• Title, Summary, Keyword: 울릉분지

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The distribution of sulfate and methane concentration and their vertical trend in the Ulleung Basin (동해 울릉분지의 황산염과 메탄의 농도 분포 및 심도에 따른 변화 양상)

  • Kim Ji-Hoon;Park Myong-Ho;Ryu Byong-Jae;Lee Young-Joo;Han Hyun-Chul;Cheong Tae-Jin;Oh Jae-Ho;Chang Ho-Wan
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.622-625
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    • 2005
  • 본 연구의 목적은 동해 울릉분지 천부퇴적층의 공극수와 메탄의 특징 및 상호작용을 규명하는데 있다. 울릉분지에서 채취한 코어에서 공극수를 추출하여 분석한 결과, 공극수의 황산염 농도가 퇴적물의 심도가 증가할수록 감소하며, 감소하는 경향은 크게 세 가지 (직선성, concave down, upward kink)로 나뉨을 알 수 있었다. 이는 모든 코어에서 황산염 환원작용이 일어나고 있음을 지시한다 황산염 농도의 수직적 구배를 이용하여 SMI (sulfate-methane interface) 심도를 계산하면, 남부울릉분지가 북부울릉분지보다 낮은 값을 갖는다. 반면에 메탄 농도는 퇴적물의 심도가 증가할수록 전반적으로 증가하며, 공간적으로는 남부 울릉분지가 북부울릉보지보다 높다. 또한 남부울릉분지에서 메탄가스 농도는 SMI 심도 아래에서 급격히 증가한다 메탄가스의 탄소 안정동위원소$(\delta^{13}C)$ 분석 값들은 대부분 $-60\%_{\circ}$이하로서 이는 메탄가스가 열기원 보다는 박테리아기원임을 지시해준다 또한 남부 울릉분지에서 메탄의 탄소 안정동위원소 분석 값들은 메탄농도가 증가할수록 낮은 값을 보여 주는 데 이러한 결과들은 남부 울릉분지에서 무산소 메탄 산화작용이 일어나고 있음을 지시하고, 메탄의 상향 분산 (diffusion)량이 북부 울릉분지보다 많이 일어난다는 것을 의미한다. 공극수내 황산염 이온 농도 구배와 메탄가스 농도를 종합적으로 고려할 때, 울릉분지에서 가스하이드레이트의 부존가능성은 북부 울룽분지보다 남부 울릉분지가 높은 것으로 추정된다.

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A Geophysical Study on the Geotectonics and Opening Mechanism of the Ulleung Basin, East Sea (동해 울릉분지의 지구조 및 성인에 관한 지구물리학적 연구)

  • Suh, Man-Cheol;Lee, Gwang-Hoon;Shon, Ho-Woong
    • The Sea:JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF OCEANOGRAPHY
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.34-44
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    • 1998
  • Analysis of gravity, magnetic, and seismic reflection data from the Ulleung Basin, East Sea has provided some insights into the opening mechanism and crustal type of the basin. Free-air gravity anomaly data show positive anomalies of about 40~60 mgal near the Korea Plateau and Oki Bank and of about -20~20 mgal in the central basin. Bouguer gravity anomaly data exhibit NE-SW trending positive anomalies of about 150 mgal in the central basin which is interpreted to be related to high-density crustal material. Abrupt changes in both Free-air and Bouguer gravity anomaly profiles across the basin margins may be due to transition between continental and oceanic crusts. Magnetic anomalies in the basin are generally less than -400 nT. No stripe pattern is evident in the magnetic anomaly map but a NW-SE trending symmetric pattern is seen in some magnetic profiles. The symmetric pattern is probably associated with the high-density crustal material in the central basin suggested by Bouguer gravity anomaly. The acoustic basement in the deep part of the basin has only a small amount of local relief. No graben or half-graben structures are seen in the acoustic basement from which mechanical extension might be inferred. The lack of high-relief structures in the acoustic basement may suggest that the basin is underlain by oceanic crust or that the basement is overlain by thick volcanic layer which obscures the structures and relief of the basement. High-density crust in the central basin inferred from gravity data, abrupt changes in gravity anomalies across the basin margins, symmetric pattern seen in some magnetic anomaly profiles, and lack of relief in the acoustic basement may suggest sea-floor spreading origin of the Ulleung Basin.

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Marine Geophysical Constraints on the Origin and Evolution of Ulleung Basin and the Seamounts in the East Sea (울릉분지와 동해 해산의 기원과 발달과정에 대한 해양지구물리학적 연구)

  • Kim Jinho;Park Soo-chul;Kang Moo-hee;Kim Kyong-O;Han Hyun-chul
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.38 no.6
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    • pp.643-656
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    • 2005
  • The East Sea, a marginal sea or back-arc basin, consists of Japan Basin, Yamato Basin, and Ulleung Basin and is surrounded by the Pacific Plate and Philippine Sea Plate. Ulleung Basin locates in the southwestern part of the East Sea and shows the depth of 1,500 m in average and 2,500 m in maximum, connecting to the Japan Basin along 2,000 m contour. The slope of the seafloor is greater in the western side of the basin than in the southern and the eastern side. The crustal thickness of the Ulleung Basin from the OBS tends to get thicker toward the north and the west side and the sediment thickness of the Ulleung Basin is getting thicker toward the southeast side and reaches up to 12 km. The crustal type of the Ulleung Basin was variously suggested as like as a rifted continental crust, an extended continental crust, and an incipient oceanic trust. The origin of the crustal formation and the Ulleung Basin, however, is still controversial. Based on the bathymetry and gravtiy anomaly data for this study, the axis of the Ulleung Basin shows that the basin develops along the axis trending NW-SE direction and reveals a general symmetry of the bathymetry. And also the free-air gravity anomalies show a very similar pattern to the bathymetry of the basin. The sediment thickness is relatively thicker in the southeastern side of the basin than in the northwestern side. Although the crustal age of the Ulleung Basin is supposed to be younger than them of the Japan Basin and the Yamato Basin, the free-air gravity anomalies of the Ulleung Basin ranging -40 to 50 mGals are lower than the other basins, which suggests that the densities of crust and sediment of the Ulleng Basin are lower than the Japan Basin and the Yamato Basin.

Crustal Characteristics and Structure of the Ulleung Basin, the East Sea (Japan Sea), Inferred from Seismic, Gravity and Magnetic Data (탄성파 및 중자력자료에 의한 울릉분지의 지각특성 및 구조 연구)

  • Huh, Sik;Kim, Han-Jun;Yoo, Hai-Soo;Park, Chan-Hong
    • The Sea:JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF OCEANOGRAPHY
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.95-104
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    • 2000
  • Depths to four seismic sequence boundaries and the thickness of each sequence were estimated and mapped based on multi-channel seismic data in the Ulleung Basin. These depth-structure and isopach maps were incorporated into the interpretation of gravity and magnetic anomaly maps. The sediment thickness ranges from 3,000 m to 4,000 m in the central basin, while it reaches 6,000 m locally along the southwestern, western, and southeastern margins. The acoustic basement forms a northeast-southwest elongated depression deeper than 5000 m, and locally deepens up to 7,500 m in the southwestern and western margins. Low gravity anomalies along the western and southern margins are associated with basement depressions with thick sediment as well as the transitional crust between the continental and oceanic crusts. Higher gravity anomalies, dominant in the central Ulleung basin, broaden from southwest toward northeast, are likely due to the shallow mantle and a dense crust. A pair of magnetic elongations in the southeastern and northwestern margins appear to separate the central Ulleung basin from its margin. These magnetic elongations are largely dominated by intrusive or extrusive volcanics which occurred along the rifted margin of the Ulleung basin formed during the basin opening. The crust in the central Ulleung Basin, surrounded by the magnetic elongations, is possibly oceanic as inferred from the seismic velocity. The oceanic crust can be mapped in the central zone where it widens to 120 km from the southwest toward northeast. Bending of the crustal boundary in the southern part of the Ulleung Basin suggests that the Ulleung Basin has been deformed by a collision of the Phillipine plate into the Japan arc.

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Estimate of Manganese and Iron Oxide Reduction Rates in Slope and Basin Sediments of Ulleung Basin, East Sea (동해 울릉분지 퇴적물에서 망간산화물과 철산화물 환원율 추정)

  • Choi, Yu-Jeong;Kim, Dong-Seon;Lee, Tae-Hee;Lee, Chang-Bok
    • The Sea:JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF OCEANOGRAPHY
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.127-133
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    • 2009
  • In order to determine organic carbon oxidation by manganese and iron oxides, six core sediments were obtained in slope and basin sediments of Ulleung Basin in East Sea. The basin sediments show high organic carbon contents (>2%) at the water depths deeper than 2,000 m; this is rare for deep-sea sediments, except for those of the Black Sea and Chilean upwelling regions. In the Ullleung Basin, the surface sediments were extremely enriched by Manganese oxides with more than 2%. Maximum contents of Fe oxides were found at the depth of $1{\sim}4cm$ in basin sediments. However, the high level of Mn and Fe oxides was not observed in slope sediment. Surface manganese enrichments (>2%) in Ulleung Basin may be explained by two possible mechanisms: high organic carbon contents and optimum sedimentation rates and sufficient supply of dissolved Manganese from slope to the deep basin. Reduction rates of iron and manganese oxides ranged from 0.10 to $0.24\;mmol\;m^{-2}day^{-1}$ and from 0.30 to $0.57\;mmol\;m^{-2}day^{-1}$, respectively. In Ulleung Basin sediments, $13{\sim}26%$ of organic carbon oxidation may be linked to the reduction of iron and manganese oxides. Reduction rates of metal oxides were comparable to those of Chilean upwelling regions, and lower than those of Danish coastal sediments.

Physical Structure of Eddies in the Southwestern East Sea (동해남서해역 와류의 물리적구조)

  • 이흥재;변상경
    • 한국해양학회지
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.170-183
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    • 1995
  • Eddies and surface current field in the southwestern part of the East Sea were investigated using satellite-tracked drifters, CTD, and ADCP from November 1992 to September 1993. Trajectories of surface drifters provided information for the first time on the meandering motion of the East Korean Warm Current in the Ullung Basin (referred as UB) and clearly indicated the existence of cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies of various scales. Anticyclonic eddies persisting for a relatively long period were observed in UB and the southwestern corner of the Northern (Japan) Basin (SNB), while a cyclonic eddy was found in the coastal area between Sokcho and Donghae during the summer. Analysis shows that the eddy in UB behaved as a stationary eddy at least during the observation period and the cyclonic eddy was closely related to the existence of a cold water mass. The anticyclonic eddy in SNB was larger than that in UB, but much elongated in shape. The eddy in UB is characteristic of major and minor axes of about 120 and 70 km, revolution period of 13.6 days, mean swirl velocity of about 24 cm/s, and mean eddy kinetic energy of 392 cm$\^$2//s$\^$2/. The eddy in SNB is described as follows; major and minor axes of 168 and 86 km, period of 14.9 days, mean swirl velocity of 29 cm/s and mean eddy kinetic energy of 629 cm$\^$2//s$\^$2/. The mean translational speed is about 3 cm/s for both eddies. The agreement of the surface current pattern in UB observed by ADCP with the geostrophic flow pattern may suggest that the eddy in UB was nearly in geostrophic balance. The eddy was found to be strongly bottom-controlled.

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Seismic study of the Ulleung Basin crust and its implications for the opening of the East Sea (탄성파 탐사를 통해 본 울릉분지의 지각특성과 동해형성에 있어서의 의미)

  • Kim, Han Jun
    • Journal of the Korean Geophysical Society
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.9-26
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    • 1999
  • The Ulleung Basin (Tsushima Basin) in the southwestern East Sea (Japan Sea) is floored by a crust whose affinity is not known whether oceanic or thinned continental. This ambiguity resulted in unconstrained mechanisms of basin evolution. The present work attempts to define the nature of the crust of the Ulleung Basin and its tectonic evolution using seismic wide-angle reflection and refraction data recorded on ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs). Although the thickness of (10 km) of the crust is greater than typical oceanic crust, tau-p analysis of OBS data and forward modeling by 2-D ray tracing suggest that it is oceanic in character: (1) the crust consists of laterally consistent upper and lower layers that are typical of oceanic layers 2 and 3 in seismic velocity and gradient distribution and (2) layer 2C, the transition between layer 2 and layer 3 in oceanic crust, is manifested by a continuous velocity increase from 5.7 to 6.3 km/s over the thickness interval of about 1 km between the upper and lower layers. Therefore it is not likely that the Ulleung Basin was formed by the crustal extension of the southwestern Japan Arc where crustal structure is typically continental. Instead, the thickness of the crust and its velocity structure suggest that the Ulleung Basin was formed by seafloor spreading in a region of hotter than normal mantle surrounding a distant mantle plume, not directly above the core of the plume. It seems that the mantle plume was located in northeast China. This suggestion is consistent with geochemical data that indicate the influence of a mantle plume on the production of volcanic rocks in and around the Ulleung Basin. Thus we propose that the opening models of the southwestern East Sea should incorporate seafloor spreading and the influence of a mantle plume rather than the extension of the crust of the Japan Arc.

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Mineralogical Characteristics of Marine Sediments Cores from Uleung Basin and Hupo Basin, East Sea (동해 울릉분지와 후포분지 해양 퇴적물 코어의 광물학적 특성)

  • Lee, Su-Ji;Kim, Chang-Hwan;Jun, Chang-Pyo;Lee, Seong-Joo;Kim, Yeongkyoo
    • Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.71-81
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    • 2015
  • This study was carried out in order to investigate the mineralogical characteristics of the core sediments (03GHP-02 and HB13-2), obtained from the Ulleung Basin and Hupo Basin, Korea. The results on mineral compositions, clay mineral compositions, and the total contents and sequential extraction of different fractions of the phosphorus in core samples showed that those values are different in two cores and also at different depths. In both samples, mineral compositions were the same, composed mainly of quartz, microcline, albite, calcite, opal A, pyrite, and clay minerals (illite, chlorite, kaolinite, and smectite). However, the sample from Hupo Basin contains more opal A. Both samples, especially the ones from Hupo Basin contains more smectite than those reported from East Sea, indicating the influence of paleo-Hwangwei River and the Tertiary Formation of Korea Peninsula. For the samples from Uleung Basin, at 0.7-3.5 m range in depth, the low content of opal A and the low illite crystallinity index can be inferred to indicate the relatively cool climate, corresponding to the ice age. Also, the content of total phosphorus was low in those samples. It was reported that East Sea at that time was isolated from the neighboring seas due to the decrease of the sea level, and as a result, the influx of sediments was supposed to be little through the strait and rivers. For the samples from Hupo Basin, there is no significant changes in clay mineral composition and the distribution of phosphorus with increasing depth. This little change can be interpreted to indicate that the sediments comprising the core might be deposited in a relatively short period of time or deposited in sedimentary environment in which there's no significant changes in sediment supplies. The values of crystallinity index of clay minerals are high in those samples, indicating that it was relatively warm during that time. Although the increase of fluctuation pattern can be observed, showing that the climate of this period often changed, it is supposed that it was generally warm.

Dissolved Oxygen at the Bottom Boundary Layer of the Ulleung Basin, East Sea (동해 울릉분지 해저 경계면의 용존산소)

  • Kang, Dong-Jin;Kim, Yun-Bae;Kim, Kyung-Ryul
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.439-448
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    • 2010
  • General consensus on typical vertical profile of dissolved oxygen in the Ulleung Basin is that dissolved oxygen concentration beyond 300 m decreases with increasing depth. However, the results of our observations in 2005 and 2006 revealed three different dissolved oxygen distribution types in the deep layer of the Ulleung Basin. The first type showed oxygen concentration decreasing with increasing depth (Type-1), the second showed oxygen concentration decreasing very sharply near the bottom boundary layer but constant in the bottom adiabatic layer (Type-2), the final was of the oxygen minimum layer above the bottom boundary layer (Type-3). Type-2 was the most common pattern in the Ulleung Basin. Type-1 was most common close to the Japan Basin, including the Ulleung Interplane Gap, while Type-3 was found around Dok do. Oxygen Consumption Rate (OCR) at surface sediment estimated using the dissolved oxygen distribution at the bottom boundary layer was $0.2{\sim}5.8\;mmol{\cdot}m^{-2}d^{-1}$, which coincided with OCR from direct sediment incubation. This implies that organic matter decomposition at surface sediment may play an important role in dissolved oxygen distribution patterns at the bottom boundary layer of the Ulleung Basin.

Geophysical studies of gas hydrate in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea (동해 울릉분지 가스하이드레이트 지구물리탐사연구)

  • Yoo, Dong-G.;Kim, Gil-Y.;Park, Keun-P.;Lee, Ho-Y.;Ryu, Byong-J.
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.672-675
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    • 2009
  • 동해 울릉분지에서 취득된 다중채널 탄성파자료 해석에 의하면 이 지역에는 가스하이드레이트 부존가능성을 지시하는 해저모방반사면, 탄성파침니/칼럼, 음향공백대, 증폭반사면, 가스분출 구조 등을 포함하는 5가지 탄성파 지시자가 존재한다. 가장 대표적인 지시자인 해저모방반사면은 연구지역의 남쪽사면의 경우 연속성이 양호하고 강한 진폭을 갖는 반면, 북쪽 중앙분지에서는 상대적으로 진폭이 약하고 연속성이 불량하다. 반사도 감소 및 속도 풀업 특징을 갖는 탄성파 침니/칼럼구조는 중앙분지와 북동쪽해역에 주로 분포하며 가스하이드레이트 혹은 가스유체의 부존가능성을 시사해준다. 반사강도가 약화되어 나타나는 음향공백대는 저탁류/원양성 퇴적물이 분포하는 중앙분지에 부분적으로 발달하며, 칼럼과 연계된 음향공백대는 북동쪽 사면저부에 주로 분포한다. 해저모방반사면의 하부에 위치하는 증폭반사면은 연구지역의 서쪽 사면에 분포하며 강한 음의 진폭특성으로 보아 자유가스를 함유한 층으로 해석된다. 가스분출구조는 주로 쇄설성 퇴적물이 우세한 조사지역의 남쪽 대륙사면지역에 광범위하게 분포하며 돔구조 혹은 폭마크 등을 수반한다.

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