• Title/Summary/Keyword: 용존공기부상

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Operation and Diagnosis of DAF Water Treatment Plant at Highly Turbid Raw Water (고탁도시 DAF 정수장의 운영 및 진단)

  • Kwon, Soon-Buhm;Ahn, Hyo-Won;Kang, Jun-gu;Son, Byong-Yong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.191-200
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    • 2004
  • DAF process has been designed considering raw water quality characteristics in Korea. Although direct filtration is usually operated, DAF is operated when the freshwater blooms occut or raw water turbidity become high. Pre-sedimentation iS prepared in case when raw water turbidity is very high by rainstorms. A main feature of this plant is that the operation mode can be changed (controlled) based on the characteristics of raw water to optimize the effluent quality and the operation costs. Treatment capacity (surface loading rate) and efficiency of DAF was found to be better than conventional sedimentation process. Moreover, low-density particles (algae and alum flocs) are easily separated while it is difficult to remove in sedimentation. One of the main concerns in adoption of DAF (Dissolved Air-Flotation) process is a high raw water turbidity problem. That is, DAF is not adequate for raw water, which is more turbid than 100NTU. In order to avoid this problem, pre-sedimentation basins are prepared in DAF plant to decrease the turbidity of DAF influent. For simulation of the actual operation, bench and full-scale tests were performed for highly turbid water conditions. Consequently, DAF process coupled with sedimentation is suggested that pre-sedimentation with optimum coagulation prior to DAF would be appropriate.

Adsorption-DAF Hybrid Process for the Simultaneous Removal of Algae and Organic Compounds (조류와 유기화합물의 동시제거를 위한 흡착 - DAF 복합공정)

  • Lee, Jae-Wook;Kwak, Dong-Heui;Choi, Seung-Phil;Jung, Heung-Joe
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.208-214
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    • 2004
  • Dissolved air flotation (DAF) is an effective solid/liquid separation process for low density floc particles such as algal, color-alum and clay-alum flocs produced from low turbidity water. The removal of taste and odor-causing organics (2-mthylisoboneol and geosmin) originating from algae in drinking water is a local and worldwide concern. Although DAF has been effectively applied for the removal of suspended solid, its application for the treatment of dissolved organic carbon is very limited. In this study, a new hybrid system consisting of adsorption and DAF processes was introduced for the simultaneous removal of algae and taste and odor-causing organics. Powdered activated carbon (PAC) was used as an adsorbent. In this proposed system, the major concern of eliminating the spent PAC from the system was also addressed. It was found that zeta potential of algae and PAC was increased with coagulant dosage, and the removal efficiency in DAF was also enhanced up to 90~95% under the given experimental conditions. Based on this study, the hybrid process was found to be a promising technology for the simultaneous removal of algae and dissolved organic pollutants.

Effect of Coagulation and Homogenization on the Dissolved Air Flotation and Sedimentation of Bulking Sludge (응집과 균질화가 팽화슬러지의 용존공기부상과 침전에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Dong-Seog;Park, Young-Seek
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.68-74
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    • 2007
  • The objective of this study is to examine the effect of the coagulation and homogenization in bulking sludge thickening of paper manufacturing plant using DAF(Dissolved Air Flotation) and gravitational sedimentation. The effects of parameters such as dosage of coagulant and homogenization time were examined. The results showed that DAF and sedimentation was affected aluminum sulfate and anion polymer coagulant differently. At the optimum dosage of aluminum sulfate, thickening efficiency of DAF and sedimentation process were increase 1.25 time and 2.02 time, respectively. At the optimum dosage of anion polymer coagulant, thickening efficiency of DAF process was increase 1.35 time, but thickening efficiency at sedimentation was 1.06 time. When anion polymer coagulant of 0.5 mg/l was added in DAF process, water content of sludge was decreased from 96.6% to 90.7% in dewatering process using Buchner funnel test device. After homogenization(20500 rpm, 10 min), Sauter mean diameter of sludge floc was decreased from 631 ${\mu}m$ to 427 ${\mu}m$, however increase of flotation efficiency by DAF was only 1.09 time.

Solid Separation and Flotation Characteristics of Livestock Wastewater Using DAF Process (DAF 공정을 이용한 축산폐수의 고형물 분리와 부상특성)

  • Kang, Byong-Jun;Yoo, Seung-Joon;Lee, Se-il;Kwak, Dong-Heui
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.359-366
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    • 2008
  • The series of experiments under the various conditions were carried out to evaluate the feasibility of dissolved air flotation (DAF) as an alternative of conventional gravity sedimentation (CGS) and to investigate the decrease of the loadings following to biological wastewater treatment processes in livestock wastewater system. On the basis of the experiment result between CGS and DAF processes, for the other water quality criteria as well as suspended solid the removal efficiency of DAF process was about 20~25 % better than CGS process on average. In addition, the particle removal efficiency of DAF process became higher in proportion as the increase of air to solid (A/S) ratio and the general wastewater treatment efficiency of DAF process was enough to meet the requirement of loading decrease to following biological process even at low A/S ratio range. Though DAF process is widely known as an solid separation unit, there was not the notable relationship between particle separation efficiency and several pollutant removal efficiencies like $COD_{Cr}$ and nutrients (T-N, T-P). Assume that the $COD_{Cr}$ was removed as the fraction of particle separation in this experiment, the removal efficiency of T-N and T-P were sensitive to removal efficiency of $COD_{Cr}$, especially.

Evaluation on Flotation Efficiency of Bubble-floc Agglomerates and Operation Characteristics of Hydraulic Loading Rate Using Population Balance in DAF Process (DAF공정에서 개체군 수지를 이용한 기포-플록 응집체의 부상효율과 수리학적 부하율의 운전특성 평가)

  • Kwak, Dong-Heui
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.531-540
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    • 2008
  • The main advantage of dissolved air flotation (DAF) in water treatment process is the small dimension compared with conventional gravity sedimentation and it can be basically reduced by the separation zone performed with the short solid-liquid separation time. Fine bubbles make such a short time possible to carry out solid from liquid separation as a collector on the course of water treatment. Therefore, the dimension of separation zone in DAF process is practically determined by the rise velocity of the bubble-floc agglomerates, which is a floc attached with several bubbles. To improve flotation velocity and particle removal efficiency in DAF process, many researchers have tried to attach bubbles as much as possible to flocs. Therefore, the maximum number of attached bubble on a floc and the rise velocity of bubble-floc agglomerates considered as the most important factor to design the separation zone of flotation tank in DAF process was simulated based on the population balance theory. According to the simulation results of this study, the size and volume concentration of bubble influenced on the possible number of attached bubble on a floc. The agglomerates attached with smaller bubble was more sensitive to hydraulic loading rate in the separation zone of DAF process. For the design of a high rate DAF process applied over surface loading 40 m/hr. it is required a precise further study on the variation of bubble property and behavior including in terms of bubble size distribution.

A Study on Bubbles Generated from Water Plasma for Application of DAF Process

  • Park, Jun-Seok;Yu, Seung-Yeol;Yu, Seung-Min;Hong, Eun-Jeong;Seok, Dong-Chan;Hong, Yong-Cheol;No, Tae-Hyeop;Lee, Bong-Ju
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.232-232
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    • 2011
  • DAF는 기존 침전 공정에 비해 뛰어난 정수 품질과 빠른 처리 시간으로 차세대 정수 공정으로 각광 받고 있다. DAF는 기포 생성 방법에 따라 용존 공기 부상법, 분산 공기 부상법, 진공 부상법, 전해 부상법, 미생물학적 부상법 등이 있다. 이 중 가장 많이 쓰이는 방식은 용존 공기 부상법으로, 과포화 상태의 기체와 액체의 혼합액을 압력을 급격히 감소시켜 기포를 발생 시키는 방법이다. 이 방법은 기포의 발생은 많지만 장비의 크기가 거대하고 시설제조 비용이 많이 드는 단점이 있다. 수중에서 발생되는 플라즈마는 그 구조와 메카니즘에 따라 생성되는 버블의 양을 제어할 수 있음을 확인하였다. 모세관 형태의 전극을 이용한 수중 방전은 전원 공급 장치만 있다면 적은 공간으로도 효과적으로 기포를 생성 할 수 있기 때문에, 수중 방전을 이용하여 기포 발생 후 DAF에 적용 가능한지 알아보고자 한다. DAF공정에서 필요한 요인으로는 기포의 크기, 개수, 성분 물질 등이 있는데, 그 중 가장 핵심은 기포의 크기 이다. 그래서 간단한 전원 장치와 리액터 제작 후 방전에 최적화 된 전극으로 기포를 발생시켜 기포의 크기를 측정하였다. 기포의 크기는 전극의 직경과 방전공간의 비율에 따라 제어가 가능함을 확인하였고 평균 기포의 크기는 약 50 ${\mu}m$로서, DAF에 적용 할 수 있는 크기이다. 일반적으로 기포의 사이즈가 작을수록 입자 제거율이 높은데, 실제 DAF공정에서 사용되는 기포의 사이즈는 80 ${\mu}m$정도 이다. 따라서 개발된 기포 발생장치를 DAF 공정에 응용한다면 높은 효율을 가질 것으로 판단된다.

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Cause of Break-up and Flotation Characteristics for Sludge from DAF Process (DAF 공정에서 발생한 슬러지의 Break-up 원인과 부상 특성)

  • Yoo, Young-Hoon;Moon, Yong-Taik;Kim, Seong-Jin;Lee, Kwang-Joon;Kwak, Dong-Heui
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.527-536
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    • 2010
  • Although the bubble-floc agglomerate floated and formed the float layer on the surface of the water in the DAF process, after inducing in the thickening tank a part of the bubble-floc agglomerate come up again to the surface and the other is settled at the bottom of the tank. The bubble-floc agglomerate divided into two group as the scum on the surface and the sludge of the bottom gives rise to operational troubles for the thickening process. In order to find out the cause of break-up and the effective thickening method for sludge from the DAF process, the composition of the bubble-floc agglomerate was investigated and a series of flotation experiments carried out. There was no difference of composition between the scum on the surface and the sludge of the bottom in the thickening tank. The coagulation was not effective to improve the trouble that the bubble-floc agglomerate divided into the scum and the sludge. It was estimated that for the bubble-floc agglomerate of thickening tank the trouble was caused by not the change or the difference of chemical composition but whether the bubble-floc agglomerate hold bubbles. Furthermore, for the effective thickening of sludge from the DAF process, it is required an additional flotation applied the AS ratio depending upon the solid concentration of sludge as the operation parameter.

Treatment Characteristics and Application of DAF Process for Effective Solid Separation in BNR Municipal Wastewater Treatment System (BNR 하수처리시스템에서 효과적 고형물 분리를 위한 DAF 공정의 적용과 처리특성)

  • Kwak, Dong-Heui;Rhu, Dae-Hwan
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.267-276
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    • 2010
  • Many plants have been improved to adapt the target of the biological treatment processes changed from organics to nutrients since the water quality criteria of effluent was reinforced and included T-N and T-P for the municipal wastewater treatment plant. To meet the criteria of T-N and T-P, the conventional biological reactor such as aeration tank in activated sludge system is changed to the BNR (biological nutrient removal) processes, which are typically divided into three units as anaerobic, anoxic and oxic tank. Therefore, the solid separation process should be redesigned to fit the BNR processes in case of the application of the DAF (dissolved air flotation) process as an alternatives because the solid-liquid separation characteristics of microbial flocs produced in the BNR processes are also different from that of activated sludge system as well. The results of this study revealed that the microbial floc of the anaerobic tank was the hardest to be separated among the three steps of the unit tanks for the BNR processes. On the contrary, the oxic tank was best for the removal efficiency of nutrients as well as suspended solid. In addition, the removal efficiency of nutrients was much improved under the chemical coagulation treatment though coagulation was not indispensable with a respect to the solid separation. On the other hand, in spited that the separation time for the microbial floc from the BNR processes were similar to the typical particles like clay flocs, over $2.32{\times}10^3$ ppm of air volume concentration was required to keep back the break-up of the bubble-floc agglomerates.

Analysis of the operating factors of dissolved air flotation (DAF) process for effluent quality improvement from aquaculture rearing tank (양식장 배출수 수질관리를 위한 용존공기부상 공법의 운전 인자 영향 분석)

  • Ki, Jae-Hong;Kim, Hyoung-Jun;Lee, Ju-Young;Han, Moo-Young;Gang, Hee-Woong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.107-113
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    • 2012
  • Pollutants in aquaculture system effluent mostly originated from solid wastes including uneaten feed and excreta of cultured species. In this research, DAF(Dissolved Air Flotation) unit is suggested as an integrated solid control unit especially as a form of IIBG(Inline Injection Bubble Generation) process in aquaculture system. Solid removal performance of DAF unit was examined under various operation and salinity conditions with turbidity and suspended solid. Solid waste removal efficiencies were found to be affected by operation conditions including saturator pressure, recycle ratio, coagulant concentration. Solid removal efficiency was higher under higher saturator pressure and recycle ratio under which condition larger number of bubbles is generated. Coagulant is thought to have important role in creating bubble-particle aggregate by showing better removal efficiency with higher concentration. However higher saline water showed less effectiveness in removing solids by DAF(IIBG). Application of DAF(IIBG) process also showed additional effect in phosphate removal and DO(Dissolved Oxygen) supply. Phosphate existed in polluted water was removed up to 46% after treatment, which is thought to attribute to aluminium phosphate precipitation. And DO concentration was found to increase over 50% of initial saturation concentration after the injection of micro-bubbles. Through experiments on solid removal from aquaculture effluent, DAF(IIBG) process is estimated to be effective solid control method. This property can help aquaculture system being installed and operated simply and effectively.

Advanced Secondary Wastewater Treatment Using the DOF (Dissolved Ozone Flotation) System (DOF(Dissolved Ozone Flotation) 시스템을 이용한 하수처리장 방류수의 고도처리에 대한 연구)

  • Lee, Byoung Ho;Kim, Sang Hee
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.767-774
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    • 2005
  • The DOF (Dissolved Ozone Flotation) system was used to treat the effluent of the secondary wastewater treatment plant. The DOF system uses ozone instead of air, while DAF (Dissolved Air Flotation) uses air. Moreover, since the solubility of ozone is higher than air, the DOF system produces larger volume of micro-bubbles than the DAF system does. Thus, the DOF system performs better than the DAF system in floating ability. The DOF system could remove 70% of turbidity to an average of 0.59NTU in effluent from 2.31NTU in influent. The removal efficiency of absorbance measured with UV-254 in the effluent of the DOF system was 63%, while only 19% was removed by the DAF system. the DOF system removed 84% of the color from 25~26CU to 4CU, while DAF system removed 42% of the color to 15 CU. The CODMn removal efficiency of the DOF system was 34%, 6.8mg/l of effluent $COD_{Mn}$ concentratin, while it was 20%, 8.3mg/L of effluent $COD_{Mn}$ concentratin, to use the DAF system. Microbial bacteria such as coliform bacteria, and heterotrophic bacteria were removed over 99% by the DOF system, and 42~45% by the DAF system. That is, Microbial bacteria were almost completely destroyed by the DOF system. To sum up with, the DOF system was found to be very effective to treat effluent of the wastewater treatment plant.