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식품과 알레르기: 유전자 재조합 식품의 알레르기 위험성

  • 손대열
    • Proceedings of the Korean Journal of Food and Nutrition Conference
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    • pp.29-34
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    • 2000
  • 산업 발달에 따라 날로 많은 식품들이 새롭게 개발되어지고 있다. 또한 이와 병행해서 식품으로 인한 알레르기 발생 빈도도 날로 증가하고 있으며 그 증상 또한 점차 심화되고 있는 것이 세계적인 추세이다. 우리나라도 예외는 아니어서 일반 알레르기 환자뿐 아니라 식품으로 인한 알레르기 환자들이 점차 증가됨이 보고되어지고 있다. 농산물 시장의 수입개방이후 우리나라에는 많은 해외 농산물이 수입되어지고 있으며 그 중 작년 한해의 경우 총 수입 농산물의 10%를 넘는 유전자 재조합 농산물이 우리나라에 수입되어진 것으로 통계 보고되어졌다. 이러한 관점에서 알레르기 환자의 증가와 새로운 식품 (특히 유전자 재조합 식품)의 증가에는 서로 관련성이 있을 것으로 추측되어지고 있어 (새로운) 식품에 대한 알레르기성의 예측과 관리가 필요한 실정이다. 이에 몇몇 발표된 유전자 재조합 식품에 관련된 알레르기성 검사 논문들과 실험실에서 이루어진 연구 결과들을 중심으로 유전자 재조합 식품의 알레르기 위험성에 대해 알아보고자 한다. 일반적으로 식품의 단백질이 알레르겐(allergen)으로 작용하기 위해서는 먼저 소화효소에 의해 분해되어지고 장에서 흡수되어져서 immunopotent cell에 의해 process 되어 immune system에 present 되어져야 한다. 따라서 단백질로 인한 알레르기 반응은 그 단백질의 자연적 형태 뿐만이 아니라 소화 효소에 분해된 단편들의 구조 또는 다른 알레르겐 단백질과의 유사 구조로 인한 교차 반응에 의해 발생함을 기억해야 한다. 식품 단백질 중 어떤 단백질이 알레르겐으로 작용하는가에 대한 특이성 조사에 많은 관심이 집중되어지고 있지만 아직까지는 대략 다섯 개 정도의 일반적인 특성으로서 요약되어질 수 있다. 그러나 이러한 대략의 특성에 적용되지 않는 식품 알레르겐도 많음을 잊어서는 안 될 것이다. 알레르겐으로 작용하는 식품 단백질의 일반적 특성 1. 좋은 수용성 2. 식품내에 많은 부분을 차지하는 주 단백질이 주 알레르겐으로 작용 3. 단백질내에 하나 이상의 IgE-binding site 존재 4. 위장액에 대한 저항성 5. 10~70 kDa 크기 유전자 재조합 기술이란 말 그대로 유전자를 인위적으로 새롭게 조합하는 기술로 이전의 기술로는 불가능했던 유전적 변형을 농작물과 동물에 가능하게 했으며 이로 인해 유전적으로 변형된 식용 동식물의 개발이 가능하게 되었다. 새로운 유전인자를 개체에 삽입함으로 새로운 단백질이 발현 될수 있고 그로 인해 1) 해충과 질병에 대한 저항성 증가, 2) 화학 제초제에 대한 새로운 저항성 부여, 3) 식품의 저장성 향상, 4) 식품의 영향적 보충/향상 등의 이점을 얻을 수 있다 (표 1). 세계적으로 유전자 재조합 된 새로운 농산물의 재배는 날로 증가추세에 있으며 그 중에서 가장 많은 부분을 차지하는 농산물로 soybean을 들 수 있으며 (표 2) soybean을 중심으로 그 알레르기성의 변화가 연구 조사된 몇 가지 예를 살펴보고자 한다. (표 3)에 요약된 soybean중 첫 번째 경우는 재초제에 대한 저항성을 높여주기 위해 Agrobacterium에 존재하는 EPSPS라는 단백질을 콩에서 발현하도록 찬 유전자 재조합 된 콩의 경우이다. 이 콩의 경우에는 첫째. 이전된 새로운 단백질 EPSPS가 다른 여러 식물에 이미 존재하고 있는 단백질로서 우리가 이미 이러한 식품을 섭취할 때 이 단백질도 같이 섭취해오고 있었다는 점, 둘째. 이 단백질이 소화액 분해 실험에서 짧은 시간내에 분해가 되었다는 점, 셋째. 재조합 된 콩과 자연 콩이 성분 분석에서 차이를 나타내지 않았다는 점, 네 번째. 쥐를 통한 다양섭취 실험에서 아무런 이상 반응이 없었다는 점등의 결과를 기준으로 알레르기에 대한 개별 검사 없이 안전한 콩으로 결론짓고 있다. 영양성을 높이기 위해 Brazil nut에서 methionine 함량이 풍부한 2s albumine을 콩에서 발현하도록 한 두 번째 유전자 재조합 콩의 경우 이전된 단백질 때문에 Brazil nut에 알레르기 반응을 일으키는 알레르기 환자들을 조사한 결과 역시 재조합 된 콩에도 알레르기 반응을 일으켰다는 보고이다. Brazil nut에서 콩으로 이전된 단백질이 Brazil nut에서의 알레르기성을 그대로 유지한 점을 볼 때 새로운 단백질이 어디에서 유래하는가가 중요함을 잘 보여준 연구이다 세 번째 콩의 경우 역시 영양성을 높여주기 위해 corn에서 10 kDa과 HSZ 단백질을 콩에서 발현하도록 유전자 재조합했는데 이 콩의 경우는 알레르기 환자들이 유전자 재조합 된 콩과 자연 콩에 반응의 차이를 나타내지 않았다는 결과 보고이다. 위의 세 실험 결과들을 종합해 볼 때 무엇보다도 새롭게 발현된 단백질이 원래 어떤 성질을 갖고 있으며 어디에서 유래했는지가 알레르기성 조사에 중요한 역할을 한다 할 수 있겠다. 또한 유전자 재조합된 식품들은 알레르기 환자들을 위해 표기되어져야 할 것인데 이를 위한 알레르기성 검사 실험은 공공단체를 통해 이루어져야 할 것이며 환자들마다 알레르겐으로 작용하는 단백질의 인식부위(epitope)가 다를 수 있기 때문에 적어도 10명 이상의 알레르기 환자들이 조사되어져서 검사가 이루어져야 할 것이다. 환자들의 혈청을 통한 in vitro 실험에서는 ELISA, RAST, immunoblotting과 같은 검사 방법들이 적용될 수 있고, 그 결과가 음성인 경우에 그 다음 단계로 in vivo 실험에서는 직접 환자의 피부반응검사 (skin prick test)나 DBPCFC (double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge) 검사 방법을 통해 확인되어져서 이 모든 경우가 음성인 경우와 하나라도 양성인 경우를 구별하여 식품에 표기함으로 알레르기 환자들의 유전자 재조합 식품에 대한 안전성이 보장되어져야 할 것이다.

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Immunohistochemical Detection of p53, erbB-2 and CEA Oncoprotein in Lung Cancer; Clinical Correlations (폐암 환자에서 면역조직화학 염색을 통한 p53, erbB-2, CEA 종양단백 발현과 임상적 의의)

  • Jeong, Seong-Su;Kang, Dong-Won;Lee, Gyu-Seung;Ko, Dong-Seok;Suh, Jae-Chul;Kim, Geun-Hwa;Shin, Kyoung-Sang;Kim, Ju-Ock;Song, Gyu-Sang;Kim, Sun-Young
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.766-775
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    • 1998
  • Background : The prognosis of patients with lung cancer is still poor. Lung cancer exhibits a variable clinical outcome, even in those patients with same stage. Numerous reports suggest that oncogene expression might playa role in explaining the variability of response and survival But many of these reports are still under debate. So we studied the clinical relevance of oncogene expression in Korean lung cancer patients. Immunohistochemistry of p53, erbB-2, CEA expression was performed. Method: From March, 1992 until March, 1997, 120 patients with lung cancer were reviewed. p53, erbB-2, and CEA expression were detected on paraffin-embedded tumor blocks with the use of monoclonal antibodies. The survival and response has correlated with the expressibility of p53, erbB-2, and CEA oncoprotein Results: Overall, the expression rates of p53, erbB-2, and CEA were 33.7%, 59.3%, and 32.6% respectively. Expression rates were not correlated to cell type or stage. Compared with response to chemotherapy, no correlation was found. The expression of p53, erbB-2, or CEA was not correlated with 2-year survival. With simultaneous applications of p53, erbB-2, and CEA, patients with 2 or more expressions also did not show poor response to chemotherapy. Conclusion: We conclude the p53, erbB-2, and CEA expression are clinically less useful in predicting response to chemotherapy or survival.

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The Preference and Inhibitory Effect of Root Vegetables on β-Glucuronidase and Tryptophanase of Human Intestinal Bacteria (근채류의 기호도와 장내세균의 유해효소 억제효과)

  • Han, Myung Joo;Kim, Na Young
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.555-564
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    • 1999
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the preference of root vegetables and the inhibitory effect of the vegetables on harmful enzymes of intestinal bacteria. Two hundred fifty respondents in Seoul area surveyed to obtain information from Sep. 30 to Oct. 30, 1998. Respondents preferred Inpuomoea batatas (sweet potato, 4.05), Solanum tuberosum(potato, 3.97), Allium cepa(onion, 3.68), Codonopsis lanceolata(3.64) and Raponus sativus(redish, 3.60). The growth of B. breve K-110 was effectively increased by adding 0.5% extract of Solanum tuberosum(139%), Codonopsis lamceolate(145%), Dioscorea japonica(164%), Colocisia antiquorum(144%) extract to the medium. B. breve K-100 for beneficial bacteria, and E. coli HGU-3 or Bacteroides JY-6 for harmful bacteria were used to determine the inhibitory effect of root vegetables on harmful intestinal enzymes after co-culturing harmful and beneficial bacteria. The extract of Solanum tuberosum, Codonopsis lanceolata, Dioscorea japonica (yam) and Colocisia antiquorum (taroes) showed inhibitory effect on ${\beta}$-glucuronidase and tryptophanase of intestinal bacteria. The macromolecules were isolated from Solanum tuberosum, Codonopsis lanceolata, Dioscorea japonica and Colocisia antiquorum by Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. By adding these isolated marcromolecules to the medium, the growth of B. breve K-100 were also increased and high inhibitory effects on the ${\beta}$-glucuronidase and tryptophanase were measured. These results suggested that the harmful enzymes of intestinal bacteria were inhibited by consuming Solanum tuberosum, Codonopsis lanceolata, Dioscorea japonica and Colocisia antiquorum. Therefore, they could prevent gastrointestinal diseases.

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Experimental Models of Schizophrenia (정신분열병의 실험적 모델)

  • Cheon, Jin-Sook
    • Korean Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.153-160
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    • 1999
  • Animal models can provide a useful tool for the study of some aspects of psychiatric disorders and their treatment. The four criteria for the evaluation of animal models of psychiatric disorders are as following : 1) similarity of inducing conditions 2) similarity of behavioral state 3) common underlying neurobiological mechanisms 4) reversal by clinically effective treatment techniques. Several animal models have been proposed for schizophrenia : phenylethylamine model, L-dopa model, hallucinogen model, cocaine model, amphetamine model, phencyclidine model, noradrenergic reward system lesion model, reticular stimulation model, social isolation model, conditioned avoidance reaction, catalepsy test, paw test, self-stimulation paradigms, latent inhibition paradigms, blocking paradigms, prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex, rodent interaction, social behavior in monkeys, hippocampal damage, high ambient pressure, and models using selective breeding. Among them, animals with bilateral lesion of the hippocampus may provide an adequate animal model for several symptoms of schizophrenia, and ketamine model can reproduce negative symptoms and cognitive deficits as well as positive symptoms of schizophrenia. In conclusion, no model of schizophrenia is entirely representative of the disease, and findings gleaned from model systems must be cautiously interpreted. Furthermore, the process of developing and validating animal models must work in concert with the process to identify reliable measures of human phenomenology.

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Initial Experience of Robotic Cardiac Surgery (수술로봇을 이용한 심장수술 첫 체험)

  • Cho Sung Woo;Chung Cheol Hyun;Kim Kyoung Sun;Choo Suk Jung;Song Hyung;Song Meong Gun;Lee Jae Won
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.38 no.5
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    • pp.366-370
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    • 2005
  • Background: In general, cardiac surgery has been performed via median sternotomy. During the past decade, improvements in endoscopic equipment and operative techniques have resulted in development of minimally invasive cardiac operation using small incisions. With the advent of a voice controlled camera-holding robotic arm (AESOP 3000, Automated Endoscope System for Optimal Positioning), cardiac surgery entered the robotic age. Material and Method: Between April 2004 and December 2004, a total of seventy eight patients underwent robotic cardiac surgery, of whom sixty four patients underwent robot-assisted minimally invasive cardiac surgery via 5cm right lateral minithoracotomy using voice controlled robotic arm, femoral vessels cannulation, percutaneous internal jugular cannulation, transthoracic aortic cross clamp. Other fourteen patients underwent MIDCAB via internal mammary artery harvesting using AESOP. Result: Robotic cardiac surgery were mitral valve repair in 37 cases, mitral valve replacement in 10 cases, aortic valve replacement in 1 case, MIDCAB in 14 cases, ASD operation in 9 cases, and isolated Maze procedure in 1 case. In mitral operation, mean CPB time was $165.3\pm43.1$ minutes and mean ACC time was $110.4\pm48.2$ minutes. Median length of hospital stay was 6 days (range 3 to 30) in mitral operation, 4 days (range 2 to 7) in MIDCAB, and 4 days (range 2 to 6) in ASD operation. For complications, 3 patients were required by reoperation for bleeding. There was no hospital mortality. Conclusion: Our experience of robot cardiac surgery suggests that many cardiovascular surgeons will be able to perform minimally invasive cardiac operations through small incisions with robot-assisted video-direction. Well-designed studies and close long-term follow-up will be required to analyze the benefits of robot-assisted operation.

Multi channel far field speaker verification using teacher student deep neural networks (교사 학생 심층신경망을 활용한 다채널 원거리 화자 인증)

  • Jung, Jee-weon;Heo, Hee-Soo;Shim, Hye-jin;Yu, Ha-Jin
    • The Journal of the Acoustical Society of Korea
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.483-488
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    • 2018
  • Far field input utterance is one of the major causes of performance degradation of speaker verification systems. In this study, we used teacher student learning framework to compensate for the performance degradation caused by far field utterances. Teacher student learning refers to training the student deep neural network in possible performance degradation condition using the teacher deep neural network trained without such condition. In this study, we use the teacher network trained with near distance utterances to train the student network with far distance utterances. However, through experiments, it was found that performance of near distance utterances were deteriorated. To avoid such phenomenon, we proposed techniques that use trained teacher network as initialization of student network and training the student network using both near and far field utterances. Experiments were conducted using deep neural networks that input raw waveforms of 4-channel utterances recorded in both near and far distance. Results show the equal error rate of near and far-field utterances respectively, 2.55 % / 2.8 % without teacher student learning, 9.75 % / 1.8 % for conventional teacher student learning, and 2.5 % / 2.7 % with proposed techniques.

A SURVEY ON THE PARENTAL PREFERENCE ON PEDIATRIC DENTIST AND THEIR BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUE (소아치과 의사와 행동조절방법에 대한 보호자의 선호도 조사)

  • Park, Soo-Jin;Jung, Tae-Sung;Kim, Shin
    • THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.204-209
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this survey was to investigate parental recognition and preference on pediatric dentist and their behavior management technique. The subjects were the parents of new children visiting the Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Pusan National University Hospital for 6 months. The questionnaire was performed over 2 times : at 1st visit and 1 month after that. The parental preference about pediatric dentist - one's sex, color of gown and glass-wearing - and about behavior management technique - parental separation, oral sedation, voice control and physical restraints-were asked through the questionaire and obtained the results were as fellows: 1. The preference on sex of dentists was not shown. 2. The parents recognized not so close relation between glass-wearing and children's anxiety level, but on color of gown, showed various opinions. 3. Most parents opposed to the separation from their children in operatory. 4. For the behavior management technique, parents accepted generally. 5. There was no significant difference between the first and second survey.

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Possibility of Motor Speech Improvement in People With Spinocerebellar Ataxia via Intensive Speech Treatment (집중치료를 통한 소뇌운동실조증 환자의 말운동개선 가능성)

  • Park, Youngmi
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.18 no.11
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    • pp.634-642
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    • 2018
  • People with spinocerebellar ataxia, a hereditary and progressive neurogenic disorder, suffer from ataxic dysarthria due to cerebellar dystrophy. This study was designed to examine if intensive motor speech treatment yields improvement in progressive ataxic dysarthria and if then, to investigate magnitude of therapeutic effect. SPEAK $OUT!^{(R)}$ was provided to a 55-year old female diagnosed with SCA for improving motor speech functions. Magnitude of therapeutic effect was large in changes of MPT and vocal intensity across speech tasks. Small effect size was found in changes of fundamental frequency, however, large therapeutic effect was observed in changes of frequency range. In addition, improvement of vocal quality based on jitter, shimmer, and HNR was observed with large therapeutic effect size and vowel space was expanded, particularly, due to F1. Lastly, VHI scores were decreased. Intensive motor speech treatment, called as SPEAK $OUT!^{(R)}$ was effective enough to observe improvement in vocal intensity, frequency range, and vocal quality, expanding vowel space and lowering VHI scores. Based on the results of this case study, further efficacy evaluation of SPEAK $OUT!^{(R)}$ for improving progressive ataxic dysarthria in people with SCA is required.

Classification standard of Communication Tool (플랫폼 분류 기준 고찰 : 감각의 입·출력)

  • Kim, Hyo-Yeun
    • Proceedings of the Korea Contents Association Conference
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    • pp.189-190
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    • 2018
  • Digital content requires the concept and structure that give us insights into the languages between computers and humans and how humans experience manifested among the flow of characters, images, and voice. Communicology, $Vil{\acute{e}}m$ Flusser's original study, allows us to reconsider and to reconstruct the boundary of human awareness. This paper intends to begin understanding digital content consisting of numerical codes by reviewing communicology. communicology helps to break up pre-existing categories and thinking about new standards. ith the help of information technology. Planning content can be actualized by classifying and reconstructing content that are input/output of senses. The standard of classification is 'boundary' and 'direction,' communication elements that cannot be broken down any further. There is no need to communicate if there is no boundary. The operation of communication is comprised of 'direction.' Considering humankind as the standard, the boundary that takes in stimulation from outside can be seen as senses. Direction can be expressed as input/output. Output assumes that technical pictures receive information. The coordinates for various pre-existing platforms and content and uncovered platforms can be set with a consistent standard. This allows us to escape from the standard of flat content that was activated by sight and rationality at the ideology of characters, to seek a three-dimensional standard that can be vitalized by various senses and irrationality, and to reconstruct the input/output of senses to show the possibility of planning a new platform.

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