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Usefulness of Abdominal Compressor Using Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients (토모테라피를 이용한 간암환자의 정위적 방사선치료시 복부압박장치의 유용성 평가)

  • Woo, Joong-Yeol;Kim, Joo-Ho;Kim, Joon-Won;Baek, Jong-Geal;Park, Kwang-Soon;Lee, Jong-Min;Son, Dong-Min;Lee, Sang-Kyoo;Jeon, Byeong-Chul;Cho, Jeong-Hee
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.157-165
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: We evaluated usefulness of abdominal compressor for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients and hepato-biliary cancer and metastatic liver cancer patients. Materials and Methods: From November 2011 to March 2012, we selected HCC patients who gained reduction of diaphragm movement >1 cm through abdominal compressor (diaphragm control, elekta, sweden) for HT (Hi-Art Tomotherapy, USA). We got planning computed tomography (CT) images and 4 dimensional (4D) images through 4D CT (somatom sensation, siemens, germany). The gross tumor volume (GTV) included a gross tumor and margins considering tumor movement. The planning target volume (PTV) included a 5 to 7 mm safety margin around GTV. We classified patients into two groups according to distance between tumor and organs at risk (OAR, stomach, duodenum, bowel). Patients with the distance more than 1 cm are classified as the 1st group and they received SBRT of 4 or 5 fractions. Patients with the distance less than 1 cm are classified as the 2nd group and they received tomotherapy of 20 fractions. Megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) were performed 4 or 10 fractions. When we verify a MVCT fusion considering priority to liver than bone-technique. We sent MVCT images to Mim_vista (Mimsoftware, ver .5.4. USA) and we re-delineated stomach, duodenum and bowel to bowel_organ and delineated liver. First, we analyzed MVCT images to check the setup variation. Second we compared dose difference between tumor and OAR based on adaptive dose through adaptive planning station and Mim_vista. Results: Average setup variation from MVCT was $-0.66{\pm}1.53$ mm (left-right) $0.39{\pm}4.17$ mm (superior-inferior), $0.71{\pm}1.74$ mm (anterior-posterior), $-0.18{\pm}0.30$ degrees (roll). 1st group ($d{\geq}1$) and 2nd group (d<1) were similar to setup variation. 1st group ($d{\geq}1$) of $V_{diff3%}$ (volume of 3% difference of dose) of GTV through adaptive planing station was $0.78{\pm}0.05%$, PTV was $9.97{\pm}3.62%$, $V_{diff5%}$ was GTV 0.0%, PTV was $2.9{\pm}0.95%$, maximum dose difference rate of bowel_organ was $-6.85{\pm}1.11%$. 2nd Group (d<1) GTV of $V_{diff3%}$ was $1.62{\pm}0.55%$, PTV was $8.61{\pm}2.01%$, $V_{diff5%}$ of GTV was 0.0%, PTV was $5.33{\pm}2.32%$, maximum dose difference rate of bowel_organ was $28.33{\pm}24.41%$. Conclusion: Despite we saw diaphragm movement more than 5 mm with flouroscopy after use an abdominal compressor, average setup_variation from MVCT was less than 5 mm. Therefore, we could estimate the range of setup_error within a 5 mm. Target's dose difference rate of 1st group ($d{\geq}1$) and 2nd group (d<1) were similar, while 1st group ($d{\geq}1$) and 2nd group (d<1)'s bowel_organ's maximum dose difference rate's maximum difference was more than 35%, 1st group ($d{\geq}1$)'s bowel_organ's maximum dose difference rate was smaller than 2nd group (d<1). When applicating SBRT to HCC, abdominal compressor is useful to control diaphragm movement in selected patients with more than 1 cm bowel_organ distance.

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The Landscape Meaning and Literary Group Culture Carved in Danguedae and Samgaeseokmun of Imshil (임실(任實) 단구대(丹丘臺)와 삼계석문(三溪石門)에 새긴 의미경관과 단구구로회(丹丘九老會)의 아회(雅會)문화)

  • Lee, Hyun-Woo;Lee, Jung-Han;Rho, Jae-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.170-181
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    • 2011
  • This Research will explore the meaning indicated in the landscape meaning and feature of literary group culture, focusing in Gurujeong(九老亭: pavilion for nine elders) and Samgaeseokmun(三溪石門: stone gate in three valleys) located in Dundeok-myun, Imshil-gun, and will seek to understand the implications by studying the cultural landscape spread out in the area. The place where Gurojeong and Samgaeseokmun is located is the meeting point of the three valleys, Dunnam stream, Osu stream, and Yul stream, which is the main location to view the beautiful scenery, which has the nickname as the dwelling place of a celestial being. Especially, based on the description of old maps, "Samgae(three valleys)" and "Samgaeseokmun" possesses significance as a landmark and shows a characteristic feature of landscape structures of low hills. Dangugurohwe(丹丘九老會: nine elders gathering on the dwelling of a celestial being) originated from Hyangsangurohwe(香山九老會: gathering of nine elders on a fragrant mountain), where Baekgeoi(白居易) of China was one of the main people. This group was organized by nine elders over the age of 60 desiring to view the scenery of Doyeonmyeong. The group enhanced the literary spirit on the low hill, erecting a tower, and enjoying the beautiful scenery changing every season with scholars from the same region. This phenomenon seems to have been formed upon the positive response to gatherings of elders, which were prevalent in the Joseon Dynasty. If the internal idea pursued by the group was "longevity," the external idea pursued can be summarized as "the spirit the respect for the elders." Naming the groups as 'Dangudae(place where the celestial being lives), Guseondong(valley of seeking a celestial life), Bangjangsan(mountain of a high priest), and Daecheondae(place of communicating with God) was likely a device to introspect oneself and symbolize one's life process. Furthermore, the reason Samgaeseokmun, which is an imitation of Choi, Chiwon's work, was built near Soyocheo, was probably to yearn the celestial land and based on the desire to follow Choi, Chiwon, who was the most self-fulfilling being presumed to have become a celestial being by practicing the pursuit of freedom, escaping from the reality. After tracing the symbolizing meaning of the four letters carved in the left side of the stone wall of Dangudae, the conclusion that this place was not only a place for literary gatherings of the nine elders of Saseong(four families), but was a place where the celestial being dwelled could be inferred. Corresponding with Dangudae and Gurojeong, which are places where the order of human and nature is harmonized and where its meaning associated with the location intensifies, arouses strong bond, can be said to be the symbol of the traces of celestial beings where the spirits of attachment to a certain place is embedded. The acts performed in Dangugurohwe were those of traditional leisure including strolling, viewing the scenery, drinking, composing poems, and playing instruments, and sometimes listening to stories, tea ceremony, prayers, and fishing were added, which indicates that the gathering had a strong tendency towards pastoral and hermit life.

Determination of secondary aliphatic amines in surface and tap waters as benzenesulfonamide derivatives using GC-MS (Benzenesulfonamide 유도체로 GC-MS를 사용한 지표수 및 수돗물 중 2차 지방족 아민의 분석)

  • Park, Sunyoung;Jung, Sungjin;Kim, Yunjeong;Kim, Hekap
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.96-105
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    • 2018
  • This study aimed to improve the method for detecting eight secondary aliphatic amines (SAAs), so as to measure their concentrations in fresh water and tap water samples. NaOH (8 mL, 10 M) and benzenesulfonyl chloride (2 mL) were added to a water sample (200 mL), and the mixture was stirred at $80^{\circ}C$ for 30 min. An additional NaOH solution (10 mL) was added and the stirring was continued for another 30 min. The pH of the cooled mixture was adjusted to 5.5-6.0 by adding HCl (35 %), and the SAAs were extracted using dichloromethane (50 mL). This extraction was repeated once. The extract was then washed with $NaHCO_3$ (15 mL, 0.05 M) and dried over $Na_2SO_4$ (4 g). The extract was finally concentrated to 0.1 mL, of which $1{\mu}L$ was analyzed for SAAs by GC-MS. The linearity of the spike calibration curves was high ($r^2=0.9969-0.9996$). The detection limits of the method ranged from 0.01 to $0.20{\mu}g/L$, and its repeatability and reproducibility (expressed as relative standard deviation) were both less than 10 % (6.6-9.4 %). Its accuracy (measured in percentage error) ranged between 2.4 % and 6.1 %. The established method was applied to the analysis of five surface water and 82 tap water samples. Dimethylamine was the only SAA detected in all the water samples, and its average concentration was $0.79{\mu}g/L$ (range: $0.20-2.54{\mu}g/L$). Therefore, this study improved the analytical method for SAAs in surface water and tap water, and the regional and seasonal concentration distributions were obtained.

Protein Engineering of Flavin-containing Monooxygenase from Corynebacterium glutamicum for Improved Production of Indigo and Indirubin (인디고와 인디루빈의 생산을 증대하기 위한 플라빈-함유 모노옥시게나제의 단백질공학)

  • Jung, Hye Sook;Jung, Hae Bin;Kim, Hee Sook;Kim, Chang Gyeom;Lee, Jin Ho
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.656-662
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    • 2018
  • Flavin-containing monooxygenases from Corynebacterium (cFMOs) were mutagenized based on homology modeling to develop variants with an enhanced indigoid production capability. The four mutants, F170Y, A210G, A210S, and T326S, which fused to a maltose-binding protein (MBP), were constructed, and their biochemical properties were characterized. Of these, purified MBP-T326S required a higher concentration of exogenous FAD (100 mM) than the wild-type MBP-cFMO for optimal activity and showed a 3.8-fold increase in the $k_{cat}/K_m$ value at $100{\mu}M$ FAD compared to that of MBP-cFMO at $2{\mu}M$ FAD. The indole oxygenase activities of MBP-T326S decreased to 63-77% compared to that of the MBP-cFMO In addition, MBP-T326S displayed a very low level of futile NADPH oxidase activities (21-24%) in the absence of a substrate. Mutant proteins except for T326S displayed similar $K_m$ and increased $k_{cat}/K_m$ values compared to the wild-type. MBP-F170Y and -A210S mutants showed elevated indole oxygenase activity higher than 3.1- and 2.9-fold, respectively, in comparison with MBP-cFMO. When indigoid production was carried out in LB broth with 2.5 g/l of tryptophan, Escherichia coli expressing cFMO produced 684 mg/l of indigo and 104 mg/l of indirubin, while cells harboring T326S produced 1,040 mg/l of indigo and 112 mg/l of indirubin. The results indicate that the production of indigo was 13% higher when compared to a previous report in which an E. coli expressing FMO from Methylophaga produced 920 mg/l of indigo. The protein engineering of cFMO based on homology modeling provided a more rational strategy for developing indigoid-producing strains.

Investigation and Risk Assessment of Asbestos-Containing Materials used in Buildings (건축물에 사용된 석면함유물질(ACMs)의 조사 및 위해성 평가)

  • Kim, Hong-Kwan;Chon, Young Woo;Roh, Young Man;Hong, Seung-Han;Kim, Chi-Nyon;Lee, Ik-Mo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.35-42
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    • 2018
  • Objectives: The objectives of this study are to research the usage characteristics of asbestos-containing building materials and to conduct exposure risk assessment by applying no. 2016-230 "Methods of Risk Assessment of Asbestos-Containing Buildings" from the Ministry of Environment. Methods: One hundred buildings located in the Seoul and Gyeonggi-Incheon area were chosen, with 29 in Seoul, 20 in Incheon, and 51 in Gyeonggi-do Province. The year of construction was divided between three buildings in the 1970s, 11 buildings in the 1980s, 42 buildings in the 1990s, and 44 buildings in the 2000s. The bulk samples were analyzed by using a polarizing microscope after a pre-process using a stereomicroscope in a hood with an HEPA filter. This study defined ACMs(asbestos-containing materials) as asbestos when the content percentage was over 1% in the analysis result. Methods and standards of risk assessment of asbestos-containing building materials were conducted by refering to no. 2016-230 "Method of Risk Assessment of Asbestos-Containing Buildings" from the Ministry of Environment. The risk of exposure to ACMs was rated by a score based on three categories(high, middle, low risk of asbestos exposure). Results: In this study, 30 of the 100 buildings and 36 of the 416 bulk samples(8.6%) were found to have had asbestos. Asbestos was detected at a high rate, in 18 out of 42, in buildings constructed in the 1990s and at the lowest rate(7 out of 44) for buildings constructed in the 2000s. As a result of the evaluation according to no. 2016-230 "Method of Risk Assessment of Asbestos-Containing Buildings" of the Ministry of Environment, the risk assessment level of two asbestos-containing building materials was found to be "Medium", and 28 buildings materials were found to be at the "Low" level. Conclusion: As asbestos is regulated by the government, it is required to conduct active management and implemention by introducing methods of risk assessment of asbestos exposure that are supported by data from various situations. In the case of buildings owned by individuals, building owners should be aware of the risk of exposure to asbestos.

Analysis of Ice Velocity Variations of Nansen Ice Shelf, East Antarctica, from 2000 to 2017 Using Landsat Multispectral Image Matching (Landsat 다중분광 영상정합을 이용한 동남극 난센 빙붕의 2000-2017년 흐름속도 변화 분석)

  • Han, Hyangsun;Lee, Choon-Ki
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.34 no.6_2
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    • pp.1165-1178
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    • 2018
  • Collapse of an Antarctic ice shelf and its flow velocity changes has the potential to reduce the restraining stress to the seaward flow of the Antarctic Ice Sheet, which can cause sea level rising. In this study, variations in ice velocity from 2000 to 2017 for the Nansen Ice Shelf in East Antarctica that experienced a large-scale collapse in April 2016 were analyzed using Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) images. To extract ice velocity, image matching based on orientation correlation was applied to the image pairs of blue, green, red, near-infrared, panchromatic, and the first principal component image of the Landsat multispectral data, from which the results were combined. The Landsat multispectral image matching produced reliable ice velocities for at least 14% wider area on the Nansen Ice Shelf than for the case of using single band (i.e., panchromatic) image matching. The ice velocities derived from the Landsat multispectral image matching have the error of $2.1m\;a^{-1}$ compared to the in situ Global Positioning System (GPS) observation data. The region adjacent to the Drygalski Ice Tongue showed the fastest increase in ice velocity between 2000 and 2017. The ice velocity along the central flow line of the Nansen Ice Shelf was stable before 2010 (${\sim}228m\;a^{-1}$). In 2011-2012, when a rift began to develop near the ice front, the ice flow was accelerated (${\sim}255m\;a^{-1}$) but the velocity was only about 11% faster than 2010. Since 2014, the massive rift had been fully developed, and the ice velocity of the upper region of the rift slightly decreased (${\sim}225m\;a^{-1}$) and stabilized. This means that the development of the rift and the resulting collapse of the ice front had little effect on the ice velocity of the Nansen Ice Shelf.

Research Trends in Driving Rehabilitation for the Disabled in South Korea since 2000 (국내 장애인 운전재활 연구동향: 2000년도 이후)

  • Jo, Eun-Ju;Noh, Dong-Hee;Kim, Kwang-Jae;Bae, Seon-Young;Kang, Seong-Ku;Moon, Seong-Bae;Kam, Kyung-Yoon
    • The Journal of Korean society of community based occupational therapy
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.33-44
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    • 2018
  • Objective : This study aims to review research trends in driving rehabilitation for the disabled in South Korea since 2000 suggesting research directions for clinicians and researchers. Methods : Fifty eight articles in 16 journals listed in accredited or candidate journal lists of National Research Foundation of Korea from January, 2000 to December, 2016 were reviewed. 'Driving rehabilitation' and 'driving for disabled' were used as search terms. Descriptive statistics were used to classify articles according to study methodology, levels of evidence, study participants, research topics, and academic associations or official journals. Results : Fifty percent of analyzed researches have been published since 2012. Twenty-two studies (37.9%) were published as group comparison and correlational research. Only seven studies (12.1%) were included in evidence level I. There were 19 studies (38.8%) conducted with brain-injured patients among 49 studies including participants. The Korean Society of Occupational Therapy Journal, having published 15 studies (25.9%) about driving rehabilitation, ranked first among the analyzed journals. In research topic, 15 (25.9%) studies were performed about clinical evaluation. Conclusion : The present study showed that the quality of driving rehabilitation-related studies has been increasing, but more intervention-based researches need to be carried out and it is also necessary to carry out various researches in related fields in order to establish efficient driving rehabilitation in Korea.

Development of a Kit for Diagnosing AtCYP78A7 Protein in Abiotic-tolerant Transgenic Rice Overexpressing AtCYP78A7 (AtCYP78A7 과발현 환경스트레스 내성 형질전환 벼의 단백질 진단 키트 개발)

  • Nam, Kyong-Hee;Park, Jung-Ho;Pack, In-Soon;Kim, Ho Bang;Kim, Chang-Gi
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.28 no.7
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    • pp.835-840
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    • 2018
  • Quantitative determination of the protein expression levels is one of the most important parts in assessment of the safety of foods derived from genetically modified (GM) crops. Overexpression of AtCYP78A7, a gene encoding cytochrome P450 protein, has been reported to improve tolerance to abiotic stress, such as drought and salt stress, in transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.). In the present study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit for diagnosing AtCYP78A7 protein including AtCYP78A7-specific monoclonal antibody was developed. GST-AtCYP78A7 recombinant protein was induced and purified by affinity column. Four monoclonal antibodies (mAb 6A7, mAb 4C2, mAb 11H6, and mAb 7E8) against recombinant protein were also produced and biotinylated with avidin-HRP. After pairing test using GST-AtCYP78A7 protein and lysate of rice samples, mAb 4C2 and mAb 7E8 were selected as a capture antibody and a detecting antibody, respectively, for ELISA kit. Product test using rice samples indicated that percentages of detected protein in total protein were greater than 0.1% in AtCYP78A7-overexpressing transgenic rice (Line 10B-5 and 18A-4), whereas those in negative control non-transgenic rice (Ilpum and Hwayoung) were less than 0.1%. The ELISA kit developed in this study can be useful for the rapid detection and safety assessment of transgenic rice overexpressing AtCYP78A7.

The Causal Relation between Win-Win Growth Strategies of Small and Medium-Sized Businesses and Corporate Performance (중소기업의 동반성장 전략과 기업성과의 인과 관계)

  • Ban, Won Ho
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.19 no.12
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    • pp.552-560
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    • 2018
  • Since 1960's, the large conglomerates of South Korea have grown due to the corporate-centered, fast-paced growth drive, while the small and medium-sized businesses supported the country's economy as the subordinate structure of these conglomerates. Due to the globalization of the business environments, the focus of competition shifted from competitions between individual companies to one between networks of companies. Therefore, more emphasis is now put on the capabilities of the cooperation networks between companies rather than the capabilities of individual companies. Therefore, in this study, the author examined the influence of the win-win growth strategy elements through cooperation with small and medium-sized businesses upon corporate performance. This study was conducted with the workers of small and medium-sized businesses that have previous cooperation experiences with South Korean conglomerates over the period from March 2 to May 17, 2018. For this, a total of 515 questionnaires were retrieves to obtain the data for analysis. The analysis was conducted using SPSS 22.0 and AMOS 18.0. The analytical processes that were taken included exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, confidence analysis, correlation analysis, and structural equation analysis model. The results of the analysis showed that, first of all, the win-win growth strategy factors that affected the strategic performance, which is a part of cooperate performance were, respectively, harmonization with the goals, production technical support, and quality system. Second, the win-win growth strategy factors that affected the financial performance, which is a part of corporate performance, turned out to be harmonization with the goals, quality system, and incentive. With the results of this study, it was shown that the elements such as harmonization with the goals, production technical support, quality systems, and incentives were key infrastructural factors that affected the corporate performance directly. On the other hand, its implication is that informative or knowledge-related factors, such as joint knowledge creation, do not have their own added values, while they are not too much likely to affect corporate performances for the moment.