• Title, Summary, Keyword: 오차보정

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Properties of stretch-activated $K^+$ channels in an G292 osteoblast-like cell (G292 세포에서 세포막 신장으로 활성화되는 $K^+$통로의 특성)

  • Lee, Sang-Gook;Jung, Dong-Keun;Suh, Duk-Joon;Park, Soo-Byung
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.197-204
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    • 2000
  • [$K^+$]-selective ion channels were studied in excised inside-out membrane patches from human osteoblast-like cells (G292). Three classes of $K^+$channels were present and could be distinguished on the basis of conductance. Conductances were $270\pm27\;pS,\;113\pm12\;pS,\;48\pm8\;pS$ according to their approximate conductances in symmetrical 140 mM KCl saline at holding potential of -80 mV It was found that the small conductance (48 pS) $K^+$channel activation was dependent on membrane voltage. In current-voltage relationship, small conductance $K^+$channel showed outward rectification, and it was activated by the positive potential inside the membrane. In recordings, single channel currents were activayed by a negative pressure outside the membrane. The membrane pressure increased $P_{open}$ of the $K^+$ channel in a pressure-dependent manner. In the excised-patch clamp recordings, G292 osteoblast-like cells have been shown to contain three types of $K^+$ channels. Only the small conductance (48 pS) $K^+$channel is sensitive to the membrane stretch. These findings suggest that a hyperpolarizing current, mediated in part by this channel, may be associated with early events during the mechanical loading of the osteoblast. In G292 osteoblast-like cells, $K^+$channel is sensitive to membrane tension, and may represent a unique adaptation of the bone cell membrane to mechanical stress.

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Numerical Simulation of the Formation of Oxygen Deficient Water-masses in Jinhae Bay (진해만의 빈산소 수괴 형성에 관한 수치실험)

  • CHOI Woo-Jeung;PARK Chung-Kill;LEE Suk-Mo
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.413-433
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    • 1994
  • Jinhae Bay once was a productive area of fisheries. It is, however, now notorious for its red tides; and oxygen deficient water-masses extensively develop at present in summer. Therefore the shellfish production of the bay has been decreasing and mass mortality often occurs. Under these circumstances, the three-dimensional numerical hydrodynamic and the material cycle models, which were developed by the Institute for Resources and Environment of Japan, were applied to analyze the processes affecting the oxygen depletion and also to evaluate the environment capacity for the reception of pollutant loads without dissolved oxygen depletion. In field surveys, oxygen deficient water-masses were formed with concentrations of below 2.0mg/l at the bottom layer in Masan Bay and the western part of Jinhae Bay during the summer. Current directions, computed by the $M_2$ constituent, were mainly toward the western part of Jinhae Bay during flood flows and in opposite directions during ebb flows. Tidal currents velocities during the ebb tide were stronger than that of the flood tide. The comparision between the simulated and observed tidal ellipses showed fairly good agreement. The residual currents, which were obtained by averaging the simulated tidal currents over 1 tidal cycle, showed the presence of counterclockwise eddies in the central part of Jinhae Bay. Density driven currents were generated southward at surface and northward at the bottom in Masan Bay and Jindong Bay, where the fresh water of rivers entered. The material cycle model was calibrated with the data surveyed in the field of the study area from June to July, 1992. The calibrated results are in fairly good agreement with measured values within relative error of $28\%$. The simulated dissolved oxygen distributions of bottom layer were relatively high with the concentration of $6.0{\sim}8.0mg/l$ at the boundaries, but an oxygen deficient water-masses were formed within the concentration of 2.0mg/l at the inner part of Masan Bay and the western part of Jinhae Bay. The results of sensitivity analyses showed that sediment oxygen demand(SOD) was one of the most important influence on the formation of oxygen depletion. Therefore, to control the oxygen deficient water-masses and to conserve the coastal environment, it is an effective method to reduce the SOD by improving the polluted sediment. As the results of simulations, in Masan Bay, oxygen deficient water-masses recovered to 5.0mg/l when the $50\%$ reduction in input COD loads from Masan basin and $70\%$ reduction in SOD was conducted. In the western part of Jinhae Bay, oxygen deficient water-masses recovered to 5.0mg/l when the $95\%$ reduction in SOD and $90\%$ reduction in culturing ground fecal loads was conducted.

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The Comparison of Absolute Dose due to Differences of Measurement Condition and Calibration Protocols for Photon Beams (6MV 광자선에서 측정 조건의 변화와 측정법의 차이에 의한 절대 선량값의 비교)

  • 김회남;박성용;서태석;권수일;윤세철
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.87-102
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    • 1997
  • The absolute absorbed dose can be determined according to the measurement conditions; measurement material, detector, energy and calibration protocols. The purpose of this study is to compare the absolute absorbed dose due to the differences of measurement condition and calibration protocols for photon beams. Dosimetric measurements were performed with a farmer type PTW and NEL ionization chambers in water, solid water, and polystyrene phantoms using 6MV photon beams from Siemens linear accelerator. Measurements were made along the central axis of 10cm $\times$ 10cm field size for constant target to surface distance of 100cm for water, solid water and polystyrene phantom. Theoretical absorbed dose intercomparisons between TG21 and IAEA protocol were performed for various measurement combinations of phantom, ion chamber, and electrometer. There were no significant differences of absorbed dose value between TG21 and IAEA protocol. The differences between two protocols are within 1% while the average value of IAEA protocol was 0.5% smaller than TG21 protocol. For the purpose of comparison, all the relative absorbed dose were nomalized to NEL ion chamber with Keithley electrometer and water phantom, The average differences are within 1%, but individual discrepancies are in the range of - 2.5% to 1.2% depending upon the choice of measurement combination. The largest discrepancy of - 2.5% was observed when NEL ion chamber with Keithley electrometer is used in solid water phantom. The main cause for this discrepancy is due to the use of same parameters of stopping power, absorption coeficient, etc. as used in water phantom. It should be mentioned that the solid water phantom is not recommended for absolute dose calibration as the alternative of water, since absorbed dose show some dependency on phantom material other than water. In conclusion, the trend of variation was not much dependent on calibration protocol. However, it shows that absorbed dose could be affected by phantom material other than water.

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Evaluation of Skin Dose and Image Quality on Cone Beam Computed Tomography (콘빔CT 촬영 시 mAs의 변화에 따른 피부선량과 영상 품질에 관한 평가)

  • Ahn, Jong-Ho;Hong, Chae-Seon;Kim, Jin-Man;Jang, Jun-Young
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.17-23
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: Cone-beam CT using linear accelerator attached to on-board imager is a image guided therapy equipment. Because it is to check the patient's set-up error, correction, organ and target movement. but imaging dose should be cause of the secondary cancer when taking a image. The aim of this study is investigation of appropriate cone beam CT scan mode to compare and estimate the image quality and skin dose. Materials and Methods: Measurement by Thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD-100, Harshaw) with using the Rando phantom are placed on each eight sites in seperately H&N, thoracic, abdominal section. each 4 methods of scan modes of are measured the for skin dose in three time. Subsequently, obtained average value. Following image quality QA protocol of equipment manufacturers using the catphan 504 phantom, image quality of each scan mode is compared and analyzed. Results: The results of the measured skin dose are described in here. The skin dose of Head & Neck are measured mode A: 8.96 cGy, mode B: 4.59 cGy, mode C: 3.46 cGy mode D: 1.76 cGy and thoracic mode A: 9.42 cGy, mode B: 4.58 cGy, mode C: 3.65 cGy, mode D: 1.85 cGy, and abdominal mode A: 9.97 cGy, mode B: 5.12 cGy, mode C: 4.03 cGy, mode D: 2.21 cGy. Approximately, dose of mode B are reduced 50%, mode C are reduced 60%, mode D are reduced 80% a point of reference dose of mode A. the results of analyzed HU reproducibility, low contrast resolution, spatial resolution (high contrast resolution), HU uniformity in evaluation item of image quality are within the tolerance value by recommended equipment manufacturer in all scan mode. Conclusion: Maintaining the image quality as well as reducing the image dose are very important in cone beam CT. In the result of this study, we are considered when to take mode A when interested in soft tissue. And we are considered to take mode D when interested in bone scan and we are considered to take mode B, C when standard scan. Increasing secondary cancer risk due to cone beam CT scan should be reduced by low mAs technique.

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Comparison of using CBCT with CT simulator for radiation dose of treatment planning (CBCT와 Simulation CT를 이용한 치료계획의 선량비교)

  • Cho, jung-keun;Kim, dae-young;Han, tae-jong
    • Proceedings of the Korea Contents Association Conference
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    • pp.1159-1166
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    • 2009
  • The use of cone-beam computed tomography(CBCT) has been proposed for guiding the delivery of radiation therapy. A kilovoltage imaging system capable of radiography, fluoroscopy, and cone-beam computed tomography(CT) has been integrated with a medical linear accelerator. A standard clinical linear accelerator, operating in arc therapy mode, and an amorphous-silicon (a-Si) with an on-board electronic portal imager can be used to treat palliative patient and verify the patient's position prior to treatment. On-board CBCT images are used to generate patient geometric models to assist patient setup. The image data can also, potentially, be used for dose reconstruction in combination with the fluence maps from treatment plan. In this study, the accuracy of Hounsfield Units of CBCT images as well as the accuracy of dose calculations based on CBCT images of a phantom and compared the results with those of using CT simulator images. Phantom and patient studies were carried out to evaluate the achievable accuracy in using CBCT and CT stimulator for dose calculation. Relative electron density as a function of HU was obtained for both planning CT stimulator and CBCT using a Catphan-600 (The Phantom Laboratory, USA) calibration phantom. A clinical treatment planning system was employed for CT stimulator and CBCT based dose calculations and subsequent comparisons. The dosimetric consequence as the result of HU variation in CBCT was evaluated by comparing MU/cCy. The differences were about 2.7% (3-4MU/100cGy) in phantom and 2.5% (1-3MU/100cGy) in patients. The difference in HU values in Catphan was small. However, the magnitude of scatter and artifacts in CBCT images are affected by limitation of detector's FOV and patient's involuntary motions. CBCT images included scatters and artifacts due to In addition to guide the patient setup process, CBCT data acquired prior to the treatment be used to recalculate or verify the treatment plan based on the patient anatomy of the treatment area. And the CBCT has potential to become a very useful tool for on-line ART.)

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Feasibility Study of the Real-Time IMRT Dosimetry Using a Scintillation Screen (고감도 형광판을 이용한 실시간 선량측정 가능성 연구)

  • Lim Sang Wook;Yi Byong Yong;Ko Young Eun;Ji Young Hoon;Kim Jong Hoon;Ahn Seung Do;Lee Sang Wook;Shin Seong Soo;Kwon Soo-Il;Choi Eun Kyoung
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.64-68
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    • 2004
  • Purpose : To study the feasibility of verifying real-time 2-D dose distribution measurement system with the scintillation screen for the quality assurance. Materials and Methods : The water phantom consisted of a scintillation screen (LANEX fast screen, Kodak, USA) that was axially located in the middle of an acrylic cylinder with a diameter of 25 cm. The charge-coupled device (CCD) camera was attached to the phantom In order to capture the visible light from the scintillation screen. To observe the dose distribution In real time, the intensity of the light from the scintillator was converted to a dosage. The isodose contours of the calculations from RTP and those of the measurements using the scintillation screen were compared for the arc therapy and the Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Results : The kernel, expressed as a multiplication of two error functions, was obtained in order to correct the sensitivity of the CCD of the camera and the scintillation screen. When comparing the calculated isodose and measured isodose, a discrepancy of less than 8 mm in the high dose region was observed. Conclusion : Using the 2-D dosimetry system, the relationship between the light and the dosage could be found, and real-time verification of the dose distribution was feasible.

Comparison of using CBCT with CT Simulator for Radiation dose of Treatment Planning (CBCT와 Simulation CT를 이용한 치료계획의 선량비교)

  • Kim, Dae-Young;Choi, Ji-Won;Cho, Jung-Keun
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.9 no.12
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    • pp.742-749
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    • 2009
  • The use of cone-beam computed tomography(CBCT) has been proposed for guiding the delivery of radiation therapy. A kilovoltage imaging system capable of radiography, fluoroscopy, and cone-beam computed tomography(CT) has been integrated with a medical linear accelerator. A standard clinical linear accelerator, operating in arc therapy mode, and an amorphous-silicon (a-Si) with an on-board electronic portal imager can be used to treat palliative patient and verify the patient's position prior to treatment. On-board CBCT images are used to generate patient geometric models to assist patient setup. The image data can also, potentially, be used for dose reconstruction in combination with the fluence maps from treatment plan. In this study, the accuracy of Hounsfield Units of CBCT images as well as the accuracy of dose calculations based on CBCT images of a phantom and compared the results with those of using CT simulator images. Phantom and patient studies were carried out to evaluate the achievable accuracy in using CBCT and CT stimulator for dose calculation. Relative electron density as a function of HU was obtained for both planning CT stimulator and CBCT using a Catphan-600 (The Phantom Laboratory, USA) calibration phantom. A clinical treatment planning system was employed for CT stimulator and CBCT based dose calculations and subsequent comparisons. The dosimetric consequence as the result of HU variation in CBCT was evaluated by comparing MU/cCy. The differences were about 2.7% (3-4MU/100cGy) in phantom and 2.5% (1-3MU/100cGy) in patients. The difference in HU values in Catphan was small. However, the magnitude of scatter and artifacts in CBCT images are affected by limitation of detector's FOV and patient's involuntary motions. CBCT images included scatters and artifacts due to In addition to guide the patient setup process, CBCT data acquired prior to the treatment be used to recalculate or verify the treatment plan based on the patient anatomy of the treatment area. And the CBCT has potential to become a very useful tool for on-line ART.)

The study of quantitative analytical method for pH and moisture of Hanji record paper using non-destructive FT-NIR spectroscopy (비파괴 분석 방법인 푸리에 변환 근적외선 분광 분석을 이용한 한지 기록물의 산성도 및 함수율 정량 분석 연구)

  • Shin, Yong-Min;Park, Soung-Be;Lee, Chang-Yong;Kim, Chan-Bong;Lee, Seong-Uk;Cho, Won-Bo;Kim, Hyo-Jin
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.121-126
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    • 2012
  • It is essential to evaluate the quality of Hanji record paper without damaging the record paper by previous destructive methods. The samples were Hanji record paper produced in the 1900s. Near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer was used as a non destructive method for evaluating the quality of record papers. Fourier transform (FT) spectrometer was used with 12,500 to 4,000 $cm^{-1}$ wavenumber range for quantitative analysis and it has high accuracy and good signal-to-noise ratio. The acidity and moisture content of Hanji record paper were measured by integrating sphere as diffuse reflectance type. The acidity (pH) of chemical factors as a quality evaluated factor of Hanji was correlated to NIR spectrum. The NIR spectrum was pretreated to obtain the coefficients of optimum correlation. Multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) and First derivative of Savitzky-Golay were used as pretreated methods. The coefficients of optimum correlation were calculated by PLSR (partial least square regression). The correlation coefficients ($R^2$) of acidity had 0.92 on NIR spectra without pretreatment. Also the standard error of prediction (SEP) of pH was 0.24. And then the NIR spectra with pretreatment would have better correlation coefficient ($R^2$ = 0.98) and 0.19 as SEP on pH. For moisture contents, the linearity correlation without pretreatment was higher than the case with pretreatment (MSC, $1^{st}$ derivative). As the best result, the $R^2$ was 0.99 and SEP was 0.45. This indicates that it is highly proper to evaluate the quality of Hanji record papers speedily with integrated sphere and FT NIR analyzer as a non-destructive method.

Impacts of Argo temperature in East Sea Regional Ocean Model with a 3D-Var Data Assimilation (동해 해양자료동화시스템에 대한 Argo 자료동화 민감도 분석)

  • KIM, SOYEON;JO, YOUNGSOON;KIM, YOUNG-HO;LIM, BYUNGHWAN;CHANG, PIL-HUN
    • The Sea:JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF OCEANOGRAPHY
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.119-130
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    • 2015
  • Impacts of Argo temperature assimilation on the analysis fields in the East Sea is investigated by using DAESROM, the East Sea Regional Ocean Model with a 3-dimensional variational assimilation module (Kim et al., 2009). Namely, we produced analysis fields in 2009, in which temperature profiles, sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface height (SSH) anomaly were assimilated (Exp. AllDa) and carried out additional experiment by withdrawing Argo temperature data (Exp. NoArgo). When comparing both experimental results using assimilated temperature profiles, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of the Exp. AllDa is generally lower than the Exp. NoArgo. In particular, the Argo impacts are large in the subsurface layer, showing the RMSE difference of about $0.5^{\circ}C$. Based on the observations of 14 surface drifters, Argo impacts on the current and temperature fields in the surface layer are investigated. In general, surface currents along the drifter positions are improved in the Exp. AllDa, and large RMSE differences (about 2.0~6.0 cm/s) between both experiments are found in drifters which observed longer period in the southern region where Argo density was high. On the other hand, Argo impacts on the SST fields are negligible, and it is considered that SST assimilation with 1-day interval has dominant effects. Similar to the difference of surface current fields between both experiments, SSH fields also reveal significant difference in the southern East Sea, for example the southwestern Yamato Basin where anticyclonic circulation develops. The comparison of SSH fields implies that SSH assimilation does not correct the SSH difference caused by withdrawing Argo data. Thus Argo assimilation has an important role to reproduce meso-scale circulation features in the East Sea.

Determination of Representative Renal Depth for Accurate Attenuation Correction in Measurement of Glomerular Filtration Rate in Transplanted Kidney (이식 신의 사구체 여과율 측정에서 정확한 감쇄 보정을 위한 신장 깊이 대표값 설정)

  • Oh, Soon-Nam;Kim, Sung-Hoon;Rha, Sung-Eun;Chung, Yong-An;Yoo, Ie-Ryung;Sohn, Hyung-Sun;Lee, Sung-Young;Chung, Soo-Kyo
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.271-276
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    • 2002
  • Purpose: To measure reliable glomerular filtration rate by using the representative values of transplanted renal depths, which are measured with ultrasonography. Materials and Methods: We included 54 patients (26 men, 28 women), with having both renal scintigraphy and ultrasonography after renal transplantation. We measured GFR with Gates' method using the renal depth measured by ultrasonography, and median and mean ones in each patient. We compared GFR derived from ultrasonography-measured renal depth with GFR derived from median and mean renal depths. The correlation coefficients were obtained among GFR derived from ultrasonography-measured renal depths, median and mean renal depths under linear regression analysis. We determined whether GFR derived from median or mean renal depth could substitute GFR derived from ultrasonography-measured renal depth with Bland-Altman method. We analyze the expected errors of the GFR using representative renal depth in terms of age, sex, weight, height, creatinine value, and body surface. Results: The transplanted renal depths range from 3.20 cm to 5.96 cm. The mean value and standard deviation of renal depths measured by ultrasonography are $4.09{\pm}0.65cm$ in men, and $4.24{\pm}0.78cm$ in women. The median value of renal depths measured by ultrasonography is 4.36 cm in men and 4.14 cm in women. The GFR derived from median renal depth is more consistent with GFR derived from ultrasonography-measured renal depth than GFR derived from mean renal depth. Differences of GFR derived from median and ultrasonography-measured renal depth are not significantly different in the groups classified with creatinine value, age, sex, height, weight and body surface. Conclusion: When median value is adapted as a representative renal depth, we could obtain reliable GFR in transplanted kidney simply.