• Title, Summary, Keyword: 영상처리

Search Result 9,079, Processing Time 0.072 seconds

Effects of Macrophytes on Budget of Matters in Lake Paldang (대형수생식물이 팔당호의 물질 수지에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Hae-Kyung;Jung, Dong-Il;Byeon, Myeong-Seop
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
    • /
    • v.39 no.1
    • /
    • pp.85-92
    • /
    • 2006
  • To evaluate the primary production and nutrient uptake of macrophytes in Lake Paldang, this study investigate the vegetation areas of six dominant aquatic plants including Typha angustifolia, Zizania latifolia, Phragmites australis, Trapa japonica, Nelumbo nucifera and Savinia natans, and contents of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus of each macrophyte. Total vegetation area of six dominant aquatic plants was 1.37 $km^2$. Among them, Typha angustifolia was the most wide-distributed species which occupied the 46.7% of total vegetation area. Littoral zone of South Han river had the largest vegetation area with 0.458 $km^2$, and North Han river, Kyungan river and confluence area in the order named. The results of the contents of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus of macrophytes showed that the carbon contents of emergent macrophytes was higher than that of other life-forms. The nitrogen content of Salvinia natans, free-floating macrophyte was highest and that of Typha angustifolia, emergent macrophyte was lowest. The phosphorus content of Trapa japonica showed the highest content of phosphorus among six macrophytes and emergent macrophytes such as Zizania latifolia and Phragmites australis showed lower contents of phosphorus than other life-forms. The annual net primary production of macrophytes in Lake Paldang, 2004, was calculated as 758.4 ton C $yr^{-1}$ and the annual net nitrogen and phosphorus uptake of macrophyte was 16,921 kg $yr^{-1}$ and 1,841.0 kg P $yr^{-1}$ respectively. Comparing the total budget of organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in Lake Paldang, the amount of primary production and nutrient uptake by macrophytes take a small portion in total budget implying macrophytes do not play an important role in budget of matters in river-type lake, Lake Paldang.

3D Facial Animation with Head Motion Estimation and Facial Expression Cloning (얼굴 모션 추정과 표정 복제에 의한 3차원 얼굴 애니메이션)

  • Kwon, Oh-Ryun;Chun, Jun-Chul
    • The KIPS Transactions:PartB
    • /
    • v.14B no.4
    • /
    • pp.311-320
    • /
    • 2007
  • This paper presents vision-based 3D facial expression animation technique and system which provide the robust 3D head pose estimation and real-time facial expression control. Many researches of 3D face animation have been done for the facial expression control itself rather than focusing on 3D head motion tracking. However, the head motion tracking is one of critical issues to be solved for developing realistic facial animation. In this research, we developed an integrated animation system that includes 3D head motion tracking and facial expression control at the same time. The proposed system consists of three major phases: face detection, 3D head motion tracking, and facial expression control. For face detection, with the non-parametric HT skin color model and template matching, we can detect the facial region efficiently from video frame. For 3D head motion tracking, we exploit the cylindrical head model that is projected to the initial head motion template. Given an initial reference template of the face image and the corresponding head motion, the cylindrical head model is created and the foil head motion is traced based on the optical flow method. For the facial expression cloning we utilize the feature-based method, The major facial feature points are detected by the geometry of information of the face with template matching and traced by optical flow. Since the locations of varying feature points are composed of head motion and facial expression information, the animation parameters which describe the variation of the facial features are acquired from geometrically transformed frontal head pose image. Finally, the facial expression cloning is done by two fitting process. The control points of the 3D model are varied applying the animation parameters to the face model, and the non-feature points around the control points are changed by use of Radial Basis Function(RBF). From the experiment, we can prove that the developed vision-based animation system can create realistic facial animation with robust head pose estimation and facial variation from input video image.

Object Tracking Based on Exactly Reweighted Online Total-Error-Rate Minimization (정확히 재가중되는 온라인 전체 에러율 최소화 기반의 객체 추적)

  • JANG, Se-In;PARK, Choong-Shik
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
    • /
    • v.25 no.4
    • /
    • pp.53-65
    • /
    • 2019
  • Object tracking is one of important steps to achieve video-based surveillance systems. Object tracking is considered as an essential task similar to object detection and recognition. In order to perform object tracking, various machine learning methods (e.g., least-squares, perceptron and support vector machine) can be applied for different designs of tracking systems. In general, generative methods (e.g., principal component analysis) were utilized due to its simplicity and effectiveness. However, the generative methods were only focused on modeling the target object. Due to this limitation, discriminative methods (e.g., binary classification) were adopted to distinguish the target object and the background. Among the machine learning methods for binary classification, total error rate minimization can be used as one of successful machine learning methods for binary classification. The total error rate minimization can achieve a global minimum due to a quadratic approximation to a step function while other methods (e.g., support vector machine) seek local minima using nonlinear functions (e.g., hinge loss function). Due to this quadratic approximation, the total error rate minimization could obtain appropriate properties in solving optimization problems for binary classification. However, this total error rate minimization was based on a batch mode setting. The batch mode setting can be limited to several applications under offline learning. Due to limited computing resources, offline learning could not handle large scale data sets. Compared to offline learning, online learning can update its solution without storing all training samples in learning process. Due to increment of large scale data sets, online learning becomes one of essential properties for various applications. Since object tracking needs to handle data samples in real time, online learning based total error rate minimization methods are necessary to efficiently address object tracking problems. Due to the need of the online learning, an online learning based total error rate minimization method was developed. However, an approximately reweighted technique was developed. Although the approximation technique is utilized, this online version of the total error rate minimization could achieve good performances in biometric applications. However, this method is assumed that the total error rate minimization can be asymptotically achieved when only the number of training samples is infinite. Although there is the assumption to achieve the total error rate minimization, the approximation issue can continuously accumulate learning errors according to increment of training samples. Due to this reason, the approximated online learning solution can then lead a wrong solution. The wrong solution can make significant errors when it is applied to surveillance systems. In this paper, we propose an exactly reweighted technique to recursively update the solution of the total error rate minimization in online learning manner. Compared to the approximately reweighted online total error rate minimization, an exactly reweighted online total error rate minimization is achieved. The proposed exact online learning method based on the total error rate minimization is then applied to object tracking problems. In our object tracking system, particle filtering is adopted. In particle filtering, our observation model is consisted of both generative and discriminative methods to leverage the advantages between generative and discriminative properties. In our experiments, our proposed object tracking system achieves promising performances on 8 public video sequences over competing object tracking systems. The paired t-test is also reported to evaluate its quality of the results. Our proposed online learning method can be extended under the deep learning architecture which can cover the shallow and deep networks. Moreover, online learning methods, that need the exact reweighting process, can use our proposed reweighting technique. In addition to object tracking, the proposed online learning method can be easily applied to object detection and recognition. Therefore, our proposed methods can contribute to online learning community and object tracking, detection and recognition communities.

Risk Factor Analysis for Operative Death and Brain Injury after Surgery of Stanford Type A Aortic Dissection (스탠포드 A형 대동맥 박리증 수술 후 수술 사망과 뇌손상의 위험인자 분석)

  • Kim Jae-Hyun;Oh Sam-Sae;Lee Chang-Ha;Baek Man-Jong;Hwang Seong-Wook;Lee Cheul;Lim Hong-Gook;Na Chan-Young
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
    • /
    • v.39 no.4
    • /
    • pp.289-297
    • /
    • 2006
  • Background: Surgery for Stanford type A aortic dissection shows a high operative mortality rate and frequent postoperative brain injury. This study was designed to find out the risk factors leading to operative mortality and brain injury after surgical repair in patients with type A aortic dissection. Material and Method: One hundred and eleven patients with type A aortic dissection who underwent surgical repair between February, 1995 and January 2005 were reviewed retrospectively. There were 99 acute dissections and 12 chronic dissections. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to identify risk factors of operative mortality and brain injury. Resuit: Hospital mortality occurred in 6 patients (5.4%). Permanent neurologic deficit occurred in 8 patients (7.2%) and transient neurologic deficit in 4 (3.6%). Overall 1, 5, 7 year survival rate was 94.4, 86.3, and 81.5%, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed 4 risk factors to be statistically significant as predictors of mortality: previous chronic type III dissection, emergency operation, intimal tear in aortic arch, and deep hypothemic circulatory arrest (DHCA) for more than 45 minutes. Multivariate analysis revealed previous chronic type III aortic dissection (odds ratio (OR) 52.2), and DHCA for more than 45 minutes (OR 12.0) as risk factors of operative mortality. Pathological obesity (OR 12.9) and total arch replacement (OR 8.5) were statistically significant risk factors of brain injury in multivariate analysis. Conclusion: The result of surgical repair for Stanford type A aortic dissection was good when we took into account the mortality rate, the incidence of neurologic injury, and the long-term survival rate. Surgery of type A aortic dissection in patients with a history of chronic type III dissection may increase the risk of operative mortality. Special care should be taken and efforts to reduce the hypothermic circulatory arrest time should alway: be kept in mind. Surgeons who are planning to operate on patients with pathological obesity, or total arch replacement should be seriously consider for there is a higher risk of brain injury.

Dynamic Traffic Assignment Using Genetic Algorithm (유전자 알고리즘을 이용한 동적통행배정에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Kyung-Chul;Park, Chang-Ho;Chon, Kyung-Soo;Rhee, Sung-Mo
    • Journal of Korean Society for Geospatial Information Science
    • /
    • v.8 no.1
    • /
    • pp.51-63
    • /
    • 2000
  • Dynamic traffic assignment(DTA) has been a topic of substantial research during the past decade. While DTA is gradually maturing, many aspects of DTA still need improvement, especially regarding its formulation and solution algerian Recently, with its promise for In(Intelligent Transportation System) and GIS(Geographic Information System) applications, DTA have received increasing attention. This potential also implies higher requirement for DTA modeling, especially regarding its solution efficiency for real-time implementation. But DTA have many mathematical difficulties in searching process due to the complexity of spatial and temporal variables. Although many solution algorithms have been studied, conventional methods cannot iud the solution in case that objective function or constraints is not convex. In this paper, the genetic algorithm to find the solution of DTA is applied and the Merchant-Nemhauser model is used as DTA model because it has a nonconvex constraint set. To handle the nonconvex constraint set the GENOCOP III system which is a kind of the genetic algorithm is used in this study. Results for the sample network have been compared with the results of conventional method.

  • PDF

Design of Translator for generating Secure Java Bytecode from Thread code of Multithreaded Models (다중스레드 모델의 스레드 코드를 안전한 자바 바이트코드로 변환하기 위한 번역기 설계)

  • 김기태;유원희
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society for Industrial Systems Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.148-155
    • /
    • 2002
  • Multithreaded models improve the efficiency of parallel systems by combining inner parallelism, asynchronous data availability and the locality of von Neumann model. This model executes thread code which is generated by compiler and of which quality is given by the method of generation. But multithreaded models have the demerit that execution model is restricted to a specific platform. On the contrary, Java has the platform independency, so if we can translate from threads code to Java bytecode, we can use the advantages of multithreaded models in many platforms. Java executes Java bytecode which is intermediate language format for Java virtual machine. Java bytecode plays a role of an intermediate language in translator and Java virtual machine work as back-end in translator. But, Java bytecode which is translated from multithreaded models have the demerit that it is not secure. This paper, multhithread code whose feature of platform independent can execute in java virtual machine. We design and implement translator which translate from thread code of multithreaded code to Java bytecode and which check secure problems from Java bytecode.

  • PDF

Influence of Soil Texture and Bulk Density on Root Growth Characteristics and Nutrient Influx Rate of Soybean Plant (토성(土性)과 용적밀도(容積密度)가 대두(大豆)의 뿌리 생장특성(生長特性)과 양분흡수기능(養分吸收機能)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Jung, Yeong-Sang;Lim, Hyung-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
    • /
    • v.22 no.3
    • /
    • pp.221-227
    • /
    • 1989
  • This study was conducted to understand the influence of soil compaction on root growth and nutrient uptake characteristics of the soybean roots grown in two soils with different texture. Tap root elongation was measured on young seedling grown in cores compacted to different bulk densities of 1.2, 1.4 and $1.6/cm^3$ with different soil water retention in laboratory. The soil used were Samgag sandy loam and Baegsan loam soils. The wet and dry weight, total length, average radius and total surface area of roots were measured on soybean plants grown in 1/5000 a Wagner pots compacted to different bulk density of 1.2 and $1.4g/cm^3$. The nutrient uptake of soybean shoot was measured and evaluated with the unit surface area of roots at the 7th, 17th and 27th days after germination. The results were as follows: 1. The tap root elongation rate was faster in the loam soil with low bulk density than in the sandy loam soil with high bulk density. The elongation rates were remarkedly decreased when soil water was lower than the retention of 4 bars in loam soil and that of 1 bars in sandy loam soil. 2. Tap root elongation rate sharply decreased as increased soil strength higher than $2kgf/cm^2$ measured by ELE penetrometer showing curvillinear regression. However, it was low regardless of soil strength when soil water retention was 10 bars in sandy loam soil. 3. From the pot experiment, the total length of roots were longer in loam soil than in sandy loam soil and was longer in the soils with lower bulk density. The average radius of fine roots grown in sandy loam soil was larger than that grown in loam soil. The total surface area of roots was greater in the loam soil with low bulk density than in the sandy loam soil with high bulk density as the total length of roots. 4. The amounts of nutrient uptake by soybean shoots were greater in loam soil primarily due to more production of dry matter than in sandy loam soil. The nitrogen influx rates through the unit surface area were 597 to $753nmoles/day-cm^2$ in loam soil and 222 to $365nmoles/day\;cm^2$ in sandy loam soilshowing higher value in higher bulk density. The potasium influx rates were 99 to $175nmoles/day-cm^2$, and those of phosphate were 26 to $46nmoles/day\;cm^2$. Those of Ca and Mg were 175 to 246 and 163 to $205nmoles/day\;cm^2$. The difference in nutrient influx rates between bulk densities of these elements were lower than that of nitrogen.

  • PDF

Fermented Extracts of Korean Mistletoe with Lactobacillus (FKM-110) Stimulate Macrophage and Inhibit Tumor Metastasis (유산균으로 발효된 한국산 겨우살이 추출물의 Macrophage 자극에 의한 면역학적 활성화와 종양전이 억제효과)

  • Yoon, Taek-Joon;Yoo, Yung-Choon;Kang, Tae-Bong;Lee, Kwan-Hee;Kwak, Jin-Hwan;Baek, Young-Jin;Huh, Chul-Sung;Kim, Jong-Bae
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.31 no.3
    • /
    • pp.838-847
    • /
    • 1999
  • Based on the results that the extract of Korean mistletoe (KM-110) has immunological and anti-tumor activities and its main component is lectin called KML-U, this study was carried out to investigate the immunostimulatory and anti-tumor activities of FKM-110, fermented KM-110 with lactobacillus, as a basic study for the development of functional food with anti-tumor activity. The amount of lectin after fermentation determined by ELISA was varied with the fermentation time and kinds of lactobacillus. Cytotoxic effects of FKM-110 on the various tumor cells was significant and dependent on the concentration of KML-U and the kinds of lactobacillus. FKM-110 stimulated macrophage and resulted in the secretion of some cytokines such as IL-1 and $IFN-{\gamma}$, but this effect was not correlated with the concentration of lectin. FKM-110 fermented with Marshall Lactobacillus casei showed the most potent antitumor activity in experimental and spontaneous metastasis models. When yoghurt produced with KM-110, Marshall Lactobacillus casei and skim milk was administered orally to mouse, the metastasis of tumor cells was significantly inhibited.

  • PDF

Differential Media Effects on Candidates' Image and Correlations Among Media Use, Interpersonal Communication, and Voting Participation (후보자 이미지 형성에 관한 미디어의 차별적 효과와 미디어 이용, 대인커뮤니케이션, 투표참여 간의 상호관계에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Jin-Young
    • Korean journal of communication and information
    • /
    • v.32
    • /
    • pp.113-146
    • /
    • 2006
  • This study explored how media and interpersonal communication affected voters in Busan mayoral by-election, focusing on the mutual relations among media use and attentive use of political campaign, interpersonal communication, and voting participation. Also, comparative analysis between image factor and the factor of political party influencing the decision of a candidate were examined. Additionally, it was analysed differential media effects on candidates' image. According to the results, the local media use and attentive use of political campaign had the influence on the increase of interpersonal communication about the election. Voters who had much interpersonal discussion with others participated more than voters who had less interpersonal discussion. Media use did not directly affect the participation of voting, but indirectly contributed to participation of voting through interpersonal discussion. The assumption of differential media effects on candidates image was partly proved. There were statistically significant differences in the factor of competence of candidates' image among three experimental groups (attentive use of TV discussion program, Internet web sites of two candidates, and printing materials of political advertisement). Furthermore, with three main vote variables, issues, candidates image, party identification, the results of comparative analysis between image factor and the factor of political party influencing the choice of a candidate suggested that a sense of oneness with a party was highly related to the choice of the candidates of the party, however, candidates' image was not related to the decision of a candidate. Political party had more impact on for whom to vote than candidates' image in this study.

  • PDF

ERF Components Patterns of Causal Question Generation during Observation of Biological Phenomena : A MEG Study (생명현상 관찰에서 나타나는 인과적 의문 생성의 ERF 특성 : MEG 연구)

  • Kwon, Suk-Won;Kwon, Yong-Ju
    • Journal of Science Education
    • /
    • v.33 no.2
    • /
    • pp.336-345
    • /
    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study is to analysis ERF components patterns of causal questions generated during the observation of biological phenomenon. First, the system that shows pictures causing causal questions based on biological phenomenon (evoked picture system) was developed in a way of cognitive psychology. The ERF patterns of causal questions based on time-series brain processing was observed using MEG. The evoked picture system was developed by R&D method consisting of scientific education experts and researchers. Tasks were classified into animal (A), microbe (M), and plant (P) tasks according to biological species and into interaction (I), all (A), and part (P) based on the interaction between different species. According to the collaboration with MEG team in the hospital of Seoul National University, the paradigm of MEG task was developed. MEG data about the generation of scientific questions in 5 female graduate student were collected. For examining the unique characteristic of causal question, MEG ERF components were analyzed. As a result, total 100 pictures were produced by evoked picture and 4 ERF components, M1(100~130ms), M2(220~280ms), M3(320~390ms), M4(460~520ms). The present study could guide personalized teaching-learning method through the application and development of scientific question learning program.

  • PDF