• Title, Summary, Keyword: 영상처리

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Investigation of Measurement Feasibility of Large-size Wastes Based on Unmanned Aerial System (UAS 기반 대형 폐기물 발생량 측정 가능성 모색)

  • Son, Seung Woo;Yu, Jae Jin;Jeon, Hyung Jin;Lim, Seong Ha;Kang, Young Eun;Yoon, Jeong Ho
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.33 no.5_3
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    • pp.809-820
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    • 2017
  • Efficient management of large-size wastes generated from disasters etc. is always in demand. Large-size wastes are closely connected to the environment, producing adverse effects on the air quality, water quality, living environment and so on. When large-size wastes are generated, we must be able to estimate the generated amount in order to transfer them to a temporary trans-shipment site, or to properly treat them. Currently, we estimate the amount of generated large-size wastes by using satellite images or unit measure for wastes; however, the accuracy of such estimations have been constantly questioned. Therefore, the present study was performed to establish three-dimensional spatial information based on UAS, to measure the amount of waste, and to evaluate the accuracy of the measurement. A measurement was made at a waste site by using UAS, and the X, Y, Z RMSE values of the three-dimensional spatial information were found to be 0.022 m, 0.023 m, and 0.14 m, all of which show relatively high accuracy. The amount of waste measured using these values was computed to be approximately $4,273,400m^3$. In addition, the amount of waste at the same site was measured by using Terrestrial LiDAR, which is used for the precise measurement of geographical features, cultural properties and the like. The resulting value was $4,274,188m^3$, which is not significantly different from the amount of waste computed by using UAS. Thus, the possibility of measuring the amount of waste using UAS was confirmed, and UAS-based measurement is believed to be useful for environmental control with respect to disaster wastes, large-size wastes, and the like.

ERF Components Patterns of Causal Question Generation during Observation of Biological Phenomena : A MEG Study (생명현상 관찰에서 나타나는 인과적 의문 생성의 ERF 특성 : MEG 연구)

  • Kwon, Suk-Won;Kwon, Yong-Ju
    • Journal of Science Education
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.336-345
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study is to analysis ERF components patterns of causal questions generated during the observation of biological phenomenon. First, the system that shows pictures causing causal questions based on biological phenomenon (evoked picture system) was developed in a way of cognitive psychology. The ERF patterns of causal questions based on time-series brain processing was observed using MEG. The evoked picture system was developed by R&D method consisting of scientific education experts and researchers. Tasks were classified into animal (A), microbe (M), and plant (P) tasks according to biological species and into interaction (I), all (A), and part (P) based on the interaction between different species. According to the collaboration with MEG team in the hospital of Seoul National University, the paradigm of MEG task was developed. MEG data about the generation of scientific questions in 5 female graduate student were collected. For examining the unique characteristic of causal question, MEG ERF components were analyzed. As a result, total 100 pictures were produced by evoked picture and 4 ERF components, M1(100~130ms), M2(220~280ms), M3(320~390ms), M4(460~520ms). The present study could guide personalized teaching-learning method through the application and development of scientific question learning program.

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Signal to Noise Ratio of MR Spectrum by variation echo time : comparison of 1.5T and 3.0T (Echo time에 따른 MR spectrum의 SNR: 1.5T와 3.0T비교)

  • Kim, Sung-Gil;Lee, Kyu-Su;Rim, Che-Pyeong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.5 no.6
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    • pp.401-407
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study is to know the differences of MR spectra, obtained from normal volunteers by variable TE value, through the quantitative analysis of brain metabolites by peak integral and SNR between 1.5T and 3.0T, together with PRESS and STEAM pulse sequence. Single-voxel MR proton spectra of the human brain obtained from normal volunteers at both 3.0T MR system (Magnetom Trio, SIEMENS, Germany) and 1.5T MR system (Signa Twinspeed, GE, USA) using the STEAM and PRESS pulse sequence. 10 healthy volunteers (3.0T:3 males, 2 females; 1.5T : 3 males, 2 females) with the range from 22 to 30 years old (mean 26 years) participated in our study. They had no personal or familial history of neurological diseases and had a normal neurological examination. Data acquisition parameters were closely matched between the two field strengths. Spectra were recorded in the white matter of the occipital lobe. Spectra were compared in terms of resolution and signal-to-noise ratio(SNR), and echo time(TE) were estimated at both field strengths. Imaging parameters was used for acquisition of the proton spectrum were as follow : TR 2000msec, TE 30ms, 40ms, 50ms, 60ms, 90ms, 144ms, 288ms, NA=96, VOI=$20{\times}20{\times}20mm3$. As the echo times were increased, the spectra obtained from 3.0T and 1.5T show decreased peak integral and SNR at both pulse sequence. PRESS pulse sequence shows higher SNR and signal intensity than those of STEAM. Especially, Spectra in normal volunteers at 3.0T demonstrated significantly improved overall SNR and spectral resolution compared to 1.5T(Fig1). The spectra acquired at short echo time, 3T MR system shows a twice improvement in SNR compared to 1.5T MR system(Table. 1). But, there was no significant difference between 3.0Tand 1.5T at long TE It is concluded that PRESS and short TE is useful for quantification of the brain metabolites at 3.0T MRS, our standardized protocol for quantification of the brain metabolites at 3.0T MRS is useful to evaluate the brain diseases by monitoring the systematic changes of biochemical metabolites concentration in vivo.

Improvement Plan of NFRDI Serial Oceanographic Observation (NSO) System for Operational Oceanographic System (운용해양시스템을 위한 한국정선해양관측시스템 발전방향)

  • Lee, Joon-Soo;Suh, Young-Sang;Go, Woo-Jin;Hwang, Jae-Dong;Youn, Seok-Hyun;Han, In-Seong;Yang, Joon-Yong;Song, Ji-Young;Park, Myung-Hee;Lee, Keun-Jong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.249-258
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    • 2010
  • This study seeks to improve NFRDI Serial Oceanographic observation (NSO) system which has been operated at current observation stations in the Korean Seas since 1961 and suggests the direction of NSO for practical use of Korean operational oceanographic system. For improvement, data handling by human after CTD (Conductivity-Temperature-Depth) observation on the deck, data transmission, data reception in the land station, and file storage into database need to be automated. Software development to execute QA/QC (Quality Assurance/Quality Control) of real-time oceanographic observation data and to transmit the data with conversion to appropriate format automatically will help to accomplish the automation. Inmarsat satellite telecommunication systems with which have already been equipped on board the current observation vessels can realize the real-time transmission of the data. For the near real-time data transmission, CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) wireless telecommunication can provide efficient transmission in coastal area. Real-time QA/QC procedure after CTD observation will help to prevent errors which can be derived from various causes.

A Study of the Effect of a Mixture of Hyaluronic Acid and Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose ($Guardix-sol^{(R)}$) on the Prevention of Pericardial Adhesion (Hyaluronic Acid와 Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose 혼합용액($Guardix-sol^{(R)}$)의 섬유막유착 방지 효과에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Song-Am;Kim, Jin-Sik;Kim, Jun-Seok;Hwang, Jae-Joon;Lee, Woo-Surng;Kim, Yo-Han;Cho, Yang-Kyu;Chee, Hyun-Keun
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.43 no.6
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    • pp.596-601
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    • 2010
  • Background: This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of a mixture of hyaluronic acid and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose ($Guardix-sol^{(R)}$) on experimental pericardial adhesion. Material and Method: Thirty rats were divided into 2 groups of 15 rats each and pericardial mesothelial injury was induced during surgery by abrasion. In the control group, blood and normal saline were administered into pericardium; in the test group, blood and HA-CMC solution were administered. Pericardial adhesions were evaluated at 2 weeks (n=5), 4 weeks (n=5), and 6 weeks (n=5) after surgery. The severity of adhesions was graded by macroscopic examination, and the adhesion tissue thickness was analyzed microscopically with Masson trichrome stain and an image processing program. Result: The test group had significantly lower macroscopic adhesion scores ($2.9{\pm}0.6$ : $3.9{\pm}0.4$, p<0.000) compared with the control group. For microscopic adhesion tissue thickness, the test group had lower scores compared with the control group, but this difference was not statistically significant ($91.73{\pm}49.91$ : $117.67{\pm}46.4$, p=0.106). Conclusion: We conclude that an HA-CMC solution ($Guardix-sol^{(R)}$) reduces the formation of pericardial adhesions in this animal model.

Seismic wave propagation through surface basalts - implications for coal seismic surveys (지표 현무암을 통해 전파하는 탄성파의 거동 - 석탄 탄성파탐사에 적용)

  • Sun, Weijia;Zhou, Binzhong;Hatherly, Peter;Fu, Li-Yun
    • Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2010
  • Seismic reflection surveying is one of the most widely used and effective techniques for coal seam structure delineation and risk mitigation for underground longwall mining. However, the ability of the method can be compromised by the presence of volcanic cover. This problem arises within parts of the Bowen and Sydney Basins of Australia and seismic surveying can be unsuccessful. As a consequence, such areas are less attractive for coal mining. Techniques to improve the success of seismic surveying over basalt flows are needed. In this paper, we use elastic wave-equation-based forward modelling techniques to investigate the effects and characteristics of seismic wave propagation under different settings involving changes in basalt properties, its thickness, lateral extent, relative position to the shot position and various forms of inhomogeneity. The modelling results suggests that: 1) basalts with high impedance contrasts and multiple flows generate strong multiples and weak reflectors; 2) thin basalts have less effect than thick basalts; 3) partial basalt cover has less effect than full basalt cover; 4) low frequency seismic waves (especially at large offsets) have better penetration through the basalt than high frequency waves; and 5) the deeper the coal seams are below basalts of limited extent, the less influence the basalts will have on the wave propagation. In addition to providing insights into the issues that arise when seismic surveying under basalts, these observations suggest that careful management of seismic noise and the acquisition of long-offset seismic data with low-frequency geophones have the potential to improve the seismic results.

A 10b 200MS/s 75.6mW $0.76mm^2$ 65nm CMOS Pipeline ADC for HDTV Applications (HDTV 응용을 위한 10비트 200MS/s 75.6mW $0.76mm^2$ 65nm CMOS 파이프라인 A/D 변환기)

  • Park, Beom-Soo;Kim, Young-Ju;Park, Seung-Jae;Lee, Seung-Hoon
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea SD
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.60-68
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    • 2009
  • This work proposes a 10b 200MS/s 65nm CMOS ADC for high-definition video systems such as HDTV requiring high resolution and fast operating speed simultaneously. The proposed ADC employs a four-step pipeline architecture to minimize power consumption and chip area. The input SHA based on four capacitors reduces the output signal range from $1.4V_{p-p}$ to $1.0V_{p-p}$ considering high input signal levels at a low supply voltage of 1.2V. The proposed three-stage amplifiers in the input SHA and MDAC1 overcome the low output resistance problem as commonly observed in a 65nm CMOS process. The proposed multipath frequency-compensation technique enables the conventional RNMC based three-stage amplifiers to achieve a stable operation at a high sampling rate of 200MS/s. The conventional switched-bias power-reduction technique in the sub-ranging flash ADCs further reduces power consumption while the reference generator integrated on chip with optional off-chip reference voltages allows versatile system a locations. The prototype ADC in a 65nm CMOS technology demonstrates a measured DNL and INL within 0.19LSB and 0.61LSB, respectively. The ADC shows a maximum SNDR of 54.BdB and 52.4dB and a maximum SFDR of 72.9dB and 64.8dB at 150MS/S and 200MS/s, respectively. The proposed ADC occupies an active die area of $0.76mm^2$ and consumes 75.6mW at a 1.2V supply voltage.

Fermented Extracts of Korean Mistletoe with Lactobacillus (FKM-110) Stimulate Macrophage and Inhibit Tumor Metastasis (유산균으로 발효된 한국산 겨우살이 추출물의 Macrophage 자극에 의한 면역학적 활성화와 종양전이 억제효과)

  • Yoon, Taek-Joon;Yoo, Yung-Choon;Kang, Tae-Bong;Lee, Kwan-Hee;Kwak, Jin-Hwan;Baek, Young-Jin;Huh, Chul-Sung;Kim, Jong-Bae
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.838-847
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    • 1999
  • Based on the results that the extract of Korean mistletoe (KM-110) has immunological and anti-tumor activities and its main component is lectin called KML-U, this study was carried out to investigate the immunostimulatory and anti-tumor activities of FKM-110, fermented KM-110 with lactobacillus, as a basic study for the development of functional food with anti-tumor activity. The amount of lectin after fermentation determined by ELISA was varied with the fermentation time and kinds of lactobacillus. Cytotoxic effects of FKM-110 on the various tumor cells was significant and dependent on the concentration of KML-U and the kinds of lactobacillus. FKM-110 stimulated macrophage and resulted in the secretion of some cytokines such as IL-1 and $IFN-{\gamma}$, but this effect was not correlated with the concentration of lectin. FKM-110 fermented with Marshall Lactobacillus casei showed the most potent antitumor activity in experimental and spontaneous metastasis models. When yoghurt produced with KM-110, Marshall Lactobacillus casei and skim milk was administered orally to mouse, the metastasis of tumor cells was significantly inhibited.

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Simultaneous Treatment of Carbon Dioxide and Ammonia by Microalgal Culture (조류배양을 통한 이산화탄소 및 암모니아의 동시처리)

  • ;;Bohumil Volesky
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.328-336
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    • 1999
  • A green microalga, Chlorella vulgaris UTX 259, was cultivated in a bench-scale raceway pond. During the culture, 15%(v/v) $CO_2$ was supplied and industrial wastewater discharged from a steel-making plant was used as a culture medium. In a small scale culture bottle, the microalga grew up to 1.8 g $dm^{-3}$ of cell concentration and ammonia was completely removed from the wastewater with an yield coefficient of 25.7 g dry cell weight $g^{-1}\;NH_3-N$. During the bottle-culture, microalga was dominant over heterotrophic microorganisms in the culture medium. Therefore, the amount of carbon dioxide fixation could be estimated from the change of dry cell weight. In a semi-continuous operation of raceway pond with intermittent lighting (12 h light and 12 h dark), increase of dilution rate resulted in increase of the ammonia removal rate as well as the $CO_2$ fixation rate but the ammonia removal efficiency decreased. Ammonia was not completely removed from the medium (wastewater) of raceway pond which was operated in a batch mode under a light intensity up to 20 klux. The incomplete removal of ammonia was believed due to insufficient light supply. A mathematical model, capable of predicting experimental data, was developed in order to simulate the performance of the raceway pond under the light intensity of sun during a bright daytime. Simulation results showed that the rates of $CO_2$ fixation and ammonia removal could be enhanced by increasing light intensity. According to the simulation, 80 mg $dm^{-3}$ of ammonia in the medium could be completely removed if the light intensity was over 60 klux with a continuous lighting. Under the optimal operating condition determined by the simulation, the rates of carbon dioxide fixation and ammonia removal in the outdoor operation of raceway pond were estimated as high as $24.7 g m^{-2} day^{-1}$ and $0.52 g NH_3-N m^{-2} day^{-1}$, respectively.

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Evaluation of Endothelium-dependent Myocardial Perfusion Reserve in Healthy Smokers; Cold Pressor Test using $H_2^{15}O\;PET$ (흡연자에서 관상동맥 내피세포 의존성 심근 혈류 예비능: $H_2^{15}O\;PET$ 찬물자극 검사에 의한 평가)

  • Hwang, Kyung-Hoon;Lee, Dong-Soo;Lee, Byeong-Il;Lee, Jae-Sung;Lee, Ho-Young;Chung, June-Key;Lee, Myung-Chul
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.21-29
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    • 2004
  • Purpose: Much evidence suggests long-term cigarette smoking alters coronary vascular endothelial response. On this study, we applied nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF), an unsupervised learning algorithm, to CO-less $H_2^{15}O-PET$ to investigate coronary endothelial dysfunction caused by smoking noninvasively. Materials and methods: This study enrolled eighteen young male volunteers consisting of 9 smokers $(23.8{\pm}1.1\;yr;\;6.5{\pm}2.5$ pack-years) and 9 nonsmokers $(23.8{\pm}2.9 yr)$. They do not have any cardiovascular risk factor or disease history. Myocardial $H_2^{15}O-PET$ was performed at rest, during cold ($5^{\circ}C$) pressor stimulation and during adenosine infusion. Left ventricular blood pool and myocardium were segmented on dynamic PET data by NMF method. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was calculated from input and tissue functions by a single compartmental model with correction of partial volume and spillover effects. Results: There were no significant difference in resting MBF between the two groups (Smokers: 1.43 0.41 ml/g/min and non-smokers: $1.37{\pm}0.41$ ml/g/min p=NS). during cold pressor stimulation, MBF in smokers was significantly lower than 4hat in non-smokers ($1.25{\pm}0.34$ ml/g/min vs $1.59{\pm}0.29$ ml/gmin; p=0.019). The difference in the ratio of cold pressor MBF to resting MBF between the two groups was also significant (p=0.024; $90{\pm}24%$ in smokers and $122{\pm}28%$ in non-smokers.). During adenosine infusion, however, hyperemic MBF did not differ significantly between smokers and non-smokers ($5.81{\pm}1.99$ ml/g/min vs $5.11{\pm}1.31$ ml/g/min ; p=NS). Conclusion: in smokers, MBF during cold pressor stimulation was significantly lower compared wi4h nonsmokers, reflecting smoking-Induced endothelial dysfunction. However, there was no significant difference in MBF during adenosine-induced hyperemia between the two groups.