• Title, Summary, Keyword: 의미론적 역설

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The Need for Paradigm Shift in Semantic Similarity and Semantic Relatedness : From Cognitive Semantics Perspective (의미간의 유사도 연구의 패러다임 변화의 필요성-인지 의미론적 관점에서의 고찰)

  • Choi, Youngseok;Park, Jinsoo
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.111-123
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    • 2013
  • Semantic similarity/relatedness measure between two concepts plays an important role in research on system integration and database integration. Moreover, current research on keyword recommendation or tag clustering strongly depends on this kind of semantic measure. For this reason, many researchers in various fields including computer science and computational linguistics have tried to improve methods to calculating semantic similarity/relatedness measure. This study of similarity between concepts is meant to discover how a computational process can model the action of a human to determine the relationship between two concepts. Most research on calculating semantic similarity usually uses ready-made reference knowledge such as semantic network and dictionary to measure concept similarity. The topological method is used to calculated relatedness or similarity between concepts based on various forms of a semantic network including a hierarchical taxonomy. This approach assumes that the semantic network reflects the human knowledge well. The nodes in a network represent concepts, and way to measure the conceptual similarity between two nodes are also regarded as ways to determine the conceptual similarity of two words(i.e,. two nodes in a network). Topological method can be categorized as node-based or edge-based, which are also called the information content approach and the conceptual distance approach, respectively. The node-based approach is used to calculate similarity between concepts based on how much information the two concepts share in terms of a semantic network or taxonomy while edge-based approach estimates the distance between the nodes that correspond to the concepts being compared. Both of two approaches have assumed that the semantic network is static. That means topological approach has not considered the change of semantic relation between concepts in semantic network. However, as information communication technologies make advantage in sharing knowledge among people, semantic relation between concepts in semantic network may change. To explain the change in semantic relation, we adopt the cognitive semantics. The basic assumption of cognitive semantics is that humans judge the semantic relation based on their cognition and understanding of concepts. This cognition and understanding is called 'World Knowledge.' World knowledge can be categorized as personal knowledge and cultural knowledge. Personal knowledge means the knowledge from personal experience. Everyone can have different Personal Knowledge of same concept. Cultural Knowledge is the knowledge shared by people who are living in the same culture or using the same language. People in the same culture have common understanding of specific concepts. Cultural knowledge can be the starting point of discussion about the change of semantic relation. If the culture shared by people changes for some reasons, the human's cultural knowledge may also change. Today's society and culture are changing at a past face, and the change of cultural knowledge is not negligible issues in the research on semantic relationship between concepts. In this paper, we propose the future directions of research on semantic similarity. In other words, we discuss that how the research on semantic similarity can reflect the change of semantic relation caused by the change of cultural knowledge. We suggest three direction of future research on semantic similarity. First, the research should include the versioning and update methodology for semantic network. Second, semantic network which is dynamically generated can be used for the calculation of semantic similarity between concepts. If the researcher can develop the methodology to extract the semantic network from given knowledge base in real time, this approach can solve many problems related to the change of semantic relation. Third, the statistical approach based on corpus analysis can be an alternative for the method using semantic network. We believe that these proposed research direction can be the milestone of the research on semantic relation.

Community and Power of language for Spinoza (스피노자: 언어의 힘과 공동체)

  • Lee, Ji-young
    • Journal of Korean Philosophical Society
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    • v.126
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    • pp.295-320
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    • 2013
  • This thesis amis to demonstrate basically that language has the potential enough to be able to determine human's belief, attitude and behavior for Spinoza. As long as the language could be conceived with the potential to do, then it is very important in human community. And it is through dynamic and changeable, not fixed state, that meaning of this language is revealed. For Spinoza, even sign and its meaning compose one language system, but both of which are different from the other community. Because language as sign used in a specific society is articulated expression of body image, each imagination as idea is necessarily followed by its sign. This fact makes us say that language express imaginal knowledge. But language should not be considered as an means to express adequate idea of it. By the reason that order of meaning is only determined by the connection of signs, and that of meanings, each meaning of sign is not fixed. In this respect, certain meaning is changeable on account of changing new order of ideas. Through re-arranging new order of meaning, language could express more adequate and better idea than before. but what the most important fact is that it is not sufficient to express adequate idea by the means of language. Power of language determining human's belief and attitude does not depend on whether meaning of sign is true or not, but on hegemony of order of meaning. with this regard, this world could be seen as battle area of conflicting for orders of meaning. The more members accept newly created rational thought through newly arranged words, the more new views of value gain power. Solidarity of man using common language can change the world. For this purpose, first step depends on freedom of thought, freedom of deliverance of thought in which spinoza insists through A Theological - Political Treatise.

The Paradox of Grant Allen's Physiological Reductionism (그랜트 알렌의 생리학적 환원주의의 역설)

  • Lee, Sungbum
    • Cross-Cultural Studies
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    • v.44
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    • pp.411-430
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    • 2016
  • One of central issues in the Literature and Science discourses during the Victorian era is the relation of physiology to psychology. Many thinkers tackle the question of whether or not psychic phenomena can be reducible to their physiological bases. For instance, Victorian physiologist William Benjamin Carpenter claims that there should be a boundary between physiological and psychological qualities. Yet, his contemporary writer Grant Allen contends for the reduction of psychology into physiology. In the essay, I discuss Grant Allen's work Physiological Aesthetics (1877) so as to eventually problematize his physiological reductionism. I especially highlight the paradox of his physiological aesthetics. In order to clarify my argument, I introduce two concepts: evolutionary aesthetics and physiological reductionism. On the one hand, Allen argues for the development of aesthetic appreciation. The gradual evolution from gaudy to serene colors, for instance, reflects the fine differentiation of sensory organs. He believes that the existence of varied aesthetic pleasures corresponds to the evolution of sensory nerve structures. Nonetheless, Allen ironically gives more weight to the commonality of aesthetic experiences than to this teleological ordering of aesthetic experiences. He argues that there is no fundamental difference among humans in terms of their aesthetic assessments. Furthermore, there is even no essential distinction among plants, animals, and humans in light of their aesthetic appraisals, he states firmly. Although he asserts the gradual advance of aesthetic feelings caused by the intricacy of nervous systems, he simultaneously trivializes the evolution of aesthetic appraisal. In the essay, I highlight this paradox in Allen's physiological aesthetics. It should be underscored, lamentably enough, that Allen seeks biological purity by erasing fine lines among physiology, psychology, and sociality. He estranges aesthetic experiences from subjective variations and their socio-cultural contexts. He makes great efforts to eliminate individual differences and socio-cultural specificities in order to extremely biologize aesthetic experiences. Hence, Allen's physiological aesthetics is marked as the politics of physiological purification.

Dziga Vertov's Film Theory of Soviet Silent Film -By Comparison between Montage Theory of Sergei Eisenstein and Dziga Vertov Film Theory- (소비에트 무성영화의 지가 베르토프 영화이론 -세르게이 에이젠슈테인의 몽타주론을 비교중심으로-)

  • Jeon, Pyoung-Kuk;Kim, Noh-Ik
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.10 no.8
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    • pp.147-158
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    • 2010
  • The Soviet Silent Films in the 1920s, produced a brilliant prosperity in the history of world films in the cultural and artistic aspects. Among them, Dziga Vertov was a film theorists and a practitioner along with Sergei M. Einstein played a pivotal role in the contemporary soviet films at the time. But the film theories of Vetro is incorrectly recognized or specialized compared to the theories of Eisenstein. But Deleuze has stated that the short in the movie of Vertov is able to deliver a meaning and an impact and he has emphasized that a short can be significant by itself by focusing on the 'truth' which a documentary must have. His film theories are based on futurism and constructivism and use the 'kino-eye' method and 'Interval' theory to summarize and organize his movies into 'movie-truth' principal and 'life as itself' concept. Deleuze the purpose of this research is to analyze with the Vertov core of film theory and every theory of kino eye as the foundation and by comparing the Montage Theory of Sergei Eisenstein and applying Deleuze's Image Theory. Furthermore, it can be insufficient to discuss the film commercial achievements of Vertov as a result of inadequacy of previous research but it will further study his innovative methods and depth of his theories in his representation form in the documentary films.

The Knowledge and Power Expressed in the Movie : Focused on the structure of 'binary oppositions' (영화<장미의 이름>에 나타난 '지식과 권력'의 속성 탐색 : 기호학의 '이항적 대립' 구조를 중심으로)

  • Lee, Seora;Jeong, Eui Jun
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.15 no.8
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    • pp.194-208
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    • 2015
  • The Power and Knowledge are attractive materials that could be used in all of cultural content genre with storytelling. Because he, whether or not own knowledge, could be an important tool of narrative strategy for popularity keeping with a confrontation and conflict. This study aimed to explore the power and knowledge appearing in . For this purpose, it used the structuralistic methodologies of Saussure and Levi-Strauss, analyzing binary oppositions between the characters mainly connected with the knowledge and power. Three categories was analytic object, 'Place(abbey, book repository)' 'Debate on laughter', 'The argument for heresy.' As a result, we found the three materials had narrative strategy fully following binary oppositional structure. In that movie, which was deployed in a basis with knowledge and power, we eventually found that contemporary reality veiled the truth was paradoxically revealed with these narrative strategy. And we confirmed that it was very important the attribute of knowledge and power in narrative processing.