• Title, Summary, Keyword: 유도배출한계

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Review on the Management for Radioactive Effluent and Methodology for Setting of Derived Release Limits at Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors in Korea (중수로원전 방사성유출물 관리와 유도배출한계 설정방법에 대한 고찰)

  • Kim, Hee-Geun;Kong, Tae-Young;Jeong, Woo-Tae;Kim, Seok-Tae
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.172-177
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    • 2010
  • The radioactive effluents from pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) are relatively larger than those from pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Futhermore, radioactive effluents from PHWRs are released continuously. Thus, the discharge of radioactive effluents is strictly controlled. To do this, radiation detectors are installed at stacks of reactor buildings to monitor the concentration of radioactive effluents in real-time. Derived release limits (DRLs) of annual discharge are also set up for each radionuclide and effluents are rigidly controlled not to exceed those limits. In this paper, the discharge process of radioactive effluents, the standard for establishment of DRL and its methodology, and currents status for PHWRs were reviewed.

The Impacts of Decision Order and Uncertainty on Emissions Trading (배출권거래제에서의 의사결정 순서와 불확실성 영향 분석)

  • Moon, Jin-Young
    • Environmental and Resource Economics Review
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.403-419
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    • 2016
  • Cap-and-trade policies that allow firms to trade emission allowances are designed to reduce emissions at least cost and are shown to be efficient when there is no uncertainty over emissions. This paper examines how uncertainty in emissions affects firms' decisions about permit purchase and abatement. The results show that whether firms abate more under uncertainty compared to a case with no uncertainty depends on the expected penalty cost and marginal abatement cost. If the expected marginal penalty cost is greater than the marginal abatement cost, the firm will choose to reduce emissions and abate more under uncertainty. When the expected marginal penalty is greater than the marginal cost of abatement, increases in uncertainty result in reduced emissions. This paper also examines whether the order of abatement and permit trading and the realization of uncertainty affect firms' decisions. The results show that total expected emissions are the same regardless of the order of moves.

Evaluation and Improvement of a Subsidy Policy on Early Scrapping of Old Diesel Vehicles (노후경유차량 조기폐차 보조금 지원 제도 성과분석 및 개선방안)

  • Kim, Jongwon;Kang, Kwangkyu
    • Journal of Environmental Policy
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.73-99
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    • 2015
  • A subsidy policy on early scrapping of old diesel vehicles has been activated to improve air pollution in Seoul metropolitan area. The benefit-cost analysis on this policy evidently shows cost effective as benefit is greater than cost. The policy currently provides 80% of old diesel vehicle's worth within the maximum amount capped which limited the effects on increasing the level of subsidy. Therefore, to induce more old diesel vehicles scrapped, it is needed to consider that the level of subsidy and the maximum amount are raised at the same time. Meanwhile, taking account of insufficient subsidy amount, granting older vehicles more subsidy would be a good way of extending the policy effect.

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Solid Waste Generation and Household Recycling of Solid Wastes Under An Incenitve Pricing Option (쓰레기종량제(從量制) 하(下)에서의 쓰레기발생(發生)과 쓰레기분리수거(分離收去))

  • Hong, Seong-Hun
    • Environmental and Resource Economics Review
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.259-274
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    • 1997
  • 본 논문은 쓰레기종량제 하에서 가격유인책 및 다른 사회 경제적 변수가 가정의 쓰레기발생과 재활용품배출에 미치는 효과를 분석하고 있다. 개별 가정설문자료를 이용하여 가정의 쓰레기발생과 재활용품배출에 대한 구조적 방정식을 3단계 최소자승법으로 추정하였다. 추정결과 가계소득과 가족 수는 쓰레기발생량에 정의 관계로 영향을 미치며, 재활용품배출량은 가정주부의 시간가치와는 역의 관계를 가지고 교육수준과는 정의 관계를 보이고 있다. 쓰레기봉투가격의 인상은 쓰레기발생량에는 영향을 주지 않고 재활용품배출량의 증가를 통해 쓰레기수거서비스에 대한 수요를 감소시키는 것으로 나타난다. 가정에서 분리수거를 통해 재활용할 수 있는 잠재적 재활용가능량은 정부의 재활용품목의 지정 및 재활용기술에 의해 제한되기 때문에 쓰레기가격의 대폭적 인상을 통해 쓰레기수거서비스의 감소를 유도하는 것은 한계가 있는 것으로 보인다.

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A Green House Gas Emission Estimation Based on Gravity Model and Its Elasticity (중력모형을 이용한 온실가스 배출량추정 및 탄력성분석)

  • Im, Yong-Taek
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.85-93
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    • 2011
  • Many policies, such as transit-oriented development, encouraged use of bicycle and pedestrian, reduction of green house gas (GHG) and etc., have been deployed to support transport sustainability. Although various studies regarding GHG were presented, no one has yet adequately explained the behavior of travelers. This paper proposes a GHG emission model by highlighting its sensitivity, elasticity with regard to such travel cost as travel time, travel fare, and GHG pricing, introduced to reduce the amount of GHG in transportation system. For better estimation of GHG, the proposed model adopts (1) a production-constrained gravity model and (2) the travel distance from the origin and the destination (OD). The gravity model has a merit that it considers travel pattern between OD pairs. The model was tested with an example, and the promising results confirmed its validation and applications.

A Experimental Study on Exclusion Ability of Riprap into Bypass Pipe (저층수 배사관 내 유입된 사석 배출능력에 대한 연구)

  • Jeong, Seok Il;Lee, Seung Oh
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.239-246
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    • 2017
  • There are various transversal structures (small dams or drop structures) in median and small streams in Korea. Most of them are concrete structures and it is so hard to exclude low-level water. Unless drainage valves and/or gates would not be installed near bottom of bed, sediment from upstream should be deposited and also contaminants attached to the sediments would devastatingly threaten the water quality and ecosystem. One of countermeasures for such problem is the bypass pipe installed underneath the transversal structure. However, there is still issued whether it would be workable if the gravels and/or stones would roll into and be not excluded. Therefore, in this study, the conditions to exclude the rip stone which enter into the bypass pipe was reviewed. Based on sediment transport phenomenon, the behavior of stones was investigated with the concepts from the critical shear stress of sediment and d'Alembert principle. As final results, the basis condition (${\tau}_c{^*}$) was derived using the Lagrangian description since the stones are in the moving state, not in the stationary state. From hydraulic experiments the relative velocity could be obtained. In order to minimize the scale effect, the extra wide channel of 5.0 m wide and 1.0 m high was constructed and the experimental stones were fully spherical ones. Experimental results showed that the ratio of flow velocity to spherical particle velocity was measured between 0.5 and 0.7, and this result was substituted into the suggested equation to identify the critical condition wether the stones were excluded. Regimes about the exclusion of stone in bypass pipe were divided into three types according to particle Reynolds number ($Re_p$) and dimensionless critical shear force (${\tau}_c{^*}$) - exclusion section, probabilistic exclusion section, no exclusion section. Results from this study would be useful and essential information for bypass pipe design in transveral structures.

Experimental study of the air emission effect in the tangential and the multi-stage spiral inlet (접선식 유입구와 다단식 나선 유입구의 공기 배출 효과에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • Seong, Hoje;Rhee, Dong Sop;Park, Inhwan
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.52 no.4
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    • pp.235-243
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    • 2019
  • Recently, urban inundation was frequently occurred due to the intensive rainfall exceeding marginal capacity of the flood control facility. Furthermore, needs for the underground storage facilities to mitigate urban flood are increasing according to rapidly accelerating urbanization. Thus, in this study, drainage efficiency in drain tunnel connecting to underground storage was investigated from the air-core measurements in the drop shaft against two types of inlet structure. In case of the spiral inlet, the multi-stage structure is introduced at the bottom of the inlet to improve the vortex induction effect at low inflow discharge (multi-stage spiral inlet). The average cross-sectional area of the air-core in the multi-stage spiral inlet is 10% larger than the tangential inlet, and show the highly air emission effect and the highly inflow efficiency at the high inflow discharge. In case of the tangential inlets, the air emission effect decreased after exceeding the maximum inflow discharge, which is required to maintain the inherent performance of the tangential inlet. From the measurements, the empirical formula for the cross-sectional area of the air-core according to locations inside the drop shaft was proposed in order to provide the experimental data available for the inlet model used in experiments.

Analysis and Application of Water Footprint to Improve Water Resource Management System - With a Focus on Seoul City - (서울시 물환경관리체계 개선을 위한 물발자국 도입 및 활용방안에 관한 연구 - 서울시 자치구 물환경관리 정책 및 제도, 관리체계 분석을 중심으로 -)

  • Chun, Dong Jun;Kim, Jin-Oh
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.222-232
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    • 2016
  • Water Footprint is utilized to analyze direct and indirect water consumption for sustainable water resource management. This study aims to understand potential applicability of water footprint concept by analyzing the status of water consumption and related water policies in Seoul. We analyzed a direct gray water footprint and the blue water footprint in Seoul affected by the social and economic characteristics of the consumers in the city. In particular, in order to analyze the blue water footprint represented by both surface and underground water for the provision and consumption of products, we calculated the actual water consumptions of surface and underground water for 25 districts in Seoul. Our analysis in consideration of population and households indicates that Jung-gu has the highest blue water footprint followed by Jongro-gu, Gangnam-gu, Yongsan-gu, and Seocho-gu. Gray water footprint was calculated by estimating the amount of water for purifying wastewater to meet the water quality standard (above BOD 3.5ppm) for each district. As a result, Jung-gu has the highest gray water footprint, followed by Jongro-gu, Gangnam-gu, Yongsan-gu, Seocho-gu, and Youngdeungpo-gu. Our study suggests the potential value of using water footprint concept to complement the current limitations of water use management focusing on water supply control. We expect that our analysis will provide an important basis for considering water use management which is economically and socially more resilient and sustainable.

유기농 이유식 제품 제조 기술 현황과 소비 전망

  • Sin, Hyeon-Ho
    • 한국유가공학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.29-45
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    • 2006
  • 최근에 들어 웰빙(well-being)과 함께 로하스(LOHAS: Lifestyle of Health and Sustainability)란 개념이 급속도로 확산되고 있으며, 이를 만족하는 식품으로 친환경 농산물과 유기 가공 식품이 대두되고 있다. 여러 마케팅 조사에서도 친환경 농산물과 유기 가공 식품의 소비자 선호도는 상당히 높게 나타난다. 이러한 다양한 소비자의 요구에 맞춰 우리의 2세에게 더욱 안전하고 좋은 품질의 이유식을 제공하고 나아가 한계에 이른 '지구와 환경을 해치지 않는 지속가능 한 소비'를 유도하고자 업체들은 유기농 이유식을 개발하고 있다. 유기농 소비자 10명 가운데 7명은 최근의 웰빙 붐 때문에 유기농에 관심을 가지게 됐으며, 가격이 다소 비싸더라도 가족의 건강을 위해 친환경 농산물을 구입하는 것으로 나타났으며, 국내외를 막론하고 친환경 농산물과 유피 가공 식품의 시장 동향을 살펴보면 지속적으로 증가하고 있으나, 아직까지 일반 제품에 비해 미미한 수준이며, 국내는 인증 제도가 없으나, 유기 가공 식품표시기준에 따라 표시되고 있다. 일반적으로 이유식이라 함은 식품공전에서 영 ${\cdot}$ 유아용 곡류 조제식만을 말하지만 넓게 축산물의 조제유류, 영아용 조제식, 성장기용 조제식, 기타 영 ${\cdot}$ 유아식을 포함할 수 있으며, 유기농 이유식 제조 현황을 살펴보면 동결, 분무, 드럼 등의 건조와 퍼핑이나 Extruder를 통한 알파화로 원료를 가공하여 은 살균, 멸균, 균질, 혼합, 건조, 냉각, 포장 등의 다양한 공정으로 이루어진 분무건조나 유동층이나 연속식 과립기를 사용하여 분말이나 입자형 이유식을 생산하며, 동결 건조를 하여 열수를 가해 죽 상태로 먹을 수 있도록 한 제품, 데워서 떠 먹일 수 있도록 병조림이나 레토르트 유동식 제품, 바로 마실 수 있는 쥬스류, 두유류, 과자 등으로 생산하고 있다. 주된 메이저4사는 일동후디스, 남양유업, 매일유업, 파스퇴르유업으로 다양한 제품들을 생산하고 있으며, 두유를 위주로 한 정식품, 연세우유와 종근당건강, 다양한 다국적 기업들의 제품이 수입되고 있는 실정이다. 이유식 시장도 96년 하반기부터 정체를 보이는 상태다. 2002년도 이유식 시장은 약 1,300억원 규모로 업체들의 고가 신제품과 유기농 이유식 출시로 판매 금액은 소폭 상승하였으나 판매 수량은 큰 변동이 없다. 저출산에 따른 양육비 집중과 유기농 제품에 대한 저변이 크게 확산돼 베이비 웰빙은 어느 정도 예견된 일이거니와 이미 미국 등 선진국에선 유아에 그치지 않고 아동까지 유기농과 고급 원료를 사용한 고가의 웰빙 제품이 봇물을 이루고 있는 상황이어서 유아식 시장은 어느 때보다 경쟁이 치열할 것이며, 국내 식품 업체들이 너도나도 유기농 제품과 매장사업에 뛰어들고 있다. 유기 가공 식품의 지속적인 발전을 위해서 (1) 국내산/수입산 공통으로 인증 제도가 도입되고 원료 농산물뿐만 아니라, 모든 공정이나 공장에 대한 종합적 관리와 동일한 인증 표시가 이루어져야 한다. (2) 정부 부처의 이기를 타파할 수 있는 법정부적 기구나 대책이 필요하다. (3) 유기 가공 식품을 취급하는 업계에서는 기존 3%의 비의도적 혼입치의 고려나 상한선 재설정을 요구하고 진정한 유기 가공 식품으로 공정 경쟁한다. (4) 활발한 인증심사원의 교육과 배출로 인증이나 심사기관의 민간 이양을 적극 장려하고 국가관 상호 신뢰를 구축한다. (5) 각 소비자 단체나 소비자는 환경을 살리고 생명체의 공생이라는 관점에서 최선의 길이 유기농 제품임을 인식하고 소비하여 우리의 다음 세대에게서 빌려온 소중한 환경을 물려준다.

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Major Issues of Post-Kyoto Negotiation and Their Implications : An Economic Analysis by Using a CGE Model (Post-Kyoto 협상의 주요 쟁점사항과 시사점 : 연산일반균형(CGE)모형을 활용한 경제적 분석)

  • Lim, JaeKyu
    • Environmental and Resource Economics Review
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.457-493
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    • 2009
  • This paper evaluates major issues of Post-Kyoto negotiation of UNFCCC and conducted economic analysis by utilizing a computable general equilibrium(CGE) model(GTEM-KOR). It points three major agendas of the negotiation to be settled : (1) return of the US to GHG abatement commitment; (2) participation of developing countries in GHG abatement commitment; and (3) development of a comprehensive approach for post-Kyoto period. It also emphasizes the differentiation of developing countries and the type and strength of commitment as the negotiation issues for settlement of those agendas. The analysis by using GTEM-KOR shows the differentiation between developing countries based on per capita GDP and/or per capita emissions is inefficient in terms of global GHG emission reduction and it will exposure Korea to strong pressure of commitment relative to other developing countries. It also shows that the participation of developing countries such as China and India is one of the most important factors for the environmental effectiveness of the Post-Kyoto regime. It emphasizes that the relative strength of commitment and the scope of country participation rather than type of commitment are major components determining the economic and environmental effectiveness of the Post-Kyoto regime.

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