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A Study on Legal Comparison Review of the Pilot's License System of WIG Ship(surface-flying ship) and Pilot Certification System of Aircraft (수면비행선박 조종사 면허제도와 항공기 조종사 자격증명제도의 법적 비교 검토)

  • Park, Sang-Yong
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.95-126
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    • 2020
  • In 2017, the world's first WIG ship (WIG: Wing In-Ground) pilot's license written test was conducted in Korea. The WIG ship is a ship that combines the characteristics of ships and airplanes. Therefore, the pilot of the WIG ship was allowed to apply only for those who had the aircraft pilot's license and the 6th class marine nautical license. The WIG ship pilot's license system was first introduced by Korea, so there are no international standards for the license system, and the introduction of a domestic qualification system also requires institutional arrangements due to various restrictions such as pilot training. However, in order to become a valuable industry as a future growth engine for the ocean, several urgent problems need to be solved, and that is the training of manpower for WIG ships. Therefore, I reviewed the institutional issues related to pilot training as this subject. Since 2001, various countries around the world have been discussing this issue, centering on IMO, and Korea has continued to participate and cooperate in IMO meetings. And the national qualification test for surface flying ships was conducted in Korea from 2011. However, there are still problems to be solved, and I pointed out the advancement of the manpower training system, the education and training system, and the designated national educational institution system. As a solution to this, it was suggested through the improvement of the license system and the operation of designated educational institutions. Among these solutions, I believe that the best way is to entrust the operation of designated national educational institutions to private educational institutions. However, I propose a plan that the government entrusts to private educational institutions, but the government is responsible for licensing and supervision. WIG ship will be a new market for the aviation industry and aviation workers.

A study on Yang Shi Tai Chi Chuan in Bartenieff Fundamentals Perspectives (바티니에프 기본원리를 통해 본 양식 태극권에 관한 연구)

  • Wang, Zhiquan
    • Trans-
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    • v.8
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    • pp.95-127
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    • 2020
  • This research is based on using Bartenieff Fundamentals to analyze the fundamentals of Tai Chi Chuan's movements in order to develop the methods of relaxation from Tai Chi Chuan's principle movement movements It also shows that the two techniques have commonalities in many ways. First of all, taking a philosophical approach on the body movements of Tai Chi Chuan and Bartenieff, for both methods the ultimate goal is the integration of mind and body. In other words, there is a thread of connection between the East's body and mind monism and the west's Body Awareness. Secondly, looking at it from a Breath Support standpoint as used in the Bartenieff method, the two methods both use the breathing to naturally move the body and relax the body. In Tai Chi Chuan the Breath is the basis of life and the strength of the Body. So the breathing of Tai Chi chuan is what makes body and mind communicate, harmonize and integrate. In other words, Breathing in Tai Chi is realized through mental fusion and affects the movements. This is the same as the Breath Support of Bartenieff. It is said that in every aspect the Breath Support of Bartenieff influences the movement and changes both the inner and outer form of the body. Thirdly, looking at the Core Support used in the Bartenieff method, both methods emphasize core. At the same time of moving and being conscious of one's core, the usage of muscles can be deeper rather than superficial and this enables strong and flexible movement. In Tai Chi Chuan abdominal muscles used when one coughs are consciously engaged through abdominal breathing and so strength is collected in the core. When one exercises like that the core becomes more stable and breathing becomes more smooth. Fourthly, analyzing the Rotary Factor used in the Bartenieff Fundamentals, they both use rotary movement to reach the goal of physical relaxation. The rotation factor of Bartenieff allows movement to be easier and more free because of the characteristic of joint exercise where the center axis moved in three dimensions, this is the same in Tai Chi chuan. According to Tai Chi chuan's circle and Spiral Movements, it can achieve the relaxation through switching into a seamless flow and access space as much as possible. Finally, when looking at Developmental Patterning through Bonnie Bainbridge Cohen's Body-Mind Centering Work theory, presented from Bartenieff developmental model are similar with the developmental process of Tai Chi chuan Breath, Core-Distal Connectivity/Navel Radiation, Head-Tail Connectivity/Spinal Movement, Upper-Lower Connectivity/Homologous, Body-Half Connectivity/Homo-Lateral Connectivity, Cross-Lateral Connectivity/Contra-Lateral Connectivity. They are all similar. In other words, in Tai Chi Chuan energy is gathered in the core through breathing, upper and lower body are connected through the spine, not only homo-laterally but also cross-laterally. Through this study the expression of the dance movements can be more natural. Additionally based on the Body Awareness balance usage of the central axis, joints and body can develop the relax technique.

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Control of Stretching of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) on Cylindrical Paper Pot Seedling Using High-Salinity Potassium Fertilizers (고농도 칼륨처리를 활용한 원통형 종이포트 토마토묘의 도장억제)

  • Xu, Chan;Kim, Si Hong;Kim, Dae Hoon;Kim, Jae Kyung;Heo, Jae Yun;Vu, Ngoc Thang;Choi, Ki Young;Kim, Il Seop;Jang, Dong Cheol
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.354-364
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    • 2020
  • This study was conducted to examine the potential of inducing salinity stress on cylindrical paper pot tomato seedlings to inhibit overgrowth. Potassium fertilizers, sulfate of potash (K2SO4), muriate of potash (KCl), and monopotassium phosphate (KH2PO4), were prepared as two solutions of (5 and 10) dS·m-1 salinity level, respectively, to investigate the influence on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seedling growth. We also investigated the adaptability and survivability of treated tomato seedlings with high-salinity potassium (10 dS·m-1 KCl) to harsh environmental conditions (water deficit, low temperature, and storage conditions). Repeated addition of high-salinity level KCl, K2SO4, or KH2PO4 markedly decreased the dry matter of shoot and root, leaf area, and net assimilate rates (NAR) but increased the stem diameter of seedlings. Among the three sources, the relative growth rate of plant height (RGRH) was most sensitive to KCl addition; increasing salinity levels of KCl solution decreased the RGRH of seedlings. The compactness, which directly reflects the stocky growth index, increased in KCl or KH2PO4 treatments. After a week's water deficit, severely wilted seedlings were observed in control seedlings (untreated with KCl), but no wilted seedlings were observed in the KCl treated seedlings, and the relative water content (RWC) of the untreated seedlings significantly decreased by 23 %, while that of the pretreated seedlings only decreased by 8 %. The increase in ion leakage of KCl treated seedlings at low temperatures was less than that of untreated seedlings. Furthermore, there was far lower damage proportion on pretreated seedlings at (9, 12, and 15)℃ storage temperatures after 20 days, compared with on unpretreated seedlings. Our results suggest that high-salinity potassium fertilizer, especially KCl, is effective in preventing tomato seedling overgrowth, while it also improves tolerance.

The Effects of Bilateral Chewing Exercise on Occlusion Force and Masseter Muscle Thickness in Community-Dwelling Elderly (양측저작 운동이 지역사회 거주 노인의 교합력과 깨물근에 미치는 효과)

  • Hong, Jun-Yong;Jung, Young-Jin;Kim, Min-Ji;Hwang, Se-Hyun;Park, Ji-Su;Lee, Gi-Hyoun;Kim, Tae-Hoon;Jung, Nam-Hae;Yoon, Tae-Hyung
    • The Journal of Korean society of community based occupational therapy
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.31-38
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    • 2020
  • Objective : The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of bilateral chewing exercise applied for 6 weeks on occlusion force and masseter muscle thickness in the elderly living in the community. Methods : This study recruited 25 community residents. All participants performed bilateral chewing exercise using equipment developed for the purpose of oral chewing exercise. The chewing exercise was divided into isometric and isotonic type and applied for about 20 minutes a day, five times a week for six weeks. For the evaluation, the masseter muscle thickness and the maximum occlusion force were measured three times at three week intervals using a portable ultrasound instrument and an occlusion force gauge. Results : As a result of the change in masseter muscle thickness, baseline, 3 weeks later, and 6 weeks later referred to 7.51±0.43, 7.63±0.44, and 7.83±0.46, respectively (F=3.819, p<.05). The post hoc test resulted in a significance between baseline and 6 weeks later (p=0.023). Similarly, as a result of the change in occlusion force, baseline, 3 weeks later, and 6 weeks later referred to 265±9.22, 268±9.57, and 271.59±10.16, respectively (F=3.031, p<.05). The post hoc test resulted in a significance between baseline and 6 weeks later (p=0.048). Conclusion : This study confirmed that bilateral chewing exercise was effective for increasing masseter muscle thickness and occlusion force in the elderly. Therefore, bilateral chewing exercise can be applied as a therapeutic exercise method for improving oral function.

The Awareness of the Dietary Education and Dietary Management Competency of (Preliminary) Teachers in Primary and Secondary Schools (초·중등 예비교사와 교사의 식생활 교육에 대한 인식과 식생활 관리 역량)

  • Kim, Yunhwa
    • Journal of Korean Home Economics Education Association
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.215-231
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    • 2018
  • Attitudes to the health and dietary life of teachers affect their students. The purpose of this study was to investigate dietary and education awareness, eating habits and dietary management competency of the preliminary teachers and teachers. Data was collected from 812 pre-service teachers and teachers in South Korea using a 5-Likert self-administrated questionnaire in October to December of 2017. Data was analyzed using factor analysis, reliability, one-way analysis of variance, and correlation. The results of this study are as follows. Dietary and education awareness was classified into dietary concern and dietary management stress. Eating habits composed of healthy eating habit and bad eating habit. Dietary management competency was sub-grouped into dietary knowledge, cooking, dietary sanitation and safety, and environment. The all factors of pre - service teachers and teachers showed a significant difference except for the environmental ability factor (p <0.01). All factors were significantly different according to the age and the number of meal preparation (p <0.05). The eating habits were not significantly differences from sex. The major and health condition showed significant differences except dietary management stress and cooking factors (p <0.01). The obesity index showed significant difference in the dietary concern, bad eating habits, and cooking factors (p <0.01). In conclusion, it was required to education and develop education materials that can help the STEAM education using the dietary area. The dietary education program for the pre - service teachers and the teachers should increase the number of participating in the meal preparation considering the difference according to the general characteristics, so that the dietary management competency and the healthy eating habits should be formed.

Survey of Conflict of Interest in the Clinical Research for IRB Members and Researchers (임상시험심사위원회 위원과 연구자를 대상으로 임상연구에서 이해상충에 대한 설문조사연구)

  • Maeng, Chi Hoon;Kang, Su Jin;Lee, Sun Ju;Yim, Hyeon Woo;Choe, Byung-in;Shin, Im Hee;Huh, Jung-Sik;Kwon, Ivo;Yoo, Soyoung;Lee, Mi-Kyung;Shin, Hee-Young;Kim, Duck-An
    • The Journal of KAIRB
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.23-31
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    • 2020
  • Purpose: To obtain opinions from Korean Institutional Review Board (IRB) members' self-evaluation on ability to conduct fairness review of clinical trial protocol with presence of conflict of interest and from investigators and IRB members on financial conflict of interest through surveying. Methods: IRB members and researchers in 9 different hospitals were asked to answer survey questions via email. Results: Responders were 115 personnel (IRB Chair/vice 18, medical member 30, non-medical member 28, and researcher 39) from 9 centers. Compared to IRB medical members, IRB chair/vice respondents scored higher with statistically significance on 10 point scale (8.44±1.381 vs. 7.30±1.685, p=0.005) when asked to self-evaluate fairness reviewing a protocol proposed by an investigator from the same department and a protocol from the company that supports the scientific committee of responders. When reviewing a protocol proposed by a hospital director, non-medical members scored statistically significantly higher than medical-members (7.47±1.76 vs. 8.07±2.70, p=0.034). When asked about the limitation of labor fee for principal investigator on phase 3 Human clinical trials of the Investigational new drug, while the responses range was wide, 60% answered that labor cost of principal investigator should be less than 30% of total budget for clinical trials with a budget of 100 million won. 51.3% answered that there is no need to disclose the labor cost of the principal investigator in the consent form. Since every investigator can be influenced unconsciously by conflict of interest, the answer that 'responder agrees that there is need for management' was the most chosen answer (IRB member 61.8%, investigator 64.1%, multiple answers allowed). Conclusion: Considering scores on questions of fairness by IRB members were between 7.23-8.56 on scale of 0 to 10 point when IRB members were asked about reviewing a clinical trial protocol, it cannot be said with absolute certainty that there is no issue regarding fairness in the review process. Therefore, there should be more ways to safeguard fairness for these issues. There is a need that the disclosure amount of honorarium from sponsor should be lower than 100 million Korean won. Considering the results of the survey in which respondents expressed their thoughts, it is likely that more education on the concept of conflict of interest is needed.

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Characteristics of Academic-, Social-, Emotional-, and Career Adaptation to College Life among Clustered Freshmen Using DEU-GRIT: A Focus on D University (DEU-GRIT을 활용한 군집화된 대학 신입생의 대학 생활 적응(학업, 사회, 정서 및 진로 적응) 특성 분석 연구: D 대학을 중심으로)

  • Lee, Jung-Hee;Kang, Chang-Wan;Park, Ae-Young;Ko, Mi-Na;Kang, Jung-Im;Shin, Ji-Young;Choi, Seo-Hyun;Lee, Jin-Hyun;Ham, Su-Min;Kim, Boseong
    • Science of Emotion and Sensibility
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.19-36
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    • 2020
  • This study is aimed at analyzing the characteristics of adaptation to college life among freshmen of D University by utilizing the DEU-GRIT test. To achieve this, we examined differences in level of college life adaptation according to gender and major, and explored the characteristics of college life adaptation among college freshmen who were clustered based on their level of academic, social, emotional, and career adaptation, which is an important factor in adaptation to college life. Moreover, based on the DEU-GRIT test standards, we also explored the characteristics of their college life adaptation by sorting out low level groups of freshmen with difficulties adapting. The results demonstrated that male students had a higher level of emotional adaptation than female students, and that science and technology majors had higher levels of academic and emotional adaptation than students in the humanities and society majors. Furthermore, a cluster analysis based on 4 factor levels of college life adaptation showed that cluster 1 had a high level of adaptability to all factors, but cluster 3 had a low level of adaptability to all factors. Moreover, while cluster 2 showed a high level of emotional adaptation, cluster 4 showed a low level of emotional adaptation. On the other hand, a lower-standard group of DEU-GRIT tests showed that the level of academic adaptation and social adaptation was higher among female students than among male students. However, the overall level of college life, academic, and emotional adaptation were higher among science and technology students than among those majoring in humanities and social studies. In addition, a cluster analysis based on the level of 4 factors of college life adaptation of lower-standard groups showed that cluster 1 of the lower-standard groups had a high level of emotional adaptation, while cluster 2 of the lower-standard groups had a low level of emotional and career adaptation and a high level of academic and social adaptation. Also, cluster 3 of the lower-standard groups was found to have low levels of all factors, and cluster 4 of the lower-standard groups showed low levels of social and emotional adaptation and high levels of academic and career adaptation. This indicates that, in terms of social and emotional adaptation among freshmen, participation in psychological counseling programs tailored according to gender is necessary and, regarding the major, relative emotional intervention is required due to the high and low expectations of job prospects. In conclusion, the emotional and social adaptation to college life among the lower-level groups is likely to serve as a protective factor for college life adaptation, suggesting that specific intervention should be contemplated.

Natural Language Processing Model for Data Visualization Interaction in Chatbot Environment (챗봇 환경에서 데이터 시각화 인터랙션을 위한 자연어처리 모델)

  • Oh, Sang Heon;Hur, Su Jin;Kim, Sung-Hee
    • KIPS Transactions on Computer and Communication Systems
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    • v.9 no.11
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    • pp.281-290
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    • 2020
  • With the spread of smartphones, services that want to use personalized data are increasing. In particular, healthcare-related services deal with a variety of data, and data visualization techniques are used to effectively show this. As data visualization techniques are used, interactions in visualization are also naturally emphasized. In the PC environment, since the interaction for data visualization is performed with a mouse, various filtering for data is provided. On the other hand, in the case of interaction in a mobile environment, the screen size is small and it is difficult to recognize whether or not the interaction is possible, so that only limited visualization provided by the app can be provided through a button touch method. In order to overcome the limitation of interaction in such a mobile environment, we intend to enable data visualization interactions through conversations with chatbots so that users can check individual data through various visualizations. To do this, it is necessary to convert the user's query into a query and retrieve the result data through the converted query in the database that is storing data periodically. There are many studies currently being done to convert natural language into queries, but research on converting user queries into queries based on visualization has not been done yet. Therefore, in this paper, we will focus on query generation in a situation where a data visualization technique has been determined in advance. Supported interactions are filtering on task x-axis values and comparison between two groups. The test scenario utilized data on the number of steps, and filtering for the x-axis period was shown as a bar graph, and a comparison between the two groups was shown as a line graph. In order to develop a natural language processing model that can receive requested information through visualization, about 15,800 training data were collected through a survey of 1,000 people. As a result of algorithm development and performance evaluation, about 89% accuracy in classification model and 99% accuracy in query generation model was obtained.

Evaluation of Attenuation Rate Error on Skin Dosimeter using Monte Carlo Simulation in Photon and Electron Beam Therapy (광자선 및 전자선 치료에서 피부선량계의 측정과 시뮬레이션을 이용한 감약률 오차 평가)

  • Han, Moo-Jae;Yang, Seung-Woo;Heo, Seung-Uk;Bae, Sang-Il;Moon, Young-Min;Park, Sung-Kwang;Kim, Jin-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.841-848
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    • 2020
  • In the field of radiation therapy using photon beams and electron beams, since each patient has a different sensitivity to radiation, skin side effects may occur even at the same dose. Therefore, if there is a risk of excessive dose to the skin, a dosimeter is attached to verify whether the correct dose is being investigated. However, since the skin dosimeter checks the attachment site visually by measuring a point dose, it is difficult to confirm an accurate dose distribution. As a result, the measurement and simulation errors of the material HgI2 in the 6 MV photon beam were 3.73% and 5.24%, respectively, at the minimum thickness of 25 ㎛, and the material PbI2 was 4.73% and 5.65%, respectively. On the other hand, as a result of the 6 MeV electron beam, the measurement and simulation errors of the material HgI2 were 1.35% and 1.12%, respectively, at a minimum thickness of 25 ㎛, and the material PbI2 showed relatively low attenuation error, 1.67% and 1.20%, respectively. Therefore, it was evaluated that the thickness of the photon beam within 25 ㎛ and the electron beam within 100 ㎛ is suitable to have a reduction rate error within 5%. This study presents a new research direction for a flexible dosimeter attached to the human body that is required in clinical practice and the construction conditions of a future skin dosimeter.

A Study of the Gwanbok (1st period) of Meritorious Vassals' Portraits in the Joseon Dynasty (조선시대 공신초상(功臣肖像)의 관복(제1기) 고찰)

  • Kim, Migyung;Lee, Eunjoo
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.53 no.2
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    • pp.180-203
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    • 2020
  • In this study, the period before the Gwanbok of meritorious vassals' portraits was expressed in the acheongsaek-Heuk-Danryung was defined as the first period, and the costumes worn in portraits of meritorious vassals from Gaeguk (1392) in the early Joseon Dynasty to Jwali (1471) during the era of King Seongjong were reviewed. The portraits(1476) of Jeokgae meritorious vassals (1467) depicted as the Gwanbok of acheongsaek Heuk-Danryung were excluded. Among the copies that are currently considered to be portraits of meritorious vassals belonging to the first period, the portraits of Lee-je, Lee Cheon-woo, Ma Cheon-mok, Shin Suk-ju, Seol Gye-jo, and Lee Sung-won were selected, and the formative characteristics of Gwanbok components were examined. The Samo of Sam-Gongsin in the early Joseon Dynasty had a low height, a rounded end, and the side wings were narrow and short. However, since King Danjong, Jeongnan·Jwali meritorious vassals retained a higher form, and the side wings were twice as long. It was also confirmed that the pattern was not expressed in the side wings. The Danryung was expressed in light-colored Danryung without specific colors at the beginning of the country. After King Sejong, the Heuk-Danryung system for Yebok began, but it was not reflected in the Gwanbok of meritorious vassals' portraits, and was expressed as damhongsaek-Danryung after King Danjong. The pattern was not expressed on the exterior of the Danryung, and inner-wrinkled Mu was expressed on the side line. The Dapho and Cheolrik, the undergarments of the Danryung, were also confirmed as being blue (the Dapho) and green (the Cheolrik) after the Jeongnan meritorious vassals. The early Sam-Gongsin's Pumgye was expressed by rank belt, but as the system of rank badge was established after King Danjong, it began to express the Pumgye by rank badge and rank belt. Among the portraits of meritorious vassals, the rank badge was expressed only in the portrait of Sin Suk-ju, a Jeongnan meritorious vassal. As Hwaja worn on the Danryung, Heuk-hwa were confirmed in the Sam-Gongsin portraits of the early Joseon Dynasty. However, in the portraits of Jeongnan and Jwali meritorious vassals after King Danjong, the Baek-hwa was confirmed. In addition, in the seam parts of the Heuk-hwa and Baek-hwa identified in some portraits of meritorious vassals, Hwi decorated with yeongeumsa were identified, and it was found that the Hwaja decorated with Hwi were the Hyeopgeum-hwa worn by the 3rd rank and above.