• Title, Summary, Keyword: 영상처리

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The Construction of QoS Integration Platform for Real-time Negotiation and Adaptation Stream Service in Distributed Object Computing Environments (분산 객체 컴퓨팅 환경에서 실시간 협약 및 적응 스트림 서비스를 위한 QoS 통합 플랫폼의 구축)

  • Jun, Byung-Taek;Kim, Myung-Hee;Joo, Su-Chong
    • The Transactions of the Korea Information Processing Society
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    • v.7 no.11S
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    • pp.3651-3667
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    • 2000
  • Recently, in the distributed multimedia environments based on internet, as radical growing technologies, the most of researchers focus on both streaming technology and distributed object thchnology, Specially, the studies which are tried to integrate the streaming services on the distributed object technology have been progressing. These technologies are applied to various stream service mamgements and protocols. However, the stream service management mexlels which are being proposed by the existing researches are insufficient for suporting the QoS of stream services. Besides, the existing models have the problems that cannot support the extensibility and the reusability, when the QoS-reiatedfunctions are being developed as a sub-module which is suited on the specific-purpose application services. For solving these problems, in this paper. we suggested a QoS Integrated platform which can extend and reuse using the distributed object technologies, and guarantee the QoS of the stream services. A structure of platform we suggested consists of three components such as User Control Module(UCM), QoS Management Module(QoSM) and Stream Object. Stream Object has Send/Receive operations for transmitting the RTP packets over TCP/IP. User Control ModuleI(UCM) controls Stream Objects via the COREA service objects. QoS Management Modulel(QoSM) has the functions which maintain the QoS of stream service between the UCMs in client and server. As QoS control methexlologies, procedures of resource monitoring, negotiation, and resource adaptation are executed via the interactions among these comiXments mentioned above. For constmcting this QoS integrated platform, we first implemented the modules mentioned above independently, and then, used IDL for defining interfaces among these mexlules so that can support platform independence, interoperability and portability base on COREA. This platform is constructed using OrbixWeb 3.1c following CORBA specification on Solaris 2.5/2.7, Java language, Java, Java Media Framework API 2.0, Mini-SQL1.0.16 and multimedia equipments. As results for verifying this platform functionally, we showed executing results of each module we mentioned above, and a numerical data obtained from QoS control procedures on client and server's GUI, while stream service is executing on our platform.

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Development and Performance Test of Preamplifier and Amplifier for Gamma Probe (감마프로브용 전단증폭기와 주증폭기의 개발과 성능 평가)

  • Bong, Jung-Kyun;Kim, Hee-Joung;Lee, Jong-Doo;Kwon, Soo-Il
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.100-109
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    • 1999
  • Purpose: Preamplifier and amplifier are very important parts for developing a portable counting or imaging gamma probe. They can be used for analyzing pulses containing energy and position information for the emitted radiations. The commercial Nuclear Instrument Modules (NIMs) can be used for processing these pulses. However, it may be improper to use NIMs in developing a portable gamma probe, because of its size and high price. The purpose of this study was to develop both preamplifier and amplifier and measure their performance characteristics. Materials and Methods: The preamplifier and amplifier were designed as a charge sensitive device and a capacitor resistor-resistor capacitor (CR-RC) electronic circuit, respectively, and they were mounted on a print circuit board (PCB). We acquired and analyzed energy spectra for Tc-99m and Cs-137 using both PCB and NIMs. Multichannel analyzer (Accuspec/A, Canberra Industries Inc., Meriden Connecticut, U.S.A) and scintillation detectors (EP-047(Bicron Saint-Gobain/Norton Industrial EP-047 (Ceramics Co., Ohio, U.S.A) with $2"{\times}2"$ NaI(T1) crystal and R1535 (Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Electron Tube Center, Shizuoka-ken, Japan) with $1"{\times}1"$ NaI(T1) crystal were used for acquiring the energy spectra. Results: Using PCB, energy resolutions of EP-047 detectors for Tc-99m and Cs-137 were 12.92% and 5.01%, respectively, whereas R1535 showed 13.75% and 5.19% of energy resolution. Using the NIM devices, energy resolutions of EP-047 detector for Tc-99m and Cs-137 were measured as 14.6% and 7.58%, respectively. However, reliable energy spectrum of R1535 detector could not be acquired, since its photomultiplier tube (PMT) requires a specific type of preamplifier. Conclusion: We developed a special preamplifier and amplifier suitable for a small sized gamma probe that showed good energy resolutions independent of PMT types. The results indicate that the PCB can be used in developing both counting and imaging gamma probe.

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4-way Search Window for Improving The Memory Bandwidth of High-performance 2D PE Architecture in H.264 Motion Estimation (H.264 움직임추정에서 고속 2D PE 아키텍처의 메모리대역폭 개선을 위한 4-방향 검색윈도우)

  • Ko, Byung-Soo;Kong, Jin-Hyeung
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea SD
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    • v.46 no.6
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    • pp.6-15
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    • 2009
  • In this paper, a new 4-way search window is designed for the high-performance 2D PE architecture in H.264 Motion Estimation(ME) to improve the memory bandwidth. While existing 2D PE architectures reuse the overlapped data of adjacent search windows scanned in 1 or 3-way, the new window utilizes the overlapped data of adjacent search windows as well as adjacent multiple scanning (window) paths to enhance the reusage of retrieved search window data. In order to scan adjacent windows and multiple paths instead of single raster and zigzag scanning of adjacent windows, bidirectional row and column window scanning results in the 4-way(up. down, left, right) search window. The proposed 4-way search window could improve the reuse of overlapped window data to reduce the redundancy access factor by 3.1, though the 1/3-way search window redundantly requires $7.7{\sim}11$ times of data retrieval. Thus, the new 4-way search window scheme enhances the memory bandwidth by $70{\sim}58%$ compared with 1/3-way search window. The 2D PE architecture in H.264 ME for 4-way search window consists of $16{\times}16$ pe array. computing the absolute difference between current and reference frames, and $5{\times}16$ reusage array, storing the overlapped data of adjacent search windows and multiple scanning paths. The reference data could be loaded upward and downward into the new 2D PE depending on scanning direction, and the reusage array is combined with the pe array rotating left as well as right to utilize the overlapped data of adjacent multiple scan paths. In experiments, the new implementation of 4-way search window on Magnachip 0.18um could deal with the HD($1280{\times}720$) video of 1 reference frame, $48{\times}48$ search area and $16{\times}16$ macroblock by 30fps at 149.25MHz.

Influence of Gravel Content and Nitrogen Application on Nitrogen Leaching by the Leachate and Chinese Cabbage Growth in Highland (자갈함량과 질소시비량이 고랭지 배추재배시 침투수에 의한 질소용탈 및 생육에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Chol-Soo;Lee, Gye-Jun;Jung, Yeong-Sang;Joo, Jin-Ho;Hwang, Seon-Woong
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.1-5
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    • 2005
  • Continuous monocropping of Chinese cabbage in Gangwon highland increased gravel and sand contents due to surface soil erosion. Nutrient leaching and Chinese cabbage growth were investigated with different treatments of gravel contents and nitrogen application levels by using $0.5m^2$ Wagner pots. Gravel contents were 0, 10, 30, 50, 70, and 90%(w/w), nitrogen application levels were 60, 120, and 240 kg/ha, and manure compost application rate was 15 ton per hectare, respectively. Wagner pots were filled with loamy sand soil mixed with 5 cm-sized gravels. Fresh weight of Chinese cabbage was decreased as gravel contents in soil increased, and particularly severely decreased at 240 kg-N/ha. Yields of Chinese cabbage were remarkably decreased at the rate of 60 kg-N/ha with 30% gravel content and 120 kg-N/ha with 50% gravel content. Most of Chinese cabbages were severely wilted by heavy N application at the rate of 240 kg-N/ha in the middle of growth stages regardless of gravel contents, while about 50% of Chinese cabbage showed wilting symptom in the treatment of more than 50% of gravel contents and 120 kg-N/ha. N content in leachate increased as gravel content and N application increased. The relationship between gravel content and N contents showed linear regression: N in leachate = 0.014(gravel content) -0.039 (r = 0.961). Particularly, $NH_4-N$ contents in leachates with more than 30% gravel content and 240 kg-N/ha ranged from $139{\sim}339mg/L$. Chinese cabbage growth in loamy sand soil containing 30%, and 50% gravel contents could be adversely affected by N application at the rate of 240, and 120 kg-N/ha, respectively.

Effects of Macrophytes on Budget of Matters in Lake Paldang (대형수생식물이 팔당호의 물질 수지에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Hae-Kyung;Jung, Dong-Il;Byeon, Myeong-Seop
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.85-92
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    • 2006
  • To evaluate the primary production and nutrient uptake of macrophytes in Lake Paldang, this study investigate the vegetation areas of six dominant aquatic plants including Typha angustifolia, Zizania latifolia, Phragmites australis, Trapa japonica, Nelumbo nucifera and Savinia natans, and contents of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus of each macrophyte. Total vegetation area of six dominant aquatic plants was 1.37 $km^2$. Among them, Typha angustifolia was the most wide-distributed species which occupied the 46.7% of total vegetation area. Littoral zone of South Han river had the largest vegetation area with 0.458 $km^2$, and North Han river, Kyungan river and confluence area in the order named. The results of the contents of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus of macrophytes showed that the carbon contents of emergent macrophytes was higher than that of other life-forms. The nitrogen content of Salvinia natans, free-floating macrophyte was highest and that of Typha angustifolia, emergent macrophyte was lowest. The phosphorus content of Trapa japonica showed the highest content of phosphorus among six macrophytes and emergent macrophytes such as Zizania latifolia and Phragmites australis showed lower contents of phosphorus than other life-forms. The annual net primary production of macrophytes in Lake Paldang, 2004, was calculated as 758.4 ton C $yr^{-1}$ and the annual net nitrogen and phosphorus uptake of macrophyte was 16,921 kg $yr^{-1}$ and 1,841.0 kg P $yr^{-1}$ respectively. Comparing the total budget of organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in Lake Paldang, the amount of primary production and nutrient uptake by macrophytes take a small portion in total budget implying macrophytes do not play an important role in budget of matters in river-type lake, Lake Paldang.

3D Facial Animation with Head Motion Estimation and Facial Expression Cloning (얼굴 모션 추정과 표정 복제에 의한 3차원 얼굴 애니메이션)

  • Kwon, Oh-Ryun;Chun, Jun-Chul
    • The KIPS Transactions:PartB
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    • v.14B no.4
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    • pp.311-320
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    • 2007
  • This paper presents vision-based 3D facial expression animation technique and system which provide the robust 3D head pose estimation and real-time facial expression control. Many researches of 3D face animation have been done for the facial expression control itself rather than focusing on 3D head motion tracking. However, the head motion tracking is one of critical issues to be solved for developing realistic facial animation. In this research, we developed an integrated animation system that includes 3D head motion tracking and facial expression control at the same time. The proposed system consists of three major phases: face detection, 3D head motion tracking, and facial expression control. For face detection, with the non-parametric HT skin color model and template matching, we can detect the facial region efficiently from video frame. For 3D head motion tracking, we exploit the cylindrical head model that is projected to the initial head motion template. Given an initial reference template of the face image and the corresponding head motion, the cylindrical head model is created and the foil head motion is traced based on the optical flow method. For the facial expression cloning we utilize the feature-based method, The major facial feature points are detected by the geometry of information of the face with template matching and traced by optical flow. Since the locations of varying feature points are composed of head motion and facial expression information, the animation parameters which describe the variation of the facial features are acquired from geometrically transformed frontal head pose image. Finally, the facial expression cloning is done by two fitting process. The control points of the 3D model are varied applying the animation parameters to the face model, and the non-feature points around the control points are changed by use of Radial Basis Function(RBF). From the experiment, we can prove that the developed vision-based animation system can create realistic facial animation with robust head pose estimation and facial variation from input video image.

Object Tracking Based on Exactly Reweighted Online Total-Error-Rate Minimization (정확히 재가중되는 온라인 전체 에러율 최소화 기반의 객체 추적)

  • JANG, Se-In;PARK, Choong-Shik
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.53-65
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    • 2019
  • Object tracking is one of important steps to achieve video-based surveillance systems. Object tracking is considered as an essential task similar to object detection and recognition. In order to perform object tracking, various machine learning methods (e.g., least-squares, perceptron and support vector machine) can be applied for different designs of tracking systems. In general, generative methods (e.g., principal component analysis) were utilized due to its simplicity and effectiveness. However, the generative methods were only focused on modeling the target object. Due to this limitation, discriminative methods (e.g., binary classification) were adopted to distinguish the target object and the background. Among the machine learning methods for binary classification, total error rate minimization can be used as one of successful machine learning methods for binary classification. The total error rate minimization can achieve a global minimum due to a quadratic approximation to a step function while other methods (e.g., support vector machine) seek local minima using nonlinear functions (e.g., hinge loss function). Due to this quadratic approximation, the total error rate minimization could obtain appropriate properties in solving optimization problems for binary classification. However, this total error rate minimization was based on a batch mode setting. The batch mode setting can be limited to several applications under offline learning. Due to limited computing resources, offline learning could not handle large scale data sets. Compared to offline learning, online learning can update its solution without storing all training samples in learning process. Due to increment of large scale data sets, online learning becomes one of essential properties for various applications. Since object tracking needs to handle data samples in real time, online learning based total error rate minimization methods are necessary to efficiently address object tracking problems. Due to the need of the online learning, an online learning based total error rate minimization method was developed. However, an approximately reweighted technique was developed. Although the approximation technique is utilized, this online version of the total error rate minimization could achieve good performances in biometric applications. However, this method is assumed that the total error rate minimization can be asymptotically achieved when only the number of training samples is infinite. Although there is the assumption to achieve the total error rate minimization, the approximation issue can continuously accumulate learning errors according to increment of training samples. Due to this reason, the approximated online learning solution can then lead a wrong solution. The wrong solution can make significant errors when it is applied to surveillance systems. In this paper, we propose an exactly reweighted technique to recursively update the solution of the total error rate minimization in online learning manner. Compared to the approximately reweighted online total error rate minimization, an exactly reweighted online total error rate minimization is achieved. The proposed exact online learning method based on the total error rate minimization is then applied to object tracking problems. In our object tracking system, particle filtering is adopted. In particle filtering, our observation model is consisted of both generative and discriminative methods to leverage the advantages between generative and discriminative properties. In our experiments, our proposed object tracking system achieves promising performances on 8 public video sequences over competing object tracking systems. The paired t-test is also reported to evaluate its quality of the results. Our proposed online learning method can be extended under the deep learning architecture which can cover the shallow and deep networks. Moreover, online learning methods, that need the exact reweighting process, can use our proposed reweighting technique. In addition to object tracking, the proposed online learning method can be easily applied to object detection and recognition. Therefore, our proposed methods can contribute to online learning community and object tracking, detection and recognition communities.

Risk Factor Analysis for Operative Death and Brain Injury after Surgery of Stanford Type A Aortic Dissection (스탠포드 A형 대동맥 박리증 수술 후 수술 사망과 뇌손상의 위험인자 분석)

  • Kim Jae-Hyun;Oh Sam-Sae;Lee Chang-Ha;Baek Man-Jong;Hwang Seong-Wook;Lee Cheul;Lim Hong-Gook;Na Chan-Young
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.289-297
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    • 2006
  • Background: Surgery for Stanford type A aortic dissection shows a high operative mortality rate and frequent postoperative brain injury. This study was designed to find out the risk factors leading to operative mortality and brain injury after surgical repair in patients with type A aortic dissection. Material and Method: One hundred and eleven patients with type A aortic dissection who underwent surgical repair between February, 1995 and January 2005 were reviewed retrospectively. There were 99 acute dissections and 12 chronic dissections. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to identify risk factors of operative mortality and brain injury. Resuit: Hospital mortality occurred in 6 patients (5.4%). Permanent neurologic deficit occurred in 8 patients (7.2%) and transient neurologic deficit in 4 (3.6%). Overall 1, 5, 7 year survival rate was 94.4, 86.3, and 81.5%, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed 4 risk factors to be statistically significant as predictors of mortality: previous chronic type III dissection, emergency operation, intimal tear in aortic arch, and deep hypothemic circulatory arrest (DHCA) for more than 45 minutes. Multivariate analysis revealed previous chronic type III aortic dissection (odds ratio (OR) 52.2), and DHCA for more than 45 minutes (OR 12.0) as risk factors of operative mortality. Pathological obesity (OR 12.9) and total arch replacement (OR 8.5) were statistically significant risk factors of brain injury in multivariate analysis. Conclusion: The result of surgical repair for Stanford type A aortic dissection was good when we took into account the mortality rate, the incidence of neurologic injury, and the long-term survival rate. Surgery of type A aortic dissection in patients with a history of chronic type III dissection may increase the risk of operative mortality. Special care should be taken and efforts to reduce the hypothermic circulatory arrest time should alway: be kept in mind. Surgeons who are planning to operate on patients with pathological obesity, or total arch replacement should be seriously consider for there is a higher risk of brain injury.

Dynamic Traffic Assignment Using Genetic Algorithm (유전자 알고리즘을 이용한 동적통행배정에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Kyung-Chul;Park, Chang-Ho;Chon, Kyung-Soo;Rhee, Sung-Mo
    • Journal of Korean Society for Geospatial Information Science
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.51-63
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    • 2000
  • Dynamic traffic assignment(DTA) has been a topic of substantial research during the past decade. While DTA is gradually maturing, many aspects of DTA still need improvement, especially regarding its formulation and solution algerian Recently, with its promise for In(Intelligent Transportation System) and GIS(Geographic Information System) applications, DTA have received increasing attention. This potential also implies higher requirement for DTA modeling, especially regarding its solution efficiency for real-time implementation. But DTA have many mathematical difficulties in searching process due to the complexity of spatial and temporal variables. Although many solution algorithms have been studied, conventional methods cannot iud the solution in case that objective function or constraints is not convex. In this paper, the genetic algorithm to find the solution of DTA is applied and the Merchant-Nemhauser model is used as DTA model because it has a nonconvex constraint set. To handle the nonconvex constraint set the GENOCOP III system which is a kind of the genetic algorithm is used in this study. Results for the sample network have been compared with the results of conventional method.

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Design of Translator for generating Secure Java Bytecode from Thread code of Multithreaded Models (다중스레드 모델의 스레드 코드를 안전한 자바 바이트코드로 변환하기 위한 번역기 설계)

  • 김기태;유원희
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society for Industrial Systems Conference
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    • pp.148-155
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    • 2002
  • Multithreaded models improve the efficiency of parallel systems by combining inner parallelism, asynchronous data availability and the locality of von Neumann model. This model executes thread code which is generated by compiler and of which quality is given by the method of generation. But multithreaded models have the demerit that execution model is restricted to a specific platform. On the contrary, Java has the platform independency, so if we can translate from threads code to Java bytecode, we can use the advantages of multithreaded models in many platforms. Java executes Java bytecode which is intermediate language format for Java virtual machine. Java bytecode plays a role of an intermediate language in translator and Java virtual machine work as back-end in translator. But, Java bytecode which is translated from multithreaded models have the demerit that it is not secure. This paper, multhithread code whose feature of platform independent can execute in java virtual machine. We design and implement translator which translate from thread code of multithreaded code to Java bytecode and which check secure problems from Java bytecode.

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