• Title, Summary, Keyword: 영가철

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A study of Immobilizing Heavy metals by pellets manufactured from Coal tailings and Iron oxide (선탄경석(選炭硬石)과 광산화물(鑛酸化物)로 제조(製造)한 담체(擔體)의 중금속(重金屬) 불용화(不溶化) 특성연구(特性硏究))

  • Lee, Gye-Seung;Song, Young-Jun
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Resources Recycling
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.75-81
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    • 2012
  • Porous pellets for immobilizing heavy metals were manufactured from coal tailings and iron oxide powder. Coal tailings was pulverized and mixed with iron oxide powder. The mixed powder was granulated into spherical pellets and roasted. Over $1100^{\circ}C$, residual coal in coal tailings reduced iron oxide to ZVI(Zero-Valent Iron). The pellets have 34.63% of porosity, 1.31 g/mL of bulk density, and 9.82.urn median pore diameter. The pellets were reacted with synthetic solutions containing each heavy metals: arsenic(V), copper(II), chrome(VI), and cadmium(II), respectively. On the test of immobilizing heavy metal, the pellets made at $1100^{\circ}C$ were superior to the other pellets made under $1000^{\circ}C$. Immobilizing over 99.9% of 10ppm heavy metal solutions required I hour for arsenic, 2 hours for chrome, and 4 hours for copper. However, immobilizing capacity of cadmium was inferior to that of the other metals and it was decreased in reversely proportion to initial concentration of the solutions.

Autotrophic Perchlorate-Removal Using Zero-Valent Iron and Activated Sludge: Batch Test (영가철과 활성슬러지를 이용한 독립영양방식의 퍼클로레이트 제거: 회분배양연구)

  • Ahn, Yeong-Hee;Ha, Myoung-Gyu
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.444-450
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    • 2011
  • Perchlorate ($ClO_4^-$) is a contaminant found in surface water and soil/ground water. Autotrophic perchlorate-reducing bacteria (PRB) use hydrogen gas ($H_2$) as an electron donor to remove perchlorate. Since iron corrosion can produce $H_2$, feasibility of autotrophic perchlorate-removal using zero-valent iron (ZVI) was examined in this study using activated sludge that is easily available from a wastewater treatment plant. Batch test showed that activated sludge microorganisms could successfully degrade perchlorate in the presence of ZVI. The perchlorate biodegradation was confirmed by molar yield of $Cl^-$ as perchlorate was degraded. Scanning electron microscope revealed that rod-shaped microorganisms on the surface of iron particles used for the autotrophic perchlorate-removal, suggesting that iron particles could serve as supporting media for the formation of biofilm as well. DGGE analyses revealed that microbial profile of the inoculum (activated sludge) was different from that of biofilm sample obtained from the ZVI-added enrichment culture used for $ClO_4^-$-degradation. A major band of the biofilm sample was most closely related to the class Clostridia.

Nitrate Reduction by Fe(0)/iron Oxide Mineral Systems: A Comparative Study using Different Iron Oxides (영가철과 여러 가지 산화철 조합공정을 이용한 질산성질소 환원에 관한 연구)

  • Song, Hocheol;Jeon, Byong-Hun;Cho, Dong-Wan
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.63-69
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    • 2014
  • This paper presents the feasibility of using different iron oxides (microscale hematite (HT), microscale magnetite (MT), and nanoscale maghemite (NMH)) in enhancing nitrate reduction by zero-valent iron (Fe(0)) under two solution conditions (artificial acidic water and real groundwater). Addition of MT and NMH into Fe(0) system resulted in enhancement of nitrate reduction compared to Fe(0) along reaction, especially in groundwater condition, while HT had little effect on nitrate reduction in both solutions. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis showed association of MT and NMH with Fe(0) surface, presumably due to magnetic attraction. The rate enhancement effect of the minerals is presumed to arise from its role as an electron mediator that facilitated electron transport from Fe(0) to nitrate. The greater enhancement of MT and NMH in groundwater was attributed to surface charge neutralization by calcium and magnesium ions in groundwater, which in turn facilitated adsorption of nitrate on Fe(0) surface.

In-situ Stabilization of Heavy Metal Contaminated Farmland Soils Near Abandoned Mine, using Various Stabilizing Agents: Column Test Study (폐광산 주변 중금속 오염 농경지 토양복원을 위한 다양한 첨가제의 안정화 효율 비교: 컬럼시험연구)

  • Lee, Sang-Hoon;Cho, Jung-Hoon
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.45-53
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    • 2009
  • This study concerned remediation of heavy metal contaminated farmland soils near abandoned mine, using stabilization method, with particular emphasis on the remediating the soils contaminated with multi-elements. In this study, stabilizing heavy metals based on 'In-situ chemical fixation' has been applied to the soil collected from an abandoned mine in Korea, using column test, with various stabilizing agents, including $FeSO_4$, $KMnO_4$, sludge (collected from coal mine drainage treatment pond), zero-valent iron (ZVI), zeolite and $CaCO_3$. Sixty five-days operation of the flow-through columns yield $FeSO_4\;+\;KMnO_4$ and zeolite are efficient on reducing As leaching from the soil. ZVI and sludge are reducing the leaching of Cu. Although $FeSO_4\;+\;KMnO_4$ seem to be efficient for most heavy metals, high pH in the initial stage of test enabled high leaching of the heavy metals, whereas fixation of the heavy metals maintain throughout the rest of the test period, with increasing pH up to around 6. Addition of some alkaline agent may inhibit the low pH during the application. The column test was also run as two set: one set incubated with deionized water for 72 hours prior to starting the test, and the other without incubation. The incubated set demonstrated better stabilizing efficiency, indicating the potential optimized operation method.

Reduction of Nitrate using Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron Supported on the Ion-Exchange Resin (이온교환 능력을 가진 지지체에 부착된 나노 영가철을 이용한 질산성 질소의 환원과 부산물 제거)

  • Park, Heesu;Park, Yong-Min;Jo, Yun-Seong;Oh, Soo-Kyeong;Kang, Sang-Yoon;Yoo, Kyoung-Min;Lee, Seong-Jae;Choi, Yong-Su;Lee, Sang-Hyup
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.679-687
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    • 2007
  • Nanoscale zero valent ion (nZVI) technology is emerging as an innovative method to treat contaminated groundwater. The activity of nZVI is very high due to their high specific surface area, and supporting this material can help to preserve its chemical nature by inhibiting oxidation. In this study, nZVI particles were attached to granular ion-exchange resin through borohydride reduction of ferrous ions, and chemical reduction of nitrate by this material was investigated as a potential technology to remove nitrate from groundwater. The pore structure and physical characteristics were measured and the change by the adsorption of nZVI was discussed. Batch tests were conducted to characterize the activity of the supported nZVI and the results indicated that the degradation of nitrate appeared to be a pseudo first-order reaction with the observed reaction rate constant of $0.425h^{-1}$ without pH control. The reduction process continued but at a much lower rate with a rate constant of $0.044h^{-1}$, which is likely limited by mass transfer. To assess the effects of other ions commonly found in groundwater, the same experiments were conducted in simulated groundwater with the same level of nitrate. In simulated groundwater, the rate constant was $0.078h^{-1}$ and it also reduced to $0.0021h^{-1}$ in later phase. The major limitation in application of ZVI for nitrate reduction is ammonium production. By using a support material with ion exchange capacity, the problem of ammonium release can be solved. The ammonium was not detected in the batch test, even when other competitive ions such as calcium and potassium existed.

Evaluation of Denitrification Reactivity by the Supported Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron Prepared in Ethanol-Water Solution (이중용매에서 제조된 나노영가철을 이용한 질산성질소의 환원반응성 평가)

  • Park, Heesu;Park, Yong-Min;Oh, Soo-Kyeong;Lee, Seong-Jae;Choi, Yong-Su;Lee, Sang-Hyup
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.46 no.5
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    • pp.1008-1012
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    • 2008
  • Nanoscale zero-valent iron(nZVI) is famous for its high reactivity originated from its high surface area and it has received considerable attentions as one of the latest innovative technologies for treating contaminated groundwater. Due to its fine powdery form, nZVI has limited filed applications. The efforts to overcome this shortcoming by immobilizing nZVI on a supporting material have been made. This study investigated the differences of resin-supported nZVI's characteristics by changing the preparation methods and evaluated its reactivity. The borohydride reduction of an iron salt was proceeded in ethanol/water solvent containing a dispersant and the synthesis was conducted in the presence of ion-exchange resin. The resulting material was compared to that prepared in a conventional way of using de-ionized water by measuring the phyrical and chemical characteristics. BET surface area and Fe content of nZVI-attached resin was increased from $31.63m^2/g$ and 18.19 mg Fe/g to $38.10m^2/g$ and 22.44 mg Fe/g, respectively, by switching the solution medium from water to ethanol/water with a dispersant. The reactivity of each material was tested using nitrate solution without pH control. The pseudo first-order constant of $0.462h^{-1}$ suggested the reactivity of resin-supported nZVI prepared in ethanol/water was increased 61 % compared to that of the conventional type of supported nZVI. The specific reaction rate constant based on surface area was also increased. The results suggest that this new supported nZVI can be used successfully in on-site remediation for contaminated groundwater.

사상분진과 열연슬러지를 이용한 TCE, PCE의 제거

  • 이용재;박규홍;박준범;이재원
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.356-359
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    • 2003
  • 영화유기화합물의 제거에 있어서 일반적으로 이용되는 금속분말로는 아연, 주석, 니켈, 납, 철 등이 알려져 있으며, 경제성과 반응성이 좋고, 독성을 야기하지 않는다는 측면에서 영가 철이 가장 많이 연구·실용화되어 적용되고 있는 실정이다. 본 연구에서는 제철부산물들의 비표면적 측정, 화학적 구성성분 분석 및 pH의 변화를 통해 TCE, PCE 제거능력 평가 및 탈염소화반응을 확인하였으며, 제철부산물인 사상분진과 열연슬러지가 TCE 및 PCE의 제거효율적인 측면이나 산업폐기물의 재활용적인 측면에서 순수철보다 우수하다는 것을 확인하였다.

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The Microcosm study for evaluating biobarrier application on sequential degradation of TCE products by Gasoline-Degradaing Mixed Culture

  • Lee, Jae-Sun;Lee, Si-Jin;Lee, Young-Kee;Chang, Soon-Woong
    • 한국생물공학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.440-444
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    • 2003
  • A new approach for ground water treatment combines a permeable Fe(0) barrier to breakdown higher chlorinated solvents like PCE and TCE with a down gradient aerobic biological treatment system to biotransform less chlorinated solvents, such as DCE and vinyl chloride (VC). The expected bacterial performance down gradient of an Fe(0) barrier was evaluated through laboratory batch experiments with a toluene-degrading mixed culture that cometabolically transforms cis-1,2-DCE and VC. The amount of cis-1,2-DCE (initially at 2,000 ppb) and VC (initially at 2,000 ppb) transformed was controlled by the initial toluene(20,000 ppb) concentration. VC was removed much more effectively than Cis-1,2-DCE, and a higher toluene concentration in comparison to the co-substrate concentrations was needed for complete co-substrate removal. Overall, the coupling of an Fe(0) barrier and subsequent biodegradation appears feasible for remediation of complex mixtures of chlorinated solvents and petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater.

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Simultaneous Removal of Lead and Cr(VI) Using Chemically Combined Materials, ZanF (Zeolite anchored Fe) (ZanF (Zeolite anchored Fe)를 이용한 납과 Cr(VI)의 동시제거)

  • Lee, Seung-Hak;Lee, Kwang-Hun;Park, Jun-Boum
    • Proceedings of the Korean Geotechical Society Conference
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    • pp.185-188
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    • 2003
  • 오염된 지하수 정화에 있어 반응벽체(Permeable Reactive Barriers, PRBs)를 이용한 정화기법은 최근 가장 큰 관심을 모으고 있는 기술이다. 반응벽체의 적용에 있어 가장 중요한 사항은 오염물질의 특성을 고려하여 적절한 반응성을 가지는 충진물질을 선택하는 일이다. 지금까지 연구된 반응물질 중 제올라이트는 취득이 용이하고 가격이 저렴하여, 암모늄이나 중금속과 같은 양이온성 오염물질의 정화에 그 적용성을 인정받아왔다. 하지만 표면에 음전하를 띠는 제올라이트의 특성 때문에, 지하수내에서 음이온의 형태로 존재하는 Cr(VI) 등에는 반응성이 없는 것으로 알려져 왔다. 이에 본 연구에서는 제올라이트에 영가철을 결합한 ZanF란 물질을 개발하여 양이온성 중금속의 하나인 납과 음이온성 중금속의 하나인 Cr(VI)을 동시 제거하는 실험을 수행하였다. 실험결과 ZanF는 초기농도 2-15mmol를 가지는 납 오염용액에 대해 90% 이상의 제거율을 보였으며, 초기농도 0.1 mmol을 가지는 Cr(VI) 오염용액의 농도를 5시간 내에 검출한계 이하로 떨어뜨리는 탁월한 효과를 보였다. 실험결과를 토대로 ZanF는 납과 Cr(VI)으로 동시에 오염된 지하수 정화에 효과적으로 사용될 수 있으리라 기대된다.

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