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Evaluation on Heavy Metal Contents in Agricultural Soils around Industrial Complexes in Korea (공단 인근 농경지 토양 중 중금속 함량 평가)

  • Yun, Sun-Gang;Chae, Mi-Jin;Kim, Yoo-Hak;Kong, Myung-Suk;Jung, Ha-il;Kim, Suk-Cheol;Kim, Myoung-Suk;Park, Seong-Jin;Lee, Chang-Hoon;Yang, Jae-E;Kim, Sung-Chul;Kim, Gi-In;Kim, Gwon-Rae;Jung, Goo-Bok
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.141-145
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    • 2018
  • BACKGROUND: Agricultural soils are vulnerable from contamination of heavy metal derived from industrial waste. Monitoring on heavy metals on agricultural soils around industrial complexes and evaluation on distributional state on the concentrations of heavy metals in soil have been carried out for problem assessment on soil condition. METHODS AND RESULTS: Soil samples of 1,200, were collected from sixty site of industrial complexes located Gyounggi, Chungbuk, Cheonbuk, and Gyoungnam provinces. Total concentration of Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, and As were analyzed. Heavy metal concentrations in most soil samples were below warning criteria, except 1 site of Pb, Ni, and As, separately. The comparison of mean values of heavy metal concentrations between soils around industrial complexes and paddy soils, showed similar levels of heavy metals, except Pb. The concentrations of lots of heavy metals were distributed between from warning criteria to one fifth level of warning criteria. However, in the case of Cu and Pb, more than 30% were distributed below one twenties level of warning criteria. These results were very similar with the distribution state of heavy metals in upland soils. The concentrations of heavy metals in surface soil and subsoil were similar among the heavy metals in soils around industrial complexes. CONCLUSION: The concentrations of heavy metals in soils around industrial complexes were distributed close to warning criteria. Long term and continous monitoring and evaluation on heavy metals in agricultural soils are required for food safety and sustainable soil management.

The Study on the Role of 3D Animated Pre-visualization in VFX FilmProduction (VFX 영화 제작을 위한 3D animatied Pre-visualization(3D애니메이티드 사전시각화)의 역할에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Sung-Ho
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
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    • pp.293-319
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    • 2018
  • Thanks to the advancement of the related technologies and equipment, today's video contents like movies, animations and soap operas are rapidly expanding their expressible cinematic imagination area. In order to fulfill the elevated visual expectations of audiences and realize exciting storytelling and fantastic world, the fusion of different techniques is actively used, and the reality for visual effects and image synthesis is increasing more and more. Accordingly, recent VFX-oriented movies using CG have a much more complicated production process than before. Therefore, the importance of Pre-visualization, aka Pre-vis is becoming bigger in the planning process for sophisticated design. Pre-vis means that the advance visualization for stories or directing ideas in the planning process before starting production of movies or animations. 3D animated Pre-visualization realizing directors' abstract and ambiguous ideas in 3 dimensional environment in advance is, as a powerful means for visual storytelling, briskly used focusing on the VFX film industry on which the present CG is broadly used, and the role of Pre-vis throughout productions has increased compared to the past. The studies, however, on the role and utility of Pre-vis are not enough. Therefore, this study was conducted on the role of Pre-vis used for present VFX movie productions using the examples of 3D animated Pre-visualization production in which the researcher of this study participated. In this study, the role of the Pre-vis that is subdivided presently, is divided into and 3D animatics and their each role is analyzed with the example images. Through this, the characteristics that Pre-vis should have are clarified and the concept of the advantages and utility led by the use of Pre-vis in productions is strengthened. The goal of this study is to induce active uses of Pre-vis throughout productions after forming consensus about the various roles of Pre-vis and their utility.

The role of the middle term in the integration of the two premises in linear syllogistic reasoning (선형 삼단 논법의 두 전제 통합 과정에서 중간 항목의 역할)

  • 정혜선;조명한
    • Korean Journal of Cognitive Science
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.29-46
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    • 2001
  • This study attempted to demonstrate that the integration of the two premises in linear syllogism is mediated by the middle term the term that is repeated in the two premises. In Experiment 1. we examined whether representing the middle term is more important than representing the end terms. We asked a question to each premise. Depending on the order of the questions either the two end terms or the middle term became the answer in both premises. Participants solved the problems better when the middle term became the answer suggesting that it is more important to represent the middle term than the end terms. In Experiment 2 we examined whether additional processing is needed for the integration beyond establishing co-referential link through the middle term. We pronominalized the middle term in the second premise and provided two kinds of information to disambiguate the pronoun. In the direct information condition we provided information about who the pronoun is whereas in the indirect information condition we provided information about the relative location of the pronoun. Participants solved the problems more quickly in the indirect information condition than in the direct information condition indicating that mere co-referential link was not enough and that the relative location of the middle term needs to be computed for the integration of the two premises.

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Low Temperature Inducible Acid Tolerance Response in virulent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (병원성 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium의 저온 유도성 산 내성 반응)

  • Song, Sang-Sun;Lee, Sun;Lee, Mi-Kyoung;Lim, Sung-Young;Cho, Min-Ho;Park, Young-Keun;Park, Kyeong-Ryang;Lee, In-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.228-233
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    • 2001
  • The acid tolerance response (ATR) of log-phase Salmouella enterica seroyar Typhimurium is induced by acid adaptation below pH4.5 and will protect cells against more severe acid. Two distinctive ATR systems in thisorganism are a log-phase and stationary-phase ATR in which acid adaptations trigger the synthesis of acid shockproteins (ASPs). We found that log-phase ATR system was strongly affected by environmental factor, low tem-perature, $25^{\circ}C$. Exposure to low temperature and mild acid has been shown to increase acid survival dra-matically, and this survival rate was showed higher than $37^{\circ}C$. Especially unadapted cells at $25^{\circ}C$ presented tenthousand folds survival increasing when compared with cells at $37^{\circ}C$. The degree of acid tolerance of rpoSwhich is blown to be required for acid tolerance more increase than $37^{\circ}C$. Even though AIR pattern of rpoSbetween unadapted and adapted was showed similar at pH 3.1, rpoS-dependent ATR system also has beendetected in low temperature because rpoSAp prevents sustained acid survival at $25^{\circ}C$. Therefore the resultssuggest low temperature ATR system requires rpoS-dependent and -independent both. To investigate the basisfor low temperature related ATR system, gene that was participated for low temperature acid tolerance (lat) wasscreened in virulent S. enterica serovar Typhimurium UKl Using the technique of P22- MudJ (Km, lacZ)-directed lacZ operon fusion, LF452 latA‥‥MudJ was isolated. The latA‥‥MudJ of S. enterica Typhimurium pre-vented low temperature acid tolerance response. Therefore latA is considered one of the important genes for acidadaptation.

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The Carboxyl-terminal Tail of a Heterotrimeric Kinesin 2 Motor Subunit Directly Binds to β2-tubulin (Heterotrimeric Kinesin 2 모터 단백질의 Carboxyl-말단과 β2-tubulin의 결합)

  • Jeong, Young Joo;Park, Sung Woo;Kim, Sang-Jin;Lee, Won Hee;Kim, Mooseong;Urm, Sang-Hwa;Seog, Dae-Hyun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.369-375
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    • 2019
  • Microtubules form through the polymerization of ${\alpha}-$ and ${\beta}-tubulin$, and tubulin transport plays an important role in defining the rate of microtubule growth inside cellular appendages, such as the cilia and flagella. Heterotrimeric kinesin 2 is a molecular motor member of the kinesin superfamily (KIF) that moves along the microtubules to transport multiple cargoes. It consists of two motor subunits (KIF3A and KIF3B) and a kinesin-associated protein 3 (KAP3), forming a heterotrimeric complex. Heterotrimeric kinesin 2 interacts with many different binding proteins through the cargo-binding domains of the KIF3s, but these binding proteins have not yet been specified. To identify these proteins for KIF3A, we performed yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screening and found a specific interaction with ${\beta}2-tubulin$ (Tubb2), a microtubule component. Tubb2 was found to bind to the cargo-binding domain of KIF3A but did not interact with KIF3B, KIF5B, or kinesin light chain 1 in the Y2H assay. The carboxyl-terminal region of Tubb2 is essential for interaction with KIF3A. Other Tubb isoforms, including Tubb1, Tubb3, Tubb4, and Tubb5, also interacted with KIF3A in the Y2H screening. However, ${\alpha}1-tubulin$ (Tuba1) did not interact with KIF3A. In addition, an antibody to KIF3A specifically co-immunoprecipitated the KIF3B and KAP3 associated with Tubb2 from mouse brain extracts. In combination, these results suggest that a heterotrimeric kinesin 2 motor protein is capable of binding to tubulin and may transport it in cells.

Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion Using Posterolateral Placement of A Single Cylindrical Threaded Cage and Two Regular Cages : A Biomechanical Study (단일 나사형 Cage를 이용한 후방 요추체간 융합술과 두개의 나사형 Cage를 이용한 PLIF의 생체 역학적 비교)

  • Park, Choon Keun;Hwang, Jang Hoe;Ji, Chul;Kwun, Sung Oh;Sung, Jae Hoon;Choi, Seung Jin;Lee, Sang Won;Kim, Moon Kyu;Park, Sung Chan;Cho, Kyeung Suok;Park, Chun Kun;Yuan, Hansen;Kang, Joon Ki
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.30 no.7
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    • pp.883-890
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    • 2001
  • Objectives : An in vitro biomechanical study of posterior lumbar interbody fusion(PLIF) with threaded cage using two different approaches was performed on eighteen functional spinal units of bovine lumbar spines. The purpose of this study was to compare the segmental stiffnesses among PLIF with one long posterolateral cage, PLIF with one long posterolateral cage and simultaneous facet joint fixation, and PLIF with two posterior cages. Methods : Eighteen bovine lumbar functional spinal units were divided into three groups. All specimens were tested intact and with cage insertion. Group 1(n=12) had a long threaded cage($15{\times}36mm$) inserted posterolaterally and oriented counter anterolaterally on the left side by posterior approach with left unilateral facetectomy. Group 2(n=6) had two regular length cages($15{\times}24mm$) inserted posteriorly with bilateral facetectomy. Six specimens from group 1 were then retested after unilateral facet joint screw fixation in neutral(group 3). Likewise, the other six specimens from group 1 were retested after fixation with a facet joint screw in an extended position(group 4). Nondestructive tests were performed in pure compression, flexion, extension, lateral bending, and torsion. Results : PLIF with a single cage, group 1, had a significantly higher stiffnesses than PLIF with two cages, group 2, in left and right torsion(p<0.05). Group 1 showed higher stiffness values than group 2 in pure compression, flexion, left and right bending but were not significantly different. Group 3 showed a significant increase in stiffness in comparison to group 1 for pure compression, extension, left bending and right torsion(p<0.05). For group 4, the stiffness significantly increased in comparison to group 1 for extension, flexion and right torsion(p<0.05). Although there was no significant difference between groups 3 and 4, group 4 had increased stiffness in extension, flexion, right bending and torsion. Conclusion : Posterior lumbar interbody fusion with a single long threaded cage inserted posterolaterally with unilateral facetectomy enables sufficient decompression while maintaining a majority of the posterior elements. In combination with a facet joint screw fixation, adequate postoperative stability can be achieved. We suggest that posterolateral insertion of a long threaded cage is biomechanically an ideal alternative to PLIF.

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Preliminary Experience with Cervical Implantable Titanium Cage(RABEA) in Patients with Monosegmental Degenerative Disease : Clinical and Radiological Outcomes without Cancellous Bone Filling into Cage (단일 분절 퇴행성 경추질환에서 Titanium Cage를 이용한 전방 융합술의 조기 치험 : 골편 이식을 동반하지 않은 경우의 임상적 방사선학적 초기 결과)

  • Lee, Young-Kyun;Han, Young-Min;Kim, Jong-Tae;Chung, Dong-Sup;Park, Young-Sup;Park, Chun-Kun;Kang, Joon-Ki
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.30 no.sup2
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    • pp.300-308
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    • 2001
  • Objectives : Anterior cervical discectomy and interbody fusion has become a well-accepted surgical treatment of degenerative cervical diseases. Implatable cages have a stabilizing effect without plates and no need for autogenous bone graft. The authors evaluates the effect of implatable titanium cage(RABEA) on the clinical and radiological outcomes. Methods : 34 patients with symptomatic cervical degenerative diseases due to one level disc pathology were underwent anterior cervical discectomy and interbody fusion with titanium cages(RABEA) which were not filled with cancallous bone grafts from January 1999 to May 2001. Patients with osteoporosis and older than 65 years were not included. Among them, 15 patients could be followed-up for at least 1 year. The authors retrospectively reviewed the charts and radiographic data. Mean follow-up period was $1.3{\pm}0.2years$. Results : Clinical results according to the Odom's criteria was exellent and good in 14(93%) patients. One patient with fair result showed complete loss of the disc space height due to settlement of the cage. Preoperatively, the mean height of the disc space(${\pm}$standard deviation) was $3.42{\pm}1.10mm$(range 2.0-5.5mm), and at 1 day postoperatively it was $7.88{\pm}0.90mm$(range 6.50-9.0). The mean height of the disc space after 1 year was $6.50{\pm}1.38mm$(range 3.0-8.0). The restoration of the height was statistically significant(p<0.05). The mean height after 1 year was $82.7{\pm}15.9%$ of the height at 1 day postoperatively. Preoperatively the mean value of the cervical lodortic angle was $21.8{\pm}11.8^{\circ}$ and 1 year postopertively, it was $24.5{\pm}8.3^{\circ}$, which was statistically not significant. All patients showed no abnormal movements on flexion and extension lateral film after 6 months. Conclusion : Implantable titanium cages appear safe and effective in selected patients, and their use helps to avoid complications associated with bone graft harvest. Subsidence of the cage seems to be a potential risk factor for recurrence of the symptoms. For long-term results, a longer follow-up is required.

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Simulation of Sentinel-2 Product Using Airborne Hyperspectral Image and Analysis of TOA and BOA Reflectance for Evaluation of Sen2cor Atmosphere Correction: Focused on Agricultural Land (Sen2Cor 대기보정 프로세서 평가를 위한 항공 초분광영상 기반 Sentinel-2 모의영상 생성 및 TOA와 BOA 반사율 자료와의 비교: 농업지역을 중심으로)

  • Cho, Kangjoon;Kim, Yongil
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.251-263
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    • 2019
  • Sentinel-2 Multi Spectral Instrument(MSI) launched by the European Space Agency (ESA) offered high spatial resolution optical products, enhanced temporal revisit of five days, and 13 spectral bands in the visible, near infrared and shortwave infrared wavelengths similar to Landsat mission. Landsat satellite imagery has been applied to various previous studies, but Sentinel-2 optical satellite imagery has not been widely used. Currently, for global coverage, Sentinel-2 products are systematically processed and distributed to Level-1C (L1C) products which contain the Top-of-Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance. Furthermore, ESA plans a systematic global production of Level-2A(L2A) product including the atmospheric corrected Bottom-of-Atmosphere (BOA) reflectance considered the aerosol optical thickness and the water vapor content. Therefore, the Sentinel-2 L2A products are expected to enhance the reliability of image quality for overall coverage in the Sentinel-2 mission with enhanced spatial,spectral, and temporal resolution. The purpose of this work is a quantitative comparison Sentinel-2 L2A products and fully simulated image to evaluate the applicability of the Sentinel-2 dataset in cultivated land growing various kinds of crops in Korea. Reference image of Sentinel-2 L2A data was simulated by airborne hyperspectral data acquired from AISA Fenix sensor. The simulation imagery was compared with the reflectance of L1C TOA and that of L2A BOA data. The result of quantitative comparison shows that, for the atmospherically corrected L2A reflectance, the decrease in RMSE and the increase in correlation coefficient were found at the visible band and vegetation indices to be significant.

Comparative Analysis of Heavy Metal Contamination, Mineral Composition and Spectral Characteristics of White, Reddish Brown and Mixed Precipitates Occurring at Osip Stream Drainage, Gangwondo, South Korea (강원도 오십천 수계에 분포하는 백색침전물, 적갈색침전물 및 혼합침전물의 중금속 오염, 광물조성 및 분광학적 특성의 비교분석)

  • Lim, Jeong Hwa;Yu, Jaehyung;Shin, Ji Hye;Koh, Sang-Mo
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.52 no.1
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    • pp.13-28
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    • 2019
  • This study analyzed precipitation environment, heavy metal contamination, and mineral composition of white, reddish brown and mixed precipitates occurring at the Osip stream drainage, Gangwondo. Furthermore, spectral characteristics of the precipitates associated with heavy metal contamination and mineral composition was investigated based on spectroscopic analysis. The pH range of the precipitates was 4.43-6.91 for white precipitates, 7.74-7.94 for reddish brown precipitates, and 7.59-7.9 for the mixed precipitates, respectively. XRF analysis revealed that these precipitates were contaminated with Ni, Cu, Zn, and As. The white precipitates showed high Al concentration compared to reddish brown precipitates as much as 3.3 times, and the reddish brown precipitates showed high Fe concentration compared to white precipitates as much as 15 times. XRD analysis identified that the mineral composition of the white participates was aluminocoquimbite, gibbsite, quartz, saponite, and illite, and that of reddish brown precipitates was aluminum isopropoxide, kaolinite, goethite, dolomite, pyrophyllite, magnetite, quartz, calcite, pyrope. The mineral composition of the mixed precipitates was quartz, albite, and calcite. The spectral characteristics of the precipitates was manifested by gibbsite, saponite, illite for white precipitates, goethite, kaolinite, pyrophyllite for reddish brown precipitates, and albite for the mixed precipitates, respectively. The spectral reflectance of the precipitates decreased with increase in heavy metal contamination, and absorption depth of the precipitates indicated that the heavy metal ions were adsorbed to saponite and illite for white precipitates, and goethite and magnetite for reddish brown precipitates.

The present situation and trend of China archives science (중국(中國) 당안학(檔案學)와 현황(現況) 및 발전추세(發展趨勢))

  • Feng, Fuj-Ling
    • Journal of Korean Society of Archives and Records Management
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.37-52
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    • 2001
  • 1. establishment and development of China archives science: With the centuries-old history of archives and archives management, early China archives science came into being in 1930s, and the research pushed forward by archives enterprise has made great achievements since then. 1.1 Expanding research fields: Foundation