Joon-Ho
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
    • /
    • v.54 no.4
    • /
    • pp.431-435
    • /
    • 2015
  • Riptortus pedestris (Fabricius) is one of the important insect pests of leguminous crops, which occurs in most areas of South Korea. It is hard to distinguish each generation in crop fields since not only the longevity of adult R. pedestris is long but also the developmental period is short. Especially, the 2nd generation adults cause enormous damage to soybean while the occurrence time is synchronized with the podding stage of soybean. Controlling the 1st generation of R. pedestris helps to decrease the damage by decreasing the 2nd generation density. This study was conducted to distinguish between the 1st generation and the overwintering generation by using differences in body coloration which is dependent on the day-length during the nymph stage. In addition, the difference was verified by the population dynamics model of R. pedestris. The occurrence time of 1st generation adults could be considered when the summer form is 20% or more. These results will be used for beneficial management decisions to reduce the 2nd generation population.

Ngugi wa Thiong'o's Pan-Africanism: People's Memory and Alliance to Overcome Postcolonial Nations (응구기와 시옹오의 범아프리카주의 - 포스트식민 국가를 넘어서는 주변부의 기억과 연대)

  • Lee, Hyoseok
    • Cross-Cultural Studies
    • /
    • v.42
    • /
    • pp.107-129
    • /
    • 2016
  • In modern history, there have been several kinds of continental unions or supranational politico-economic unions in the world, such as the United Nations, the European Union, the Union of South American Nations, the African Union, etc. Modern thinkers proposed many pan-isms on their continental base, for example, Pan-Arabism, Pan-Latin Americanism, Pan-Asianism, Pan-Celtism, etc. What is the most common in these pan-isms is that a continental union would be a politico-economic system to overcome the limits of the modern state-nation and to realize a long and happy relationship between member nations and continents. However, the concept of a supranational union differs from that of cosmopolitanism, in that the former presupposes the common cultural and historical heritage in the concerned region or continent. Ngugi wa Thinog'o' Pan-Africanism implies two keywords that are connected to his concepts such as 'decentralization' and 'African languages.' Pan-Africanism supposes that Africa may gain benefits from the union of African nations under the umbrella of anti-colonial efforts to down size the Euro-American influences. Moreover, using African languages enhances self-reliance and self-imagination among the African people. For in the former colonial regimes, the European colonial languages, such as English, French, or Portuguese, were central to the dissemination of European culture and modernity. Ngugi asserts that the African peripheralized languages could reinstate the African cultural heritage and propose an alternative to the Western modernity.

Study of plasma transforming growth factor-β1 level as a useful tumor marker in various cancers (종양 표지 인자로서 혈장 Transforming Growth Factor-β1에 대한 연구)

  • Shin, Hoon;Lim, Chang Ki;Choi, In Young;Lee, Doo Yun;Noh, Dong Yong;Ryu, Min Hee;Lee, Hyo Suk;Bang, Yung Jue;Park, Jong Sup;Jin, Seung Won
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
    • /
    • v.1 no.2
    • /
    • pp.143-150
    • /
    • 2001
  • Background : Many investigators have found transforming growth factor-${\beta}1$ (TGF-${\beta}1$) to be elevated in tumors. Changes in responsiveness to TGF-${\beta}1$ have been linked to malignant transformation, tumor progression and tumor regression. Many malignant cell lines of epithelial or hematopoietic origin are refractory to the antiproliferative effects of TGF-${\beta}1$. However, a little is known about the association of TGF-${\beta}1$ with progression of malignant tumor. Methods : In this study, we measured the plasma level of TGF-${\beta}1$ in various cancer patients and evaluated the utility of plasma TGF-${\beta}1$ as a possible tumor marker. Plasma TGF-${\beta}1$ levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in cancer patients and normal controls. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) as tumor marker were compared with TGF-${\beta}1$ in the aspects of sensitivity and specificity. Results : The mean of plasma TGF-${\beta}1$ levels was $1.219{\pm}0.834ng/ml$ in normal controls, $5.491{\pm}3.598ng/ml$ in breast cancer, $12.670{\pm}10.386ng/ml$ in lung cancer, $5.747{\pm}3.228ng/ml$ in hepatocellular carcinoma and $10.854{\pm}7.996ng/ml$ in cervical cancer. In comparison with CEA and AFP, TGF-${\beta}1$ is more sensitive. Conclusion : We conclude that the high levels of TGF-${\beta}1$ are common in the plasma of cancer patients. These results suggest that the plasma TGF-${\beta}1$ level can be a potent tumor marker in various cancer patients.

  • PDF

Response of Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) to Vegetation Structure in Wildlife Crossings (생태통로 내부 식생구조에 대한 지표성 딱정벌레류(딱정벌레목: 딱정벌레과)의 반응)

  • Jung, Jong-Kook;Park, Yujeong;Lee, Sun Kyung;Lee, Hyoseok;Park, Young-gyun;Lee, Joon-Ho;Choi, Tae Young;Woo, Donggul
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
    • /
    • v.30 no.2
    • /
    • pp.185-198
    • /
    • 2016
  • Korea has put in significant efforts to increase the number of wildlife crossings between fragmented habitats to prevent loss of biodiversity and to encourage the habitat connectivity in Korea. However, there is a lack of biological data on the effect of vegetation structure in these wildlife crossings and guidelines for design and management of wildlife crossing structures in Korea. Therefore, we selected ground beetle assemblages as model organisms to compare the effect of vegetation structure in wildlife crossings, i.e. bare ground- and shrub-type corridors, in agro-forested landscapes. For this study, 4,207 ground beetles belonging to 33 species were collected through pitfall trapping along the northern forest-corridor-southern forest transects from late April to early September in 2015. Dominant species, abundance, and species richness of ground beetles were significantly higher in the shrub-type corridors than the bare ground-type corridors. Also, the species composition of bare ground-type corridor was significantly different compared to the other habitats such as shrub-type corridor and forests. Similarly, environmental variables were also influenced by vegetation management regimes or trap locations. Collectively, our study clearly indicates that the movement of forest associated ground beetles between forest patches can increase as the vegetation in wildlife crossings becomes complex. Although further studies are needed to verify this, there are indications that the current wildlife crossings that comply with the guidelines may be unfriendly to the movement of ground dwelling arthropods as well as ground beetles. To enhance the ecological function of wildlife crossings, the guidelines need to be rectified as follows: 1) Shrubs or trees should be planted along the corridor verges to provide refuge or movement paths for small mammals and ground dwelling arthropods, and 2) Open spaces should be provided in the middle of the corridors to be used as a path for the movement of large mammals.