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Effect of the Configuration of Contact Type Textile Electrode on the Performance of Heart Activity Signal Acquisition for Smart Healthcare (스마트 헬스케어를 위한 심장활동 신호 검출용 접촉식 직물전극의 구조가 센싱 성능에 미치는 영향)

  • Cho, Hyun-Seung;Koo, Hye-Ran;Yang, Jin-Hee;Lee, Kang-Hwi;Kim, Sang-Min;Lee, Jeong-Hwan;Kwak, Hwy-Kuen;Ko, Yun-Su;Oh, Yun-Jung;Park, Su-Youn;Kim, Sin-Hye;Lee, Joo-Hyeon
    • Science of Emotion and Sensibility
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.63-76
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of contact type textile electrode structure on heart activity signal acquisition for smart healthcare. In this study, we devised six contact type textile electrodes whose electrode size and configuration were manipulated for measuring heart activity signals using computerized embroidery. We detected heart activity signals using a modified lead II and by attaching each textile electrode to the chest band in four healthy male subjects in a standing static posture. We measured the signals four times repeatedly for all types of electrodes. The heart activity signals were sampled at 1 kHz using a BIOPAC ECG100, and the detected original signals were filtered through a band-pass filter. To compare the performance of heart activity signal acquisition among the different structures of the textile electrodes, we conducted a qualitative analysis using signal waveform and size as parameters. In addition, we performed a quantitative analysis by calculating signal power ratio (SPR) of the heart activity signals obtained through each electrode. We analyzed differences in the performance of heart activity signal acquisition of the six electrodes by performing difference and post-hoc tests using nonparametric statistic methods on the calculated SPR. The results showed a significant difference both in terms of qualitative and quantitative aspects of heart activity signals among the tested contact type textile electrodes. Regarding the configurations of the contact type textile electrodes, the three-dimensionally inflated electrode (3DIE) was found to obtain better quality signals than the flat electrode. However, regarding the electrode size, no significant difference was found in performance of heart signal acquisition for the three electrode sizes. These results suggest that the configuration method (flat/3DIE), which is one of the two requirements of a contact type textile electrode structure for heart activity signal acquisition, has a critical effect on the performance of heart activity signal acquisition for wearable healthcare. Based on the results of this study, we plan to develop a smart clothing technology that can monitor high-quality heart activity without time and space constraints by implementing a clothing platform integrated with the textile electrode and developing a performance improvement plan.

A Study On the Geographic Locations of Dongcheons(洞天) in Gyeongsang-Do (경상도지역 동천(洞天)의 위치 조사 연구)

  • Kang, Kee-Rae;Lee, Hae-Ju;Bae, Jun-Gyu;Kim, Hee-Chae;Kim, Chang-Jun;Lee, Hyun-Chae;Kim, Dong-Phil;Kim, Cha-Kwon
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.16-25
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    • 2018
  • Initially from the Taoist scriptures, 'Dongcheon' is a term that can be regarded as a symbolic place in the real world for the enlightened ones who received relief and peace by restoring the human nature taught in the Confucian school. The long for an ideal world apart from the reality embodied as the labeling some places 'Dongcheon,' and the term was used to refer to a scenery where the ideal fairyland is reproduced. Besides, 'Dongcheon' was a term often used by Confucian scholars for various purposes including the attachment to the nearby landscapes, expressing homogeneity and superiority through placeness and the beautification of settlement spaces. This paper is the result of a field study on 'Dongcheon' in the Gyeongsang-Do. The research was conducted from March to August 2018, and we carried out firsthand location surveys on Dongcheons, of which some were lost, others were fairly preserved, and still others could not be located as only their existences were passed down orally. According to the field survey, there were total 111 inscriptions or engravings on the plates in Gyeongsang-Do that include the term 'Dongcheon.' There were 79 'Dongcheon' inscriptions confirmed in the Gyeongsangbuk-Do region: twenty in Yeongju-City, sixteen in Bonghwa-Gun, eleven in Andong-City and seven in Yeongyang-Gun and Ulgin-Gun. Among them, two were in the form of a wooden sign, and six were erected as rock signposts. Fourteen stops reported in the literature were lost or unidentified. Also, among the sixteen signs in Bonghwa-Gun, nine were cursive engravings. Meanwhile, there were 26 Dongcheon inscriptions in the Gyeongsangnam-Do region. Hamyang-Gun and Sancheong-Gun anf Hadong-Gun each housed three inscriptions, and seven places were in the form of rock signposts. 'Hwagaedongcheon' and 'Geumsandongcheon' could not be identified in inscriptions although they appear in Jibong Yuseol and Taengniji with stories of Choi Chiwon. The significance of this study is as a reference for future researches in traditional scenery, epigraphs, or as primary data that helps cultural exploration in the region.

Artemisia scoparia Inhibits Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Pre-adipocytes by Downregulating the MAPK Pathway (비쑥 추출물이 3T3-L1 지방세포 분화 및 MAPK 신호 전달 경로에 미치는 영향)

  • Oh, Jung Hwan;Karadeniz, Fatih;Seo, Youngwan;Kong, Chang-Suk
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.28 no.9
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    • pp.999-1006
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    • 2018
  • Obesity is epidemic worldwide and has reportedly been linked to the progression of several metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. The natural products are decreasing the side effects of medicines used for obesity and also have health benefits dut to their numerous bioactive compounds. In this context, Artemisia scoparia is a widespread plant that has been suggested as possessing various types of bioactivity. In this study, the crude extract from A. scoparia (ASE) was tested for its ability to suppress adipogenesis in mouse 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes. The molecular pathway by which ASE affects differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells was also investigated. The introduction of ASE to differentiating 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes resulted in suppressed adipogenesis, as confirmed by decreased intracellular lipid accumulation. The differentiating cells treated with 10 and $100{\mu}g/ml$ of ASE showed 21.9 and 29.0% less lipid accumulation, respectively, than untreated adipocytes. In addition, the results indicated that ASE treatment lowered the expression of the adipogenesis-related factors $PPAR{\gamma}$, $C/EBP{\alpha}$, and SREBP-1c. Furthermore, treating with ASE notably decreased levels of phosphorylated p38, ERK, and JNK in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These results indicate that ASE exhibits significant anti-adipogenesis activity by downregulating the MAPK and $PPAR{\gamma}$ pathways during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes. Therefore, A. scoparia may be a potential source of natural products against obesity.

Isolation of Agarivorans sp. KC-1 and Characterization of Its Thermotolerant β-Agarase (한천분해세균 Agarivorans sp. KC-1의 분리 및 내열성 β-아가라제의 특성 규명)

  • Min, Kyung-Cheol;Lee, Chang-Eun;Lee, Dong-Geun;Lee, Sang-Hyeon
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.28 no.9
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    • pp.1056-1061
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    • 2018
  • This article reports an agar-degrading marine bacterium and characterizes its agarase. The agar-degrading marine bacterium, KC-1, was isolated from seawater on the shores of Sacheon, in Gyeongnam province, Korea, using Marine Broth 2216 agar medium. To identify the agar-degrading bacterium as Agarivorans sp. KC-1, phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence was used. An extracellular agarase was prepared from a culture medium of Agarivorans sp. KC-1, and used for the characterization of enzyme. The relative activities at 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and $70^{\circ}C$ were 65, 91, 96, 100, 77, and 35%, respectively. The relative activities at pH 5, 6, 7, and 8 were 93, 100, 87, and 82%, respectively. The extracellular agarase showed maximum activity (254 units/l) at pH 6.0 and $50^{\circ}C$ in 20 mM of Tris-HCl buffer. The agarase activity was maintained at 90% or more until 2 hr exposure at $20^{\circ}C$, $30^{\circ}C$ and $40^{\circ}C$, but it was found that the activity decreased sharply from $60^{\circ}C$. A zymogram analysis showed that Agarivorans sp. KC-1 produced 3 agar-degrading enzymes that had molecular weights of 130, 80, and 69 kDa. A thin layer chromatography analysis suggested that Agarivorans sp. KC-1 produced extracellular ${\beta}$-agarases as it hydrolyzed agarose to produce neoagarooligosaccharides, including neoagarohexaose (21.6%), neoagarotetraose (32.2%), and neoagarobiose (46.2%). These results suggest that Agarivorans sp. KC-1 and its thermotolerant ${\beta}$-agarase would be useful for the production of neoagarooligosaccharides that inhibit bacterial growth and delay starch degradation.

Incremental Ensemble Learning for The Combination of Multiple Models of Locally Weighted Regression Using Genetic Algorithm (유전 알고리즘을 이용한 국소가중회귀의 다중모델 결합을 위한 점진적 앙상블 학습)

  • Kim, Sang Hun;Chung, Byung Hee;Lee, Gun Ho
    • KIPS Transactions on Software and Data Engineering
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    • v.7 no.9
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    • pp.351-360
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    • 2018
  • The LWR (Locally Weighted Regression) model, which is traditionally a lazy learning model, is designed to obtain the solution of the prediction according to the input variable, the query point, and it is a kind of the regression equation in the short interval obtained as a result of the learning that gives a higher weight value closer to the query point. We study on an incremental ensemble learning approach for LWR, a form of lazy learning and memory-based learning. The proposed incremental ensemble learning method of LWR is to sequentially generate and integrate LWR models over time using a genetic algorithm to obtain a solution of a specific query point. The weaknesses of existing LWR models are that multiple LWR models can be generated based on the indicator function and data sample selection, and the quality of the predictions can also vary depending on this model. However, no research has been conducted to solve the problem of selection or combination of multiple LWR models. In this study, after generating the initial LWR model according to the indicator function and the sample data set, we iterate evolution learning process to obtain the proper indicator function and assess the LWR models applied to the other sample data sets to overcome the data set bias. We adopt Eager learning method to generate and store LWR model gradually when data is generated for all sections. In order to obtain a prediction solution at a specific point in time, an LWR model is generated based on newly generated data within a predetermined interval and then combined with existing LWR models in a section using a genetic algorithm. The proposed method shows better results than the method of selecting multiple LWR models using the simple average method. The results of this study are compared with the predicted results using multiple regression analysis by applying the real data such as the amount of traffic per hour in a specific area and hourly sales of a resting place of the highway, etc.

Development of Anti-Aging Products (Anti-Wrinkle) like Epidermal Growth Factor(EGF) Materials using Supercritical Heat-Treated Extract Radish (초임계 열처리된 무 성분을 이용한 상피세포성장인자(EGF) 유사소재 개발 및 광노화(주름개선) 효과)

  • Kim, Hyun Kyoung
    • The Journal of the Convergence on Culture Technology
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.197-207
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    • 2018
  • The radish skin and radish greens (mucheong) are an edible part of the radish. But they are removed before eating the radish and used as a byproduct or an animal feed material because of their tough and rough texture. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of supercritical heat-treated radish-extract on UV-induced Hos: HRM-2 wrinkled mouse animal model on anti-aging wrinkles. Supercritical heat-treated radish-extract was applied on the back of seven-weeks old HRM-2 mice. The effect of HRE on skin thickness, elasticity and wrinkle formation of the mice was observed by using UVB lamp to induce melanogenesis and wrinkle formation. As the result, increased depth of wrinkles was observed in the negative control group in comparison to the normal group. In contrast, decreased depth of wrinkles was observed in the radish-extract-free group compared to the negative control group. In the study of the effect of radish-extract on wrinkle-formation related gene expression and protein what protein expression, MMP-2 and MMP-2 gene expression significantly increased in the negative control group compared to the normal group. The gene expression reduced independence to the mass of radish-extract treated. Similar to quantitative results of mRNA expression, the expression of MMP-2 protein increased as a result of UVB-irradiation. The MMP-2 expression was inhibited in dependence to the mass of radish-extract treated. In conclusion, the supercritical heat-treated radish-extract has an effect on improving skin wrinkles not only when it is applied to the skin but also when orally ingested. Thus, it can be effectively used as a composition to health functional products. Thereafter, we can also conclude that radish, a food that does not show any side-effects even upon long-term intake, can reduce wrinkle formation as well as improve skin elasticity when taken regularly for a long period.

Protective Effects of Portulaca oleracea L. Extract against Matrix Metalloproteinase Production and Reactive Oxygen Species Generation Induced by Ultraviolet B Radiation in Human Keratinocytes (쇠비름 추출물의 UVB 자외선 조사에 의한 인간각질형성세포 손상에 대한 보호 효과)

  • Oh, Jung Hwan;Karadeniz, Fatih;Lee, Jung Im;Park, So Young;Seo, Youngwan;Kong, Chang-Suk
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.28 no.8
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    • pp.892-899
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    • 2018
  • Portulaca oleracea L. is an edible plant widely consumed in daily diet throughout Europe, Asia and America. In this study, protective effects of P. oleracea L. extracts against oxidative stress and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity induced by ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation were investigated using HaCaT immortal human keratinocytes. In this context, the mRNA and protein productions of MMPs (MMP-1, -2, and -9) and type I procollagen, which are major markers of photoaging induced by UVB radiation in HaCaT keratinocytes, were evaluated. Furthermore, UVB-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and mRNA and protein expression levels of superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1), oxygenase-1 (OH-1), and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf-2), all of which are associated with the antioxidant balance, were investigated. As shown by the results, UVB radiation induced ROS formation and led to increased production of MMPs and decreased collagen production in human keratinocytes, which resulted in skin photoaging or photodamage. The treatment with P. oleracea L. extracts downregulated MMP (MMP-1, -2, and -9) production and upregulated type I procollagen expression in UVB-induced HaCaT cells. Furthermore, treatment with the extracts decreased UVB-induced ROS generation and increased the expression of antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD-1 and OH-1, through the Nrf-2 pathway. Taken together, these results suggest that P. oleracea L. extracts could be a potential cosmeceutical agent for the prevention of skin photoaging or photodamage.

Factors Related to Awareness and Education Regarding Relationship between Systemic Disease and Oral Health among Dental Patients (일개 치과내원 환자의 전신질환과 구강건강 간 연관성 및 관련 교육 필요성 인식에 영향을 미치는 요인)

  • Shin, Bo-Mi;Choi, Yong-Keum;Bae, Soo-Myoung;Lee, Hyo-Jin
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.18 no.8
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    • pp.607-615
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study was to assess the level of awareness regarding the relationship between systemic diseases and oral health and the importance of education related to this association among dental patients, as well as to identify factors that affect the awareness of the relationship and the perceived need for education. This study was conducted from June 2016 to February 2017. Subjects of this study included outpatients (20-60 years old) from a dental clinic, and only patients who agreed to the survey were included. A total of 110 subjects were included, but the final analysis was based on 92 questionnaires, excluding questionnaires that were inaccurate. Survey questionnaires were completed by self-report and face-to-face interviews with a dental hygienist. The questionnaires covered basic information, awareness of the association between general and oral health, and experience with, and need for education related to, this association. Among the subjects, 48.9% were aware of the association between systemic diseases and oral health. A total of 39.1% of subjects had received education regarding the relationship between systemic diseases and oral health. Subjects who visited dental clinics regularly were 3.94 times (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.21-12.84) more likely to be aware of the association between oral health and disease compared with subjects who made only irregular visits to dental clinics. In addition, experience or education was significantly associated with awareness of the relationship between oral health and disease (odds ratio [OR]: 4.64, 95% CI: 1.54-13.93) and the need for education (OR: 3.98, 95% CI: 1.20-13.12). Thus, the dental professionals should provide education on the relationship between oral health and systemic disease in dental clinics to improve patients' awareness and oral health behaviors. These results can be used to strengthen education in the dental clinic.

Effects of Encapsulation Layer on Center Crack and Fracture of Thin Silicon Chip using Numerical Analysis (봉지막이 박형 실리콘 칩의 파괴에 미치는 영향에 대한 수치해석 연구)

  • Choa, Sung-Hoon;Jang, Young-Moon;Lee, Haeng-Soo
    • Journal of the Microelectronics and Packaging Society
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2018
  • Recently, there has been rapid development in the field of flexible electronic devices, such as organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), organic solar cells and flexible sensors. Encapsulation process is added to protect the flexible electronic devices from exposure to oxygen and moisture in the air. Using numerical simulation, we investigated the effects of the encapsulation layer on mechanical stability of the silicon chip, especially the fracture performance of center crack in multi-layer package for various loading condition. The multi-layer package is categorized in two type - a wide chip model in which the chip has a large width and encapsulation layer covers only the chip, and a narrow chip model in which the chip covers both the substrate and the chip with smaller width than the substrate. In the wide chip model where the external load acts directly on the chip, the encapsulation layer with high stiffness enhanced the crack resistance of the film chip as the thickness of the encapsulation layer increased regardless of loading conditions. In contrast, the encapsulation layer with high stiffness reduced the crack resistance of the film chip in the narrow chip model for the case of external tensile strain loading. This is because the external load is transferred to the chip through the encapsulation layer and the small load acts on the chip for the weak encapsulation layer in the narrow chip model. When the bending moment acts on the narrow model, thin encapsulation layer and thick encapsulation layer show the opposite results since the neutral axis is moving toward the chip with a crack and load acting on chip decreases consequently as the thickness of encapsulation layer increases. The present study is expected to provide practical design guidance to enhance the durability and fracture performance of the silicon chip in the multilayer package with encapsulation layer.

Simultaneous Pesticide Analysis Method for Bifenox, Ethalfluralin, Metolachlor, Oxyfluorfen, Pretilachlor, Thenylchlor and Trifluralin Residues in Agricultural Commodities Using GC-ECD/MS (GC-ECD/MS를 이용한 농산물 중 Bifenox, Ethalfluralin, Metolachlor, Oxyfluorfen, Pretilachlor, Thenylchlor 및 Trifluralin의 동시 분석)

  • Ahn, Kyung Geun;Kim, Gi Ppeum;Hwang, Young Sun;Kang, In Kyu;Lee, Young Deuk;Choung, Myoung Gun
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.104-116
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    • 2018
  • BACKGROUND: This experiment was conducted to establish a simultaneous analysis method for 7 kinds of herbicides in 3 different classes having similar physicochemical property as diphenyl ether(bifenox and oxyfluorfen), dinitroaniline (ethalfluralin and trifluralin), and chloroacetamide (metolachlor, pretilachlor, and thenylchlor) in crops using GC-ECD/MS. METHODS AND RESULTS: All the 7 pesticide residues were extracted with acetone from representative samples of five raw products which comprised apple, green pepper, Kimchi cabbage, hulled rice and soybean. The extract was diluted with saline water and directly partitioned into n-hexane/dichloromethane(80/20, v/v) to remove polar co-extractives in the aqueous phase. For the hulled rice and soybean samples, n-hexane/acetonitrile partition was additionally employed to remove non-polar lipids. The extract was finally purified by optimized Florisil column chromatography. The analytes were separated and quantitated by GLC with ECD using a DB-1 capillary column. Accuracy and precision of the proposed method was validated by the recovery experiment on every crop samples fortified with bifenox, ethalfluralin, metolachlor, oxyfluorfen, pretilachlor, thenylchlor, and trifluralin at 3 concentration levels per crop in each triplication. CONCLUSION: Mean recoveries of the 7 pesticide residues ranged from 75.7 to 114.8% in five representative agricultural commodities. The coefficients of variation were all less than 10%, irrespective of sample types and fortification levels. Limit of quantitation (LOQ) of the analytes were 0.004 (etahlfluralin and trifluralin), 0.008 (metolachlor and pretilachlor), 0.006 (thenylchlor), 0.002 (oxyfluorfen), and 0.02 (bifenox) mg/kg as verified by the recovery experiment. A confirmatory technique using GC/MS with selected-ion monitoring was also provided to clearly identify the suspected residues. Therefore, this analytical method was reproducible and sensitive enough to determine the residues of bifenox, ethalfluralin, metolachlor, oxyfluorfen, pretilachlor, thenylchlor, and trifluralin in agricultural commodities.