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Simulation of Sentinel-2 Product Using Airborne Hyperspectral Image and Analysis of TOA and BOA Reflectance for Evaluation of Sen2cor Atmosphere Correction: Focused on Agricultural Land (Sen2Cor 대기보정 프로세서 평가를 위한 항공 초분광영상 기반 Sentinel-2 모의영상 생성 및 TOA와 BOA 반사율 자료와의 비교: 농업지역을 중심으로)

  • Cho, Kangjoon;Kim, Yongil
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.251-263
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    • 2019
  • Sentinel-2 Multi Spectral Instrument(MSI) launched by the European Space Agency (ESA) offered high spatial resolution optical products, enhanced temporal revisit of five days, and 13 spectral bands in the visible, near infrared and shortwave infrared wavelengths similar to Landsat mission. Landsat satellite imagery has been applied to various previous studies, but Sentinel-2 optical satellite imagery has not been widely used. Currently, for global coverage, Sentinel-2 products are systematically processed and distributed to Level-1C (L1C) products which contain the Top-of-Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance. Furthermore, ESA plans a systematic global production of Level-2A(L2A) product including the atmospheric corrected Bottom-of-Atmosphere (BOA) reflectance considered the aerosol optical thickness and the water vapor content. Therefore, the Sentinel-2 L2A products are expected to enhance the reliability of image quality for overall coverage in the Sentinel-2 mission with enhanced spatial,spectral, and temporal resolution. The purpose of this work is a quantitative comparison Sentinel-2 L2A products and fully simulated image to evaluate the applicability of the Sentinel-2 dataset in cultivated land growing various kinds of crops in Korea. Reference image of Sentinel-2 L2A data was simulated by airborne hyperspectral data acquired from AISA Fenix sensor. The simulation imagery was compared with the reflectance of L1C TOA and that of L2A BOA data. The result of quantitative comparison shows that, for the atmospherically corrected L2A reflectance, the decrease in RMSE and the increase in correlation coefficient were found at the visible band and vegetation indices to be significant.

Comparative Analysis of Heavy Metal Contamination, Mineral Composition and Spectral Characteristics of White, Reddish Brown and Mixed Precipitates Occurring at Osip Stream Drainage, Gangwondo, South Korea (강원도 오십천 수계에 분포하는 백색침전물, 적갈색침전물 및 혼합침전물의 중금속 오염, 광물조성 및 분광학적 특성의 비교분석)

  • Lim, Jeong Hwa;Yu, Jaehyung;Shin, Ji Hye;Koh, Sang-Mo
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.52 no.1
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    • pp.13-28
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    • 2019
  • This study analyzed precipitation environment, heavy metal contamination, and mineral composition of white, reddish brown and mixed precipitates occurring at the Osip stream drainage, Gangwondo. Furthermore, spectral characteristics of the precipitates associated with heavy metal contamination and mineral composition was investigated based on spectroscopic analysis. The pH range of the precipitates was 4.43-6.91 for white precipitates, 7.74-7.94 for reddish brown precipitates, and 7.59-7.9 for the mixed precipitates, respectively. XRF analysis revealed that these precipitates were contaminated with Ni, Cu, Zn, and As. The white precipitates showed high Al concentration compared to reddish brown precipitates as much as 3.3 times, and the reddish brown precipitates showed high Fe concentration compared to white precipitates as much as 15 times. XRD analysis identified that the mineral composition of the white participates was aluminocoquimbite, gibbsite, quartz, saponite, and illite, and that of reddish brown precipitates was aluminum isopropoxide, kaolinite, goethite, dolomite, pyrophyllite, magnetite, quartz, calcite, pyrope. The mineral composition of the mixed precipitates was quartz, albite, and calcite. The spectral characteristics of the precipitates was manifested by gibbsite, saponite, illite for white precipitates, goethite, kaolinite, pyrophyllite for reddish brown precipitates, and albite for the mixed precipitates, respectively. The spectral reflectance of the precipitates decreased with increase in heavy metal contamination, and absorption depth of the precipitates indicated that the heavy metal ions were adsorbed to saponite and illite for white precipitates, and goethite and magnetite for reddish brown precipitates.

The present situation and trend of China archives science (중국(中國) 당안학(檔案學)와 현황(現況) 및 발전추세(發展趨勢))

  • Feng, Fuj-Ling
    • Journal of Korean Society of Archives and Records Management
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.37-52
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    • 2001
  • 1. establishment and development of China archives science: With the centuries-old history of archives and archives management, early China archives science came into being in 1930s, and the research pushed forward by archives enterprise has made great achievements since then. 1.1 Expanding research fields: Foundation

The Effect of Marketing Mix elements on brand Equity (마케팅 믹스 요소가 브랜드 자산에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Ryu, Jang-Mu
    • Journal of Industrial Convergence
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.41-70
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    • 2003
  • Many researches on brand equity have been focused in definition about it, factors of it, and the process of formation. Most of them have been used by voluntary production category, as is durable goods or nondurable goods. But this study, using the model is developed by Foote, Cone & Be1ding(FCB) Company, classified four fields, high-low involvement, rationality(rational or sensitive) involvement. The selected goods is a sensitive high involvement(casual wear). This study investigate the effects of brand equity and search the influences of brand equity formation according to factors of marketing mix. To this goals, this study kept a literature survey and a demonstrative research. In literature survey, there are several definitions of brand and brand equity. The research model is derived from selected factors of marketing mix and former study. This study used the regression analysis to verify effects from brand equity through the selected marketing mix. The research data is collected from the capital area. The focus of this study is effects of brand equity according to marketing mix. The followings are results and suggestions of this study. First, in the price factors, the affirmative effects are revealed the perceived quality and the brand awareness in a rational high involvement goods, the perceived quality and the brand associations in a sensitive high involvement goods, all factors of brand equity in a rational low involvement goods, and the perceived quality in a sensitive low involvement goods. As summary, the important characteristics is the price factors to consumers, and consumers recognize that a high price means a high quality. Second, in the store image factors, the affirmative effects are revealed all brand equity factors in a rational high involvement and a sensitive high-low involvement. A good store image incites more interest, contact, and visit from potential consumer. And such store offers more consumer satisfaction, simulates more active and positive conversation to consumers. Third, in advertising spending factors, the affirmative effects are revealed the brand awareness and associations in a rational high involvement and a sensitive high involvement, all brand equity factors in a rational low involvement and a sensitive low involvement. An advertisement increases not only a brand awareness but also strong brand associations. Forth, in price promotion factors, the affirmative effects are revealed the brand associations in a rational high involvement, the negative effects are revealed all brand equity in sensitive high involvement. According the result about the effects of brand royalty through the brand equity factors, a perceived quality and brand associations have positive effects to brand royalty in all factors. Consumers choice a deep perceived quality than other competitive brand. So, brand equity will increase according to a qualitative grade of a perceived brand by consumers. Brand associations represent a quality and a degree of involvement. In conclusion, brand associations and equity have a positive relation each other. According to the analysis results about a brand royalty of selected marketing mix factors, the affirmative effects are revealed the store image and price promotion factors in a rational high involvement, the price and store image in a sensitive high involvement, and the price and advertising spending in a rational low involvement. The results about the affect of selected marketing mix factors according to brand equity, are the perceived quality in a high involvement, and all brand equity factors in a low involvement. The affirmative effects about a store image are revealed all equity factors in high-low involvement. In advertising spending factors, the affirmative effects are revealed the brand awareness and associations in a high involvement goods, and the perceived quality and the brand awareness in a low involvement goods. In price promotion factors, the affirmative effects are revealed the brand awareness in a low involvement goods, and the negative effects are revealed the brand awareness in a high involvement goods. According to a degree of involvement, the results of a brand royalty through a brand equity factors are following. The affirmative effects are revealed the perceived quality and the brand royalty in a high involvement goods, and the brand awareness are revealed a negative effect. The affirmative effects are revealed the perceived Quality and the brand associations in a low involvement goods. So, in a high involvement goods, the brand royalty is built by strong brand associations, but, in a low involvement goods, the brand royalty is built also by a perceived Quality and a brand awareness. This study have some concept of limitation. So, this study presents a future direction of research. First, a future study has to have more deep analysis for this study analyzed through a limited marketing mix factors. Second, a future research has to get mutual effects about brand equity of marketing mix factors for this study has an individual marketing decision factors. Third, for the future, a brand equity needs a research about a several goods such as services, profit or nonprofit, industrial products, culture, and so on. Forth, the research have to diversify a various data for population.

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THE EFFECT OF BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN 2(BMP2) ON THE GROWTH OF CRANIAL BONE AND EARLY MORPHOGENESIS OF THE CRANIAL SUTURE (Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 가 두개골 성장 및 두개봉합부의 초기형태발생에 미치는 영향)

  • Jung, Hae-Kyung;Park, Mi-Hyun;Ryoo, Hyun-Mo;Nam, Soon-Hyeun;Kim, Young-Jin;Kim, Hyun-Jung
    • JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.217-228
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    • 2003
  • Co-ordinate growth of the brain and skull is achieved through a series of tissue interactions between the developing brain, the growing bones of the skull and the sutures that unite the bones. Craniosynostosis, the premature fusion of cranial sutures, presumably involves disturbance of these interactions. Bmp2, one of bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmps), is involved in the regulation of the shapes of individual bones and the relative proportions of the skeleton. Mutations in the homeobox gene Msx2, known as a downstream gene of Bmp, cause Boston-type human craniosynostosis. The phenotype of Dlx5 homozygote mutant mouse presents craniofacial abnormalities including a delayed ossification of calvarial bone. These facts suggest important roles of Bmp2, Msx2 and Dlx5 genes in the cranial bone growth and suture morphogenesis. To elucidate the function of these molecules in the early morphogenesis of mouse cranial sutures, we first analyzed by in situ hybridization the expression of Bmp2(E15-18), Msx2 and Dlx5 genes in the developing sagittal suture of calvaria during the embryonic stage. Bmp2 mRNA was intensely expressed in the osteogenic fronts and also at the low level in the periosteum of parietal bones during embryonic stage, Msx2 mRNA was intensely expressed in the sutural mesenchyme and mildly expressed in the dura mater during the embryonic stage. Dlx5 mRNA was intensely expressed osteogenic fronts and parietal bones. To further examine the role of Bmp signaling in cranial suture, we did in vitro experiments in E15.5 mouse calvarial explants. Interestingly, implantation of Bmp2-soaked beads onto the osteogenic fronts after 48 hours organ culture resulted in the increase of the tissue thickness and cell number around Bmp2 beads, compared to BSA control beads. In addition Bmp2 induced etopic expressions of Msx2 and Dlx5 genes. On the other hand, overexpression of FGF2 did not induce the expression of Msx2 and Dlx5. Taken together, these data indicate that Bmp2 signaling molecule has a important role in regulating the cranial bone growth and early morphogenesis of cranial suture. We also suggest that Bmp signaling is involved in all the stages of osteogenesis of cranial bones and the maintenance of cranial suture by regulating Msx2 and Dlx5 genes, and that Msx2 and Dlx5 genes are specific transcription factors of Bmp signaling pathway.

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THE EXPRESSION OF MSX GENES DURING EARLY CRANIAL SUTURE EMBRYOGENESIS (두개골 봉합부의 초기 형태발생과정에서 Msx 유전자들의 발현양상)

  • Lee, Sang-Youp;Park, Mi-Hyun;Ryoo, Hyun-Mo;Nam, Soon-Hyeun;Kim, Young-Jin;Kim, Hyun-Jung
    • JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.171-180
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    • 2003
  • The development of calvarial bones is tighly co-ordinated with the growth of the brain and needs of harmonious interactions between different tissues within the calvarial sutures. Premature fusion of cranial sutures, known as craniosynostosis, presumably involves disturbance of these interactions. Mutations in the homeobox-containg gene Msx2 cause human craniosynostosis syndrome. Msx genes, which are consist of Msx1, Msx2 and Msx3, are homeobox-containg transcripton factors, and were originally identified as homologue of Drosophila msh(muscle segment homeobox) gene. Msx1 and Msx2 genes, expressed mostly in overlapping patterns at multiple site of tissue interactions during vertebrate development, are associated with epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during organogenesis, targets of BMP and FGF signaling. To elucidate the function of Msx genes in the early morphogenesis of mouse cranial suture, we analyzed the expression of them by in situ hybridization during embryonic(E15-E18) stage, and did vivo experiments in E15.5 mouse using rhBMP-2, rhFGF-2 protein soaked bead. In the sagittal suture, Msx1 was expressed in the mesenchyme of suture and the dura mater, Msx2 was intensely expressed in the sutural mesenchyme and the dura mater. In the coronal suture both of Msx genes were expressed intensely in the sutural mesenchyme and expressed in the periosteum also. Msx1 had a broader expression pattern than Msx2. BMP2 beads induced expression of both Msx1 and Msx2, FGF2 beads induced expression of Msx1, but not Msx2. Taken together, these data suggest that Msx1 and Msx2 genes have important role in regulating the morphogenesis and maintenance of embryonic cranial suture. Both of Msx genes are expressed similarly but because of their upstream signaling, they function dependently or cooperatively according to change of signaling molecule.

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A Study on the Efficiency Enhancement Plan of the Broadcasting: Advertising Industry Infrastructure Construction Direction in Korea (한국 방송광고산업 인프라 구축방향에 관한 효율성 제고방안 연구)

  • Yeom, Sung-Won
    • Korean journal of communication and information
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    • v.22
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    • pp.131-166
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    • 2003
  • The opening of advertising market and introduction of the free competition doctrine make the competition harsher among advertising agencies. Advertising agencies do their best to execute their ad more efficiently and scientifically. But, it is the reality that broadcasting advertising industry in korea did not construct enough infrastructure to execute the systematic activities compared with that of advanced countries. So, we need to grasp the present conditions and draw a time-table to construct primarily necessary infrastructures. In case of hardware infrastructure in advertising industry, digitalization of broadcasting and convergence of broadcasting with telecommunication make it hurry to construct that. But as the ad agencies was in the situation to compete each other, they have a difficulty to construct common hardware infrastructure enthusiastically. Thus, it is necessary to build hardware infrastructure in advertising industry for policy. And the construction of that should be executed systematically not for the short term effects but for the long term objectives. Also, it is the most important to construct reliable Software infrastructure in advertising industry from all of ad agencies. In these days, ad agencies have a tendency not to believe the important information, like the data of ratings and advertising transaction information, in relation to the advertising activities. And they do not share and communicate about the information of the advertising industry trends, research trends, advertisement related information. So, it is also hurry to build the on-line and off-line database system. Finally, for the development of brainware infrastructure in advertising industry, it is the most necessary to activate the cooperation relation between university and advertising agencies. Universities need to invite experts in the advertising to teach the students practical knowledge and ad agencies to recruit students who want to develop their carrier in the advertising industries. In conclusion, advertising industry in korea to solve these tasks for the development of advertising industry infrastructure in the way of cooperation and harmony of each other rationally and efficiently.

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Patients Setup Verification Tool for RT (PSVTS) : DRR, Simulation, Portal and Digital images (방사선치료 시 환자자세 검증을 위한 분석용 도구 개발)

  • Lee Suk;Seong Jinsil;Kwon Soo I1;Chu Sung Sil;Lee Chang Geol;Suh Chang Ok
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.100-106
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    • 2003
  • Purpose : To develop a patients' setup verification tool (PSVT) to verify the alignment of the machine and the target isocenters, and the reproduclbility of patients' setup for three dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The utilization of this system is evaluated through phantom and patient case studies. Materials and methods : We developed and clinically tested a new method for patients' setup verification, using digitally reconstructed radiography (DRR), simulation, porial and digital images. The PSVT system was networked to a Pentium PC for the transmission of the acquired images to the PC for analysis. To verify the alignment of the machine and target isocenters, orthogonal pairs of simulation images were used as verification images. Errors in the isocenter alignment were measured by comparing the verification images with DRR of CT Images. Orthogonal films were taken of all the patients once a week. These verification films were compared with the DRR were used for the treatment setup. By performing this procedure every treatment, using humanoid phantom and patient cases, the errors of localization can be analyzed, with adjustments made from the translation. The reproducibility of the patients' setup was verified using portal and digital images. Results : The PSVT system was developed to verify the alignment of the machine and the target isocenters, and the reproducibility of the patients' setup for 3DCRT and IMRT. The results show that the localization errors are 0.8$\pm$0.2 mm (AP) and 1.0$\pm$0.3 mm (Lateral) in the cases relating to the brain and 1.1$\pm$0.5 mm (AP) and 1.0$\pm$0.6 mm (Lateral) in the cases relating to the pelvis. The reproducibility of the patients' setup was verified by visualization, using real-time image acquisition, leading to the practical utilization of our software Conclusions : A PSVT system was developed for the verification of the alignment between machine and the target isocenters, and the reproduclbility of the patients' setup in 3DCRT and IMRT. With adjustment of the completed GUI-based algorithm, and a good quality DRR image, our software may be used for clinical applications.

THE ROLE OF TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR MSX2 AND DLX5 IN CALVARIAL BONE AND SUTURE DEVELOPMENT (두개골 및 두개봉합부 초기발육과정에서의 전사조절인자인 Msx2와 Dlx5의 역할)

  • Song, Min-Ho;Park, Mi-Hyun;Nam, Soon-Hyeun;Kim, Young-Jin;Ryoo, Hyun-Mo;Kim, Hyun-Jung
    • JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.391-405
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    • 2003
  • Craniosynostosis, known as a premature fusion of cranial sutures, is a developmental disorder characterized by precocious differentiation and mineralization of osteoblasts in the calvarial sutures. Recent genetic studies have demonstrated that mutation in the homeobox gene Msx2 causes Boston-type human craniosynostosis. Additionally, the phenotype of Dlx5 homozygote mutant mouse presents craniofacial abnormalities including a delayed ossification of calvarial bone. Furthermore transcription of osteocalcin, a mature osteoblast marker, is reciprocally regulated by the homeodomain proteins Msx2 and Dlx5. These facts suggest important roles of osteocalcin, Msx2 and Dlx5 genes in the calvarial bone growth and suture morphogenesis. To elucidate the function of these molecules in the early morphogenesis of mouse cranial sutures, we have first analyzed by in situ hybridization the expression of osteocalcin, Msx2 and Dlx5 genes in the developing parietal bone and sagittal suture of mouse calvaria during the embryonic (E15-E18) stage. Osteocalcin mRNA was found in the periosteum of parietal bones from E15, and gradually more highly expressed with aging. Msx2 mRNA was intensely expressed in the sutural mesenchyme, osteogenic fronts and mildly expressed in the dura mater during the embryonic stage. Dlx5 mRNA was intensely expressed osteogenic fronts and the periostem of parietal bones. To further examine the upstream signaling molecules of transcription factor Msx2 and Dlx5, we have done in vitro experiments in E15.5 mouse calvarial explants. Interestingly, implantation of BMP2-, BMP4-soaked beads onto the osteogenic fronts after 48 hours organ culture induced etopic expressions of Msx2 and Dlx5 genes. On the other hand, overexpression of $TGF{\beta}1$, GDF-6, -7, FGF-2, -4 and Shh did not induce the expression of Msx2 and Dlx5. Taken together. these data indicate that transcription factor Msx2 and Dlx5 play critical roles in the calvarial bone and suture development, and that BMP siganling is involved in the osteogenesis of calvarial bones and the maintenance of cranial sutures through regulating these two transcriotpn factors. Furthermore, different expression patterns between Msx2 and Dlx5 suggest their specific functions in the osteoblast differentiation.

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Aortic Root Replacement in Patient of Right Ventricular Hypoplasia with Annuloaortic Ectasia, Ventricular Septal Defect and Aortic Regurgitation - Report of 1 case - (대동맥판륜 확장증, 심실중격결손 및 대동맥판막 폐쇄부전과 동반된 우심실 저형성 환자에서 대동맥근부 치환술 -1예 보고)

  • Baek, Man-Jong;Na, Chan-Young;Oh, Sam-Se;Kim, Woong-Han;Whang, Sung-Wook;Lee, Cheol;Chang, Yun-Hee;Jo, Won-Min;Kim, Jae-Hyun;Seo, Hong-Ju;Kang, Sang-Soo;Moon, Hyun-Soo;Park, Young-Kwan;Kim, Chong-Whan
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.36 no.7
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    • pp.510-513
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    • 2003
  • Annuloaortic ectasia, aortic regurgitation(AR), and ventricular septal defect(VSD) in patients with right ventricular hypoplasia is a very rare condition. We report a patient who underwent aortic root replacement with a composite graft for annuloaortic ectasia associated with VSD and AR in right ventricular hypoplasia. The patient was a 19 year-old male. Transthoraic echocardiogram and cardiac catheterization revealed a perimembranous VSD (2 cm in diameter), severe AR, annuloaortic ectasia, bipartite right ventricle with hapoplasia, and hypoplastic tricuspid valve. Operative findings showed that free margins of the right and noncoronary cusps were markedly elongated, thickened, and retracted, and commissure between the right coronary cusp and the noncoronary cusp was fused and calcified. VSD was closed with an autologous pericardial patch and composite graft aortic root replacement using direct coronary button reimplantation was performed, and the hypertrophic muscle of the right ventricular outflow tract was resected. The patient had transient weaning failure of cardiopulmonary bypass and was discharged at the postoperative 14 days without any problems.