• Title, Summary, Keyword: 영상처리

Search Result 9,073, Processing Time 0.064 seconds

A Study of the Effect of a Mixture of Hyaluronic Acid and Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose ($Guardix-sol^{(R)}$) on the Prevention of Pericardial Adhesion (Hyaluronic Acid와 Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose 혼합용액($Guardix-sol^{(R)}$)의 섬유막유착 방지 효과에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Song-Am;Kim, Jin-Sik;Kim, Jun-Seok;Hwang, Jae-Joon;Lee, Woo-Surng;Kim, Yo-Han;Cho, Yang-Kyu;Chee, Hyun-Keun
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
    • /
    • v.43 no.6
    • /
    • pp.596-601
    • /
    • 2010
  • Background: This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of a mixture of hyaluronic acid and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose ($Guardix-sol^{(R)}$) on experimental pericardial adhesion. Material and Method: Thirty rats were divided into 2 groups of 15 rats each and pericardial mesothelial injury was induced during surgery by abrasion. In the control group, blood and normal saline were administered into pericardium; in the test group, blood and HA-CMC solution were administered. Pericardial adhesions were evaluated at 2 weeks (n=5), 4 weeks (n=5), and 6 weeks (n=5) after surgery. The severity of adhesions was graded by macroscopic examination, and the adhesion tissue thickness was analyzed microscopically with Masson trichrome stain and an image processing program. Result: The test group had significantly lower macroscopic adhesion scores ($2.9{\pm}0.6$ : $3.9{\pm}0.4$, p<0.000) compared with the control group. For microscopic adhesion tissue thickness, the test group had lower scores compared with the control group, but this difference was not statistically significant ($91.73{\pm}49.91$ : $117.67{\pm}46.4$, p=0.106). Conclusion: We conclude that an HA-CMC solution ($Guardix-sol^{(R)}$) reduces the formation of pericardial adhesions in this animal model.

Comparative Analysis of Long-term Water Quality Data Monitored in Andong and Imha Reservoirs (안동호와 임하호에서 관측한 장기 수질자료의 비교 분석)

  • Park, Sun-Jae;Choi, Seong-Mo;Park, Jong-Seok;An, Kwang-Guk
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
    • /
    • v.39 no.1
    • /
    • pp.21-31
    • /
    • 2006
  • The objectives of this study were to analyze trends of temporal water quality and trophic state in Andong and Imha reservoirs using chemical dataset during 1993 ${\sim}$ 2004, obtained from the Ministry of Environment, Korea. According to long-term limnological analyses, Suspended solids (SS) in Imha Reservoir were 2 ${\sim}$ 8 fold2 greater, than those in SS of Andong Reservoir, and the high solids increased total phosphorus (TP) and biological oxygen demand ($BOD_5$) and decreased the transparency, measured as Secchi depth (SD). Chlorophyll-a (CHL-a) increased little or decreased slightly in the both reservoirs during the high solids, resulting in reduced yields of CHL-a : TP ratios. The deviation analysis of Trophic State Index (TSI) in Imha Reservoir showed that about 70% of TSI (CHL-a)-TSI (SD) and TSI (CHL-a)-TSI(TP) values were less than zero and the lowest values were-60, indicating that influence of inorganic solids (or non-volatile solids) on phytoplankton growth was evident in Imha Reservoir and the impact was greater than that of Andong Reservoir. Inorganic solids in Imha Reservoir resulted in light limitation on phytoplankton growth and thus contributed variations in the relations among three parameters of trophic state index. Especially, seasonal data analysis of nutrients in both reservoirs showed that during the postmonsoon, mean TP concentration was Imha Reservoir greater in than that in Andong Reservoir. The higher TP concentrantion was mainly attributed to increases of inorganic solids from soil erosions and nonpoint source inputs within the watershed. The high inorganic turbidity in Imha Reservoir should be reduced for the conservation of water quality for, especially a tap water supply.

A Study on the Labeling Efficiency and Cytotoxicity of Hepatocyte-targeting Galactosylated Chitosan Compounds (간세포 지향성 Galactosylated Chitosan 화합물의 표지 수율 향상 및 세포 독성에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Dae-Weung;Jeong, Hwan-Jeong;Kim, Eun-Mi;Kim, Se-Lim;Kang, Yun-Hee;Kim, Min-Woo;Kim, Chang-Guhn;Sohn, Myung-Hee
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
    • /
    • v.39 no.5
    • /
    • pp.278-283
    • /
    • 2005
  • Purpose: In prior study, we synthesized $^{99m}Tc$-galactosylated chitosan (GC) and performed in vivo biodistribution study, showed specific targeting to hepatocyte. The aim of this study is to evaluate the labeling efficiency and cytotoxicity of modified galactosylated chitosan compounds, galactosyl methylated chitosan (GMC) and HYNIC-galactosylated chitosan (GCH). Materials and Methods: GC, GMC and GCH were synthesized and radiolabeled with $^{99m}Tc$. Then, they were incubated for 6 hours at room temperature and human serum at $37^{\circ}C$. Labeling efficiencies were determined at 15, 30 m, 1, 2, 3 and 6 h after radiolabeling. To evaluate cytotoxicity, MTT assay was performed in HeLa and HepG2 cells. Results: In comparison with them of $^{99m}Tc$-GC labeling efficiencies of $^{99m}Tc$-GMC were significantly improved (100, 97 and 89%) in acetone and 96.3, 95.8 and 75.6% in saline at 15 m, 1 and 6 h, respectively). Moreover, $^{99m}Tc$-GCH showed more improved labeling efficiencies (>95% in acetone and human serum and >90% in saline at 6 h). In MTT assay, cytotoxicity was very low and not different from that of controls. Conclusion: These results represent that these compounds are radiochemically compatible radiopharmaceuticals, can be used in hepatocyte specific imaging study and in vivo gene or drug delivery monitoring.

Evaluation of Endothelium-dependent Myocardial Perfusion Reserve in Healthy Smokers; Cold Pressor Test using $H_2^{15}O\;PET$ (흡연자에서 관상동맥 내피세포 의존성 심근 혈류 예비능: $H_2^{15}O\;PET$ 찬물자극 검사에 의한 평가)

  • Hwang, Kyung-Hoon;Lee, Dong-Soo;Lee, Byeong-Il;Lee, Jae-Sung;Lee, Ho-Young;Chung, June-Key;Lee, Myung-Chul
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
    • /
    • v.38 no.1
    • /
    • pp.21-29
    • /
    • 2004
  • Purpose: Much evidence suggests long-term cigarette smoking alters coronary vascular endothelial response. On this study, we applied nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF), an unsupervised learning algorithm, to CO-less $H_2^{15}O-PET$ to investigate coronary endothelial dysfunction caused by smoking noninvasively. Materials and methods: This study enrolled eighteen young male volunteers consisting of 9 smokers $(23.8{\pm}1.1\;yr;\;6.5{\pm}2.5$ pack-years) and 9 nonsmokers $(23.8{\pm}2.9 yr)$. They do not have any cardiovascular risk factor or disease history. Myocardial $H_2^{15}O-PET$ was performed at rest, during cold ($5^{\circ}C$) pressor stimulation and during adenosine infusion. Left ventricular blood pool and myocardium were segmented on dynamic PET data by NMF method. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was calculated from input and tissue functions by a single compartmental model with correction of partial volume and spillover effects. Results: There were no significant difference in resting MBF between the two groups (Smokers: 1.43 0.41 ml/g/min and non-smokers: $1.37{\pm}0.41$ ml/g/min p=NS). during cold pressor stimulation, MBF in smokers was significantly lower than 4hat in non-smokers ($1.25{\pm}0.34$ ml/g/min vs $1.59{\pm}0.29$ ml/gmin; p=0.019). The difference in the ratio of cold pressor MBF to resting MBF between the two groups was also significant (p=0.024; $90{\pm}24%$ in smokers and $122{\pm}28%$ in non-smokers.). During adenosine infusion, however, hyperemic MBF did not differ significantly between smokers and non-smokers ($5.81{\pm}1.99$ ml/g/min vs $5.11{\pm}1.31$ ml/g/min ; p=NS). Conclusion: in smokers, MBF during cold pressor stimulation was significantly lower compared wi4h nonsmokers, reflecting smoking-Induced endothelial dysfunction. However, there was no significant difference in MBF during adenosine-induced hyperemia between the two groups.

Simultaneous Treatment of Carbon Dioxide and Ammonia by Microalgal Culture (조류배양을 통한 이산화탄소 및 암모니아의 동시처리)

  • ;;Bohumil Volesky
    • KSBB Journal
    • /
    • v.14 no.3
    • /
    • pp.328-336
    • /
    • 1999
  • A green microalga, Chlorella vulgaris UTX 259, was cultivated in a bench-scale raceway pond. During the culture, 15%(v/v) $CO_2$ was supplied and industrial wastewater discharged from a steel-making plant was used as a culture medium. In a small scale culture bottle, the microalga grew up to 1.8 g $dm^{-3}$ of cell concentration and ammonia was completely removed from the wastewater with an yield coefficient of 25.7 g dry cell weight $g^{-1}\;NH_3-N$. During the bottle-culture, microalga was dominant over heterotrophic microorganisms in the culture medium. Therefore, the amount of carbon dioxide fixation could be estimated from the change of dry cell weight. In a semi-continuous operation of raceway pond with intermittent lighting (12 h light and 12 h dark), increase of dilution rate resulted in increase of the ammonia removal rate as well as the $CO_2$ fixation rate but the ammonia removal efficiency decreased. Ammonia was not completely removed from the medium (wastewater) of raceway pond which was operated in a batch mode under a light intensity up to 20 klux. The incomplete removal of ammonia was believed due to insufficient light supply. A mathematical model, capable of predicting experimental data, was developed in order to simulate the performance of the raceway pond under the light intensity of sun during a bright daytime. Simulation results showed that the rates of $CO_2$ fixation and ammonia removal could be enhanced by increasing light intensity. According to the simulation, 80 mg $dm^{-3}$ of ammonia in the medium could be completely removed if the light intensity was over 60 klux with a continuous lighting. Under the optimal operating condition determined by the simulation, the rates of carbon dioxide fixation and ammonia removal in the outdoor operation of raceway pond were estimated as high as $24.7 g m^{-2} day^{-1}$ and $0.52 g NH_3-N m^{-2} day^{-1}$, respectively.

  • PDF

Seismic wave propagation through surface basalts - implications for coal seismic surveys (지표 현무암을 통해 전파하는 탄성파의 거동 - 석탄 탄성파탐사에 적용)

  • Sun, Weijia;Zhou, Binzhong;Hatherly, Peter;Fu, Li-Yun
    • Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
    • /
    • v.13 no.1
    • /
    • pp.1-8
    • /
    • 2010
  • Seismic reflection surveying is one of the most widely used and effective techniques for coal seam structure delineation and risk mitigation for underground longwall mining. However, the ability of the method can be compromised by the presence of volcanic cover. This problem arises within parts of the Bowen and Sydney Basins of Australia and seismic surveying can be unsuccessful. As a consequence, such areas are less attractive for coal mining. Techniques to improve the success of seismic surveying over basalt flows are needed. In this paper, we use elastic wave-equation-based forward modelling techniques to investigate the effects and characteristics of seismic wave propagation under different settings involving changes in basalt properties, its thickness, lateral extent, relative position to the shot position and various forms of inhomogeneity. The modelling results suggests that: 1) basalts with high impedance contrasts and multiple flows generate strong multiples and weak reflectors; 2) thin basalts have less effect than thick basalts; 3) partial basalt cover has less effect than full basalt cover; 4) low frequency seismic waves (especially at large offsets) have better penetration through the basalt than high frequency waves; and 5) the deeper the coal seams are below basalts of limited extent, the less influence the basalts will have on the wave propagation. In addition to providing insights into the issues that arise when seismic surveying under basalts, these observations suggest that careful management of seismic noise and the acquisition of long-offset seismic data with low-frequency geophones have the potential to improve the seismic results.

Improvement Plan of NFRDI Serial Oceanographic Observation (NSO) System for Operational Oceanographic System (운용해양시스템을 위한 한국정선해양관측시스템 발전방향)

  • Lee, Joon-Soo;Suh, Young-Sang;Go, Woo-Jin;Hwang, Jae-Dong;Youn, Seok-Hyun;Han, In-Seong;Yang, Joon-Yong;Song, Ji-Young;Park, Myung-Hee;Lee, Keun-Jong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
    • /
    • v.16 no.3
    • /
    • pp.249-258
    • /
    • 2010
  • This study seeks to improve NFRDI Serial Oceanographic observation (NSO) system which has been operated at current observation stations in the Korean Seas since 1961 and suggests the direction of NSO for practical use of Korean operational oceanographic system. For improvement, data handling by human after CTD (Conductivity-Temperature-Depth) observation on the deck, data transmission, data reception in the land station, and file storage into database need to be automated. Software development to execute QA/QC (Quality Assurance/Quality Control) of real-time oceanographic observation data and to transmit the data with conversion to appropriate format automatically will help to accomplish the automation. Inmarsat satellite telecommunication systems with which have already been equipped on board the current observation vessels can realize the real-time transmission of the data. For the near real-time data transmission, CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) wireless telecommunication can provide efficient transmission in coastal area. Real-time QA/QC procedure after CTD observation will help to prevent errors which can be derived from various causes.

Determination of Optimum Rate and Interval of Silicate Fertilizer Application for Rice Cultivation in Korea (벼에 대한 규산질비료의 시용량 및 시용주기 결정)

  • Song, Yo-Sung;Jun, Hee-Joong;Jung, Beung-Gan;Park, Woo-Kyun;Lee, Ki-Sang;Kwak, Han-Kang;Yoon, Jung-Hui;Lee, Choon-Soo;Yeon, Byeong-Yeol;Kim, Pil-Joo;Yoon, Young-Sang
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
    • /
    • v.40 no.5
    • /
    • pp.354-363
    • /
    • 2007
  • In order to investigate the optimum rate and interval of silicate fertilizer application for rice cultivation, Chucheong byeo variety, one of commonly cultivated rice cultivar in Korea was planted on two different wetland rice soils located on Hwaseong-si from 2002 to 2005; Jisan series(a member of the fine loamy, mixed, mesic family of Fluvaquentic Endoaquepts), known as "Productive Paddy Soil", without any conspicuous limiting factor, and Seokcheon series (a member of the coarse loamy, mixed, nonacid, mesic family of Fluvaquentic Endoaquetps), known as "Sandy Paddy Soil", sandiness being major limiting factor. There were three rate treatments of silicate fertilizer application; the amount of silicate fertilizers needed to adjust the available soil silicate contents to 130, 200, and $270mg\;kg^{-1}$ was applied, in the first year only. There was an additional plot; applying the amount of silicate fertilizer needed to adjust soil available silicate to 130 ppm every year, which would serve as the base for the evaluation of residual effects of silicate fertilizers in the plots where different rates of silicate fertilizer were applied. From the yield data in first year, it was found that optimum available silica in the soil are $154mg\;kg^{-1$ and $160mg\;kg^{-1}$, in Jisan and Seogcheon soils, respectably. The duration of residual effects of silicate fertilizer was different depending upon the amount of applied silicate fertilizers and the soils. The higher the application rate, the residual effect lasted longer, and the residual effect was lasted longer in Jisan(clay loam) soil than in Seogcheon(sandy loam) soil. During four years, sum of the rate of contribution to increase available soil silica of applied silicate fertilizer in different soils ranged 18.6% and 24.1% in Jisan soil and Seogcheon soil, respectively. This may suggest that much portion of applied silicate would be either lost from the soil or remain in the soil as insoluble form. This deserves further study.

A Study on the Effect of Using Sentiment Lexicon in Opinion Classification (오피니언 분류의 감성사전 활용효과에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Seungwoo;Kim, Namgyu
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
    • /
    • v.20 no.1
    • /
    • pp.133-148
    • /
    • 2014
  • Recently, with the advent of various information channels, the number of has continued to grow. The main cause of this phenomenon can be found in the significant increase of unstructured data, as the use of smart devices enables users to create data in the form of text, audio, images, and video. In various types of unstructured data, the user's opinion and a variety of information is clearly expressed in text data such as news, reports, papers, and various articles. Thus, active attempts have been made to create new value by analyzing these texts. The representative techniques used in text analysis are text mining and opinion mining. These share certain important characteristics; for example, they not only use text documents as input data, but also use many natural language processing techniques such as filtering and parsing. Therefore, opinion mining is usually recognized as a sub-concept of text mining, or, in many cases, the two terms are used interchangeably in the literature. Suppose that the purpose of a certain classification analysis is to predict a positive or negative opinion contained in some documents. If we focus on the classification process, the analysis can be regarded as a traditional text mining case. However, if we observe that the target of the analysis is a positive or negative opinion, the analysis can be regarded as a typical example of opinion mining. In other words, two methods (i.e., text mining and opinion mining) are available for opinion classification. Thus, in order to distinguish between the two, a precise definition of each method is needed. In this paper, we found that it is very difficult to distinguish between the two methods clearly with respect to the purpose of analysis and the type of results. We conclude that the most definitive criterion to distinguish text mining from opinion mining is whether an analysis utilizes any kind of sentiment lexicon. We first established two prediction models, one based on opinion mining and the other on text mining. Next, we compared the main processes used by the two prediction models. Finally, we compared their prediction accuracy. We then analyzed 2,000 movie reviews. The results revealed that the prediction model based on opinion mining showed higher average prediction accuracy compared to the text mining model. Moreover, in the lift chart generated by the opinion mining based model, the prediction accuracy for the documents with strong certainty was higher than that for the documents with weak certainty. Most of all, opinion mining has a meaningful advantage in that it can reduce learning time dramatically, because a sentiment lexicon generated once can be reused in a similar application domain. Additionally, the classification results can be clearly explained by using a sentiment lexicon. This study has two limitations. First, the results of the experiments cannot be generalized, mainly because the experiment is limited to a small number of movie reviews. Additionally, various parameters in the parsing and filtering steps of the text mining may have affected the accuracy of the prediction models. However, this research contributes a performance and comparison of text mining analysis and opinion mining analysis for opinion classification. In future research, a more precise evaluation of the two methods should be made through intensive experiments.

ICT Medical Service Provider's Knowledge and level of recognizing how to cope with fire fighting safety (ICT 의료시설 기반에서 종사자의 소방안전 지식과 대처방법 인식수준)

  • Kim, Ja-Sook;Kim, Ja-Ok;Ahn, Young-Joon
    • The Journal of the Korea institute of electronic communication sciences
    • /
    • v.9 no.1
    • /
    • pp.51-60
    • /
    • 2014
  • In this study, ICT medical service provider's level of knowledge fire fighting safety and methods on coping with fires in the regions of Gwangju and Jeonam Province of Korea were investigated to determine the elements affecting such levels and provide basic information on the manuals for educating how to cope with the fire fighting safety in medical facilities. The data were analyzed using SPSS Win 14.0. The scores of level of knowledge fire fighting safety of ICT medical service provider's were 7.06(10 point scale), and the scores of level of recognizing how to cope with fire fighting safety were 6.61(11 point scale). level of recognizing how to cope with fire fighting safety were significantly different according to gender(t=4.12, p<.001), age(${\chi}^2$=17.24, p<.001), length of career(${\chi}^2$=22.76, p<.001), experience with fire fighting safety education(t=6.10, p<.001), level of subjective knowledge on fire fighting safety(${\chi}^2$=53.83, p<.001). In order to enhance the level of understanding of fire fighting safety and methods of coping by the ICT medical service providers it is found that: self-directed learning through avoiding the education just conveying knowledge by lecture tailored learning for individuals fire fighting education focused on experiencing actual work by developing various contents emphasizing cooperative learning deploying patients by classification systems using simulations and a study on the implementation of digital anti-fire monitoring system with multipoint communication protocol, a design and development of the smoke detection system using infra-red laser for fire detection in the wide space, video based fire detection algorithm using gaussian mixture mode developing an education manual for coping with fire fighting safety through multi learning approach at the medical facilities are required.