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Migration of the Dokdo Cold Eddy in the East Sea (동해 독도 냉수성 소용돌이의 이동 특성)

  • KIM, JAEMIN;CHOI, BYOUNG-JU;LEE, SANG-HO;BYUN, DO-SEONG;KANG, BOONSOON
    • The Sea:JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF OCEANOGRAPHY
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.351-373
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    • 2019
  • The cold eddies around the Ulleung Basin in the East Sea were identified from satellite altimeter sea level data using the Winding-Angle method from 1993 to 2015. Among the cold eddies, the Dokdo Cold Eddies (DCEs), which were formed at the first meandering trough of the East Korea Warm Current (EKWC) and were pinched off to the southwest from the eastward flow, were classified and their migration patterns were analyzed. The vertical structures of water temperature, salinity, and flow velocity near the DCE center were also examined using numerical simulation and observation data provided by the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model and the National Institute of Fisheries Science, respectively. A total of 112 DCEs were generated for 23 years. Of these, 39 DCEs migrated westward and arrived off the east coast of Korea. The average travel distance was 250.9 km, the average lifespan was 93 days, and the average travel speed was 3.5 cm/s. The other 73 DCEs had moved to the east or had hovered around the generated location until they disappeared. At 50-100 m depth under the DCE, water temperature and salinity (T < $5^{\circ}C$, S < 34.1) were lower than those of ambient water and isotherms made a dome shape. Current faster than 10 cm/s circulates counterclockwise from the surface to 300 m depth at 38 km away from the center of DCE. After the EKWC separates from the coast, it flows eastward and starts to meander near Ulleungdo. The first trough of the meander in the east of Ulleungdo is pushed deep into the southwest and forms a cold eddy (DCE), which is shed from the meander in the south of Ulleungdo. While a DCE moves westward, it circumvents the Ulleung Warm Eddy (UWE) clockwise and follows U shape path toward the east coast of Korea. When the DCE arrives near the coast, the EKWC separates from the coast at the south of DCE and circumvents the DCE. As the DCE near the coast weakens and extinguishes about 30 days later after the arrival, the EKWC flows northward along the coast recovering its original path. The DCE steadily transports heat and salt from the north to the south, which helps to form a cold water region in the southwest of the Ulleung Basin and brings positive vorticity to change the separation latitude and path of the EKWC. Some of the DCEs moving to the west were merged into a coastal cold eddy to form a wide cold water region in the west of Ulleung Basin and to create a elongated anticlockwise circulation, which separated the UWE in the north from the EKWC in the south.

Assessment of Refuge Safety in Accomodations According to Awareness and Usability of Descending Life Lines and Simple Descending Life Lines (완강기 및 간이완강기의 인지·사용능력에 따른 숙박시설의 피난안전성 평가)

  • Han, Dong-Gew;Kong, Ha-Sung
    • The Journal of the Convergence on Culture Technology
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.11-21
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    • 2019
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate the awareness and usability of descending life lines and simple descending life lines for fire situations in the accommodation of the public officials who are responsible for supervising the installation and maintenance of descending life lines and simple descending life lines. The main results of the study are summarized as follows. First, in comparison of the ability to distinguish between descending life lines and simple descending life lines, the majority of female public officers in general administrative services do not have the ability to distinguish between descending lifelines and simple descending life lines, so they should be able to improve their ability to distinguish descending life lines. Also, institutional strategies are needed to regularly receive education through the Safety Experience Center in order to prevent safety accidents such as falling in emergency situations. Second, as a result of verifying reusability of simple descending life lines by gender and occupation, most public officers with the exception of half of the firefighting officers were analyzed as having no ability to reuse the simple descending life lines. Therefore, it is necessary to change the relevant laws so that only the installation of descending life lines which can be used continuously is permitted, except for the simple descending life lines among the evacuation instruments to be additionally installed in each room of the accommodation. Third, in terms of the ability to perceive the maximum load of the descending life lines according to occupation, the perception ability of the rescuers was the highest and the perception ability of the fire service personnel was the lowest. In order to improve the perception abilities of the fire service personnel, it is necessary to strengthen the theoretical and practical education of descending life lines in collective education such as the command-enhancing training which is regularly carried out in fire service academy. Lastly, it is believed that it is more effective to conduct the experience training of the descending life lines by imagining the fire in accomodations rather than other facilities, because it is the location where fires are actually seen the most.

Development of Dermal Transduction Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) Using A Skin Penetrating Functional Peptide (피부투과 기능성 펩타이드를 이용한 경피투과성 상피세포성장인자의 개발)

  • Kang, Jin Sun;La, Ha Na;Bak, Sun Uk;Eom, Hyo Jung;Lee, Byung Kyu;Shin, Hee Je
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.175-184
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    • 2019
  • The epidermal growth factor (EGF) has a intrinsic function of inducing growth and proliferation of cells through interacting with cell membrane receptors in human epidermis and dermis layer. These functions of EGF are used as a main ingredient for wound healing medicines and anti-aging cosmetics. As a cosmetic ingredient, the EGF has a problem in exhibiting its natural efficacy due to the lack of the ability to penetrate through the stratum corneum, which is known as the skin barrier. In this study, a recombinant human epidermal growth factor ($MTD_{151}-EGF$) fused with the macromolecule transduction domain $(MTD)_{151}$ with the skin penetration ability was developed to improve the skin penetration efficiency of the EGF. Expression of $MTD_{151}-EGF$ was performed in E. coli transformed with a vector encoding the $MTD_{151}-EGF$ gene and then purified. The purified $MTD_{151}-EGF$ was evaluated using cell proliferation assay, cytotoxicity test and skin penetration test by franz diffusion cell assay and artificial skin. Cell proliferation activity of $MTD_{151}-EGF$ purified to high purity of 99% or above was equivalent to the EGF or better, and cytotoxicity was not observed. In addition, the $MTD_{151}-EGF$ showed an excellent penetration efficiency compared to the EGF in the skin penetration test with EGF and $MTD_{151}-EGF$ labeled by FITC in an artificial skin penetration model. Based on the quantitative analysis of the penetrating substance using franz diffusion cell assay, the amount of penetration was about 16 times more than that of EGF. These results can be regarded as an effective alternative to improve the existing physical transdermal penetration method related to the use of various active ingredients for cosmetics.

The Quantitative Evaluation of Cardiac Calcification Using 18F-Sodium fluoride PET/CT (18F-Sodium fluoride PET 이용한 심장 석회화 정량평가에 대한 고찰)

  • Choi, Yong Hoon;Lee, Seung Jae;Kang, Chun Goo;Lim, Han Sang;Kim, Jae Sam
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.38-42
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    • 2019
  • Purpose Although computed tomography (CT) is used for coronary artery calcification, it is difficult to differentiate between high risk microcalcifications. Studies have shown that $^{18}F$-sodium fluoride ($^{18}F-NaF$) is very useful for the diagnosis of microcalcifications. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the usefulness of $^{18}F-NaF$ PET imaging in quantitative evaluation of calcification. Materials and Methods A total of 45 patients ($67.1{\pm}6.9years\;old$) were injected with 250 MBq of $^{18}F-NaF$ for 1 hour and images were acquired for 30 minutes. All patients underwent CT angiography (CTAngiography, CTA) before the PET scan. The SUVmax of calcification was measured and the background radioactivity of the left atrium was measured to determine Target to Background (TBR) and quantitatively analyzed. High risk group was classified through ROC curve (Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve). Results There were 226 coronary artery calcifications in the cohort and SUVmax was $1.15{\pm}0.39$. Of the 28 patients (62%), 58 were classified as high risk (TBR > 1.25). The remaining 168 were $TBR{\leq}1.25$. Conclusion $^{18}F-NaF$ PET images were available for quantitative assessment of microcalcifications and could be classified into high-risk groups. The combination of angiographic CT and $^{18}F-NaF$ PET may be a new method for early diagnosis of high-risk microcalcifications.

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Grand Circulation Process of Beach Cusp and its Seasonal Variation at the Mang-Bang Beach from the Perspective of Trapped Mode Edge Waves as the Driving Mechanism of Beach Cusp Formation (맹방해안에서 관측되는 Beach Cusp의 일 년에 걸친 대순환 과정과 계절별 특성 - 여러 생성기작 중 포획모드 Edge Waves를 중심으로)

  • Cho, Yong Jun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Coastal and Ocean Engineers
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.265-277
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    • 2019
  • Using the measured data of waves and shore-line, we reviewed the grand circulation process and seasonal variation of beach cusp at the Mang-Bang beach from the perspective of trapped mode Edge waves known as the driving mechanism of beach cusp. In order to track the temporal and spatial variation trends of beach cusp, we quantify the beach cusp in terms of its wave length and amplitude detected by threshold crossing method. In doing so, we also utilize the spectral analysis method and its associated spectral mean sand wave number. From repeated period of convergence and ensuing splitting of sand waves detected from the yearly time series of spectral mean sand wave number of beach cusp, it is shown that the grand circulation process of beach cusp at Mang-Bang beach are occurring twice from 2017. 4. 26 to 2018. 4. 20. For the case of beach area, it increased by $14,142m^2$ during this period, and the shore-line advanced by 18 m at the northen and southern parts of the Mang-Bang beach whereas the shore-line advanced by 2.4 m at the central parts of Mang-Bang beach. It is also worthy of note that the beach area rapidly increased by $30,345m^2$ from 2017.11.26. to 2017.12.22. which can be attributed to the nature of coming waves. During this period, mild swells of long period were prevailing, and their angle of attack were next to zero. These characteristics of waves imply that the main transport mode of sediment would be the cross-shore. Considering the facts that self-healing capacity of natural beaches is realized via the cross-shore sediment once temporarily eroded. it can be easily deduced that the sediment carried by the boundary layer streaming toward the shore under mild swells which normally incident toward the Mang-Bang beach makes the beach area rapidly increase from 2017.11.26. to 2017.12.22.

In vitro Development of Somatic Cell Nuclear Transferred Bovine Embryos Following Activation Timing in Enucleated and Cryopreserved MII Oocytes (탈핵 후 동결한 MII 난자의 활성화 시기가 체세포 핵치환 이후 소 난자의 체외발달에 미치는 영향)

  • 박세필;김은영;김선균;이영재;길광수;박세영;윤지연;이창현;정길생
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.245-252
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    • 2002
  • This study was to evaluate the in vitro survival of bovine enucleated MII (eMII) oocytes according to minimum volume cooling (MVC) freezing method and activation timing, and their in vitro development after somatic cell nuclear transfer (SONT). in vitro matured bovine oocytes for 20 h were stained with 5 $\mu\textrm{g}$/$m\ell$ Hoechst, and their 1st polar body and MII plate were removed by enucleation micropipette under UV filter. Also, eMII oocytes were subjected to activation after (group II) and before (group III) vitrification in 5 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ ionomycin added CRlaa medium for 5 min. For vitrification, eMll oocytes were pretreated with EG10 for 5 min, exposed to EG30 for 30 sec and then directly plunged into L$N_2$. Thawing was taken by 4-step procedures at 37$^{\circ}C$. Survived eMII oocytes were subjected to SONT with cultured adult bovine ear cells. Reconstructed oocytes were cultured in 10 $\mu\textrm{g}$/$m\ell$ of cycloheximide and 2.5 $\mu\textrm{g}$/$m\ell$ of cytochalasin D added CRlaa medium for 1 h, and then in 10 $\mu\textrm{g}$/$m\ell$ of cycloheximide added CRlaa medium for 4 h. Subsequently, the reconstructed oocytes were incubated for 2 days and cleaved embryos were further cultured on cumulus-cell monolayer drop in CRlaa medium for 6 days. Survival rates of bovine vitrified-thawed eMII oocytes in group II (activation after vitrification and thawing) and III (activation before vitrification) were 81.0% and 84.9%, respectively. Fusion rates of cytoplasts and oocytes in group II and III were 69.0% and 70.0%, respectively, and their results were not different with non-frozen NT group (control, 75.2%). Although their cleaved rates (53.4% and 58.4%) were not different, cytoplasmic fragment rate in group II (32.8%) was significantly higher than that in group III (15.6%)(P<0.05). Also, subsequent development rate into >morula in group II (8.6%) was low than that in group III(15.6%). However, in vitro development rate in group III was not different with that in control (24.8%). This result suggested that MVC method was appropriate freezing method for the bovine eMII oocytes and vitrified eMII oocytes after pre-activation could support in vitro embryonic development after SONT as equally well as fresh oocytes.

Studies on Heterostylism, Fertility, and Embryological Characteristics in Buckwheat. Fagopyrum esculentum (메밀의 이형예현상과 수정력 발생학적 특징에 관한 연구)

  • Man-Sang Lee
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.129-142
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    • 1986
  • Fifty-five local collections of buck wheat, Fagopyrum esculentum, were investigated their ratios of long-styled (LS) and short-styled (SS) flowers, fertility, meiosis of megaspore and microspore mother cell, female and male gametogenesis, and egg apparatus in accordance with the sowing seasons (spring, summer), altitudes (20m, 50-100m, 300m), and parent style types (L, S). Also they were embryologically investigated the fertility, fertilizing phenomenon and proembryogenesis by the legitimate and illegitimate pollination. There were no differences in the ratios of long-styled and short-5tyled flowers along with altitudes, but more irregularness was observed in plain area than that in the mountaineous or coastal area. LS versus SS ratios by sowing seasons were significantly separated into 1 : 1 in the summer sowing (P 0.1), but they were irregularly separated in the spring sowing. The segregating ratios by parent style types showed more number of short-styled flower in the spring sowing, and were statistically seperated into 1 : 1 in the summer sowing (P 0.25), regardless to parent style types. In the artificial legitimate union, the seed setting rates of the summer sowing (59-61%) were much higher than those of the spring sowing (about 30%), but in the artificial illegitimate union the seed setting rates were only fructified about 0.8-1.8% in the spring sowing. The seed setting rates in accordance with flowering stages were larger in turn early, middle, late, in the summer sowing. The grain number and grain weight per plant of short-styled flower were more than those of long-styled one regardless to style types. The 1,000 grain weight of long-styled flower was heavier than that of short-styled one in large grain, but it was lighter than that of short-styled flower in small or medium grain. The percentage of normal female and male gametogenesis in the summer sowing were higher than those in the spring sowing. The ovule was atropous and two polar nuclei were a synkarion before flowering. The pollens germinated at 30 minuts after pollination and the pollen tube grew continually and penetrated into micropyle at 1.5-2 hours and the two male nuclei fertilized with egg nucleus at 3 -5 hours after pollination. Flertilizing times in summer were shorter than in autumn. The fertilized egg was divided in a small apical cell toward the interior of the embryo sac and a large basal cell toward the micropyle cell at 15-24 hours after pollination, and division times in summer were shorter than in autumn. The proembryo began the embryogenesis at 7-8 days and formed itself into the perfect embryo at 15 days after pollination.

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Purification of cystic fluid antigen of Taenia solium metacestodes by affinity chromatography using monoclonal antibody and its antigenic characterization (단세포군항체에 의한 유구낭미충 낭액 특이항원의 순수분리 및 항원특성 관찰)

  • Kim, Suk-Il;Kang, Shin-Yong;Cho, Seung-Yull;Hwang, Eung-Soo;Cha, Chang-Yong
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.145-158
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    • 1986
  • This study was undertaken to purify cystic fluid (CF) antigen of Taenia solium metacestodes by affinity chromatogaphy using specific monoclonal antibody(McAb) and to characterize the antigenicity of the purified antigen. The hybridoma cell lines, prepared by fusion between mouse plasmacytoma and spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with CF, secreted antibodies reacting to various helminthic antigens. Majority of cell lines reacted to CF only but some also reacted to parenchymal antigen of T. solium metacestodes, adult T. saginata, sparganum, hydatid cystic fluid, Paragonimus westermani and Clonorchis sinensis, either in combination with CF, other antigens or independently. Cloned cells derived from monoclonal lines also produced antibodies reacting either to CF only or to other helminthes in combination or independently. These results indicated that CF of T. solium metacestodes contained proteins which possessed antigenic determinants not only specific to CF but also cross reactive with the afore-mentioned helminthes. CF of T. solium metacestodes was purified by affinity chromatography using the McAb which reacted to CF and parenchymal antigens. The affinity-purified antigen (A-Ag) and unbound pool CF (U-Ag) were separated. A-Ag showed 2 protein bands by disc-PAGE whereas CF exhibited 6 bands and U-Ag consisted of all bands CF had. The diagnostic significance of A-Ag was evaluated by ELISA in human neurocysticercosis and other helminthic and neurologic diseases. By A-Ag, the levels of the specific IgG antibody, as shown by absorbance in sera and CSF, were lower than those of CF and U-Ag. Accordingly, the sensitivity was about 70% of CF and U-Ag. However, the nonspecific positive reactions to CF and U-Ag, observed in sparganosis, T. saginata infection and paragonimiasis did not occur when A-Ag was used. These results indicated that the affinity-purified A-Ag had the higher specificity but the lower sensitivity as a diagnostic antigen in cysticercosis, probably because it only detected a single or limited numbers of monospecific antibodies among the diverse polyclonal antibodies produced in the patients with neurocysticercosis.

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Lateral Cephalometric Measurements of Class I Malocclusion Patients with Uncertainty (불확도를 고려한 Class I 부정교합 환자의 측방두부방사선영상 계측값)

  • Lee, Ji Min;Song, Ji-Soo;Hyun, Hong-Keun;Kim, Young-Jae;Kim, Jung-Wook;Jang, Ki-Taeg;Lee, Sang-Hoon;Kim, Hojae;Cho, Hyo-Min;Shin, Teo Jeon
    • JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.65-74
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    • 2018
  • The aim of this study was to obtain the traceability of the software used to analyze lateral cephalometry and to calculate the uncertainty of the measurements. Furthermore, this study aimed to provide a basis for obtaining standard references for measurement values for orthodontic treatment in children. Cephalometric data were collected from 100 children diagnosed with class I malocclusion between the ages 6 to 13 years who visited the pediatric dentist at Seoul National University Dental Hospital. To ensure traceability, a phantom device was created. Correction values were calculated by measuring the length and angle of the phantom device using the software. Type A uncertainty was calculated by obtaining the standard deviation of cephalometric measurements of 100 persons and the standard error of repeated measurements. Determination of the type B uncertainty was induced by minimum resolution and the position of the head. Using these, the combined standard uncertainty was obtained and the expanded uncertainty was calculated. The results of this study confirm that the currently used software has high accuracy and reliability. Furthermore, the uncertainty of orthodontic measurements in Korean children aged 6 to 13 years was calculated, and distribution range for class I malocclusion with 95% confidence interval was suggested.

Effect of Processing Additives on Vulcanization and Properties of EPDM Rubber (EPDM 고무의 첨가제에 따른 가류 및 물성에 미치는 영향 연구)

  • Lee, Soo;Bae, Joung Su
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.173-185
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    • 2018
  • Effects of three different types of dispersions and flow improving additives composed with fatty acid esters, fatty acid metal salts and amide compound on the vulcanization and the mechanical properties properties of rubber compounds of EPDM and carbon black as fillers. were investigated using Mooney viscometer, moving die rheometer, hardness tester, and universal test machine. The aging characteristics of vulcanized EPDM compounds were also investigated. The Mooney viscosity measured at $125^{\circ}C$ showed a tendency to decrease in the order of amide type> metal salt type > ester type additive. Scorch time showed little or no difference with the addition of ester or metal salt type additives, but the amide type additive shortened a scorch time more than one minute. Rheological measurement data obtained at $160^{\circ}C$ showed that the vulcanization time was faster for metal salt type and amide type additive systems. Delta torque values of EPDM compound increased with metal salt type and amide type additives, but slightly decreased with ester type additive. The tensile strength of the EPDM compound was greatly improved when an ester type additive was added, but the amide type or metal salt type additive had no significant effect. The elongation was significantly improved for metal salt type additive, while the rest were not significantly affected. The tear strength of the EPDM compounds increased with the addition of all kinds of additives, and it increased remarkably in the case of metal salt type additive. Hardness of the EPDM compounds was nearly same value regardless of additive types. The thermal aging of the EPDM blend at $100^{\circ}C$ for 24 h showed little change in the case of metal salt type or amide type additive, but the elongation tends to decrease by 10-20% for all EPDM compounds containing additives.