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Effects of Chlorine dioxide ($ClO_{2}$) Gas Treatment on Postharvest Quality of Grapes (포도의 Chlorine Dioxide Gas 훈증처리 및 저장방법에 관한 연구)

  • Chang, Eun-Ha;Chung, Dau-Sung;Choi, Jong-Uck
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2007
  • This study was conducted to determine if chlorine dioxide ($ClO_{2}$) gas might minimize microbial contamination of fresh produce. After exposing grapes to 20 ppm or 40 ppm of chlorine dioxide gas in a closed container, grapes treated with 20 ppm $ClO_{2}$ were packaged in Ny/PE/L-LDPE pouches, stapes treated with 40 ppm $ClO_{2}$ were placed in an empty corrugated box, and untreated control grapes were placed in a box with a sachet containing $ClO_{2}$ gas adsorbed to silica gel (a silica gel pad). The free volume of the sachet material allowed the release of $ClO_{2}$ gas into the headspace of packages containing fresh grapes. Control fruit not exposed to $ClO_{2}$, was placed in a box and stored at either $25^{\circ}C$ or $0^{\circ}C$. Fruit in Ny/PE/L-LDPE film treated with 20 ppm $ClO_{2}$ lost almost no weight during storage at either $25^{\circ}C$ or $0^{\circ}C$. Such fruit had a lower soluble solid content than did other fruit samples. Titratable acidity tended to fall rapidly during storage at either $25^{\circ}C$ or $0^{\circ}C$. Anthocyanin content of grapes decreased over 21 days at $25^{\circ}C$ but increased over 10 weeks at $0^{\circ}C$. The total microbial count of grapes treated with $ClO_{2}$ gas and silica gel pads were lower than controls at $25^{\circ}C$. Fruit treated with 20 ppm $ClO_{2}$ and packaged in Ny/PE/L-LDPE pouches had lower microbial counts than other fruit samples when stored at $0^{\circ}C$. The silica gel pad did not significantly improve total microbial count (compared to untreated control samples) at $0^{\circ}C$. This result may be attributed to a higher rate of diffusion of $ClO_{2}$ gas at room temperature.

Prevention of Quality Changes in the Cultured Wild Ginseng During Storage (산삼배양근의 저장 중 품질변화 억제)

  • Whang, Jong-Hyun;Yu, Kwang-Won;Park, Sung-Sun;Koh, Jong-Ho;Oh, Sung-Hoon;Suh, Hyung-Joo;Lee, Sang-Hwa
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.37 no.10
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    • pp.1312-1317
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    • 2008
  • Physicochemical changes were investigated for the shelf-life extension of cultured wild-ginseng roots during storage with various pre-treatments with blanching, CAMICA-SD and DF-100 and treatments with citric acid and vitamin C. The pH of cultured wild-ginseng roots showed the range of $6.06{\sim}6.42$ at $10^{\circ}C$, but showed higher ranges of $6.08{\sim}6.91$ and $6.08{\sim}8.68$ at 20 and $30^{\circ}C$, respectively. Browning index (a/b) was increased with increasing storage temperature, and the index at 10 and $30^{\circ}C$ were 0.405 and 0.469 after 2 weeks, respectively. Browning index and viable cell number of CAMICA-SD pre-treatment showed little changes compared to pre-teatment with blanching or DF-100. When the cultured wild-ginseng roots were treated with 1.0% citric acid and 0.2% DF-100 after pre-treatments with CAMICA-SD, viable cell number was slightly increased to $4.9{\times}10^2CFU/g$ for 3 weeks storage at $10^{\circ}C$. The mixture of citric acid and DF-100 was also used to prevent the growth of microbiology and to reduce browning reaction, especially enzymatic browning reaction. The mixture might effectively extend shelf life of the cultured wild-ginseng roots.

Clinical Analysis of Infantile Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis (영아 비후성 유문 협착증의 임상적 분석)

  • Huh, Young-Soo;Lim, Myeung-Kook;Kim, Kyu-Rak
    • Advances in pediatric surgery
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.39-47
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    • 1998
  • Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stensosis(IHPS) occurs in three of 1000 live births, and is a major cause of nonbilious vomiting of early infancy. It's etiology and pathogenesis however are still obscure. The operation of pyloromyotomy described by Ramstedt in 1912 remains the standard treatment. From January 1990 to July 1997, 64 infants with IHPS were treated at the Department of Pediatric Sursery, Yeungnam University Hospital. The ratio of male to female was 7:1, and the most prevalent age ranged from 2 weeks to 8 weeks(81.2 %) of age. Fifty-seven infants were first born (57.8 percent). The body weight of all patients at admission was below the 50 percentile. Age of onset of symptoms was between 2 and 4weeks of age in 23 cases(35.9 %). All infants had a history of nonbilious vomting, generally projectile in nature. Hypokalemia was noted in 14 cases(21.9 %) and hypochloremia in 26 cases(40.6 %). In the preoperative ultrasonography, the average muscle thickness, diameter, and length of the pylorus were 6.3 mm, 12.3 mm, and 17.8 mm. A total of 13 associated anomalies were noted in 12 patients. All cases were treated with Fredet-Ramstedt pyloromyotomy. Postoperative wound infection occured in 3 cases. Thirteen cases(20.3 %) presented intermittent nonprojectile vomiting after operation. With control of oral intake vomiting subsided within one week in 63 patients, and in thirteen days in another.

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A History of Termite Control and Improvements to Prevent Termites in Wooden Architectural Heritage (국내외 흰개미 방제 기술의 발달 과정과 목조건축문화재의 흰개미 피해 저감을 위한 방안)

  • LEE, Sangbin;IM, Ikgyun;KIM, Sihyun
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.54 no.2
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    • pp.194-215
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    • 2021
  • Termites are important decomposers in the ecosystem. They are also economically significant structural pests. In this study, we reviewed the developments of termite control and recent research on termite management to provide information on the prevention and control of termites. In Korea, most of the damage to wooden historical buildings is caused by subterranean termites. Reticulitermes speratus kyushuensis is the main species, which is widely found throughout the country. In the early 1900s, inorganic insecticides, such as arsenic dust, were used for termite control. After the synthesis of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide in the 1940s, it was widely utilized and demonstrated high termite control efficacy. However, chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides were later banned, disappearing from markets after reports emerged concerning environmental contamination and toxicity to humans. Therefore, the termite control industry sought a new termiticide; hence many pesticides were utilized for termite control. Organophosphate (1960s), carbamate (1970s), pyrethroid, and insect growth inhibitor (1980s) were newly synthesized and adopted. In the 1990s, the first commercial baits using chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSI) were developed, providing a means to eliminate an entire colony of subterranean termites around a structure. Many studies have been carried out on soil termiticides (liquid termiticides) and CSI baits to increase their efficacy, and different baits such as aboveground bait stations, fluid bait, and high-durability bait were also developed in the 2000s. In addition, the paradigm of termite control has shifted from localized treatments using soil termiticides to area-wide pest management using CSI baits to create termite-free zones and protect buildings over time. Termite infestations in wooden historical buildings in Korea have been reported since 1980, and considerable attention was drawn in the 1990s when several UNESCO world heritages such as the Jongmyo Shrine and the Janggyeong Panjeon Depositories of Haeinsa Temple were infested by subterranean termites. Since then, a survey of termite infestation in wooden architectural heritage has been conducted, and the National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage and Heritage Care Program regularly monitors those properties. Finally, we suggest termite management using primarily CSI baits, selective application of various soil treatments applied to the object, foundation soil treatment, research and development of durable termite baits, application of area-wide programs for wooden-building complexes, application of integrated termite management (ITM), and regular education for owners and managers to prevent and reduce termite damage.

Prediction of Energy Requirements for Maintenance and Growth of Female Korean Black Goats (번식용 교잡 흑염소의 유지와 성장을 위한 대사에너지 요구량 추정)

  • Lee, Jinwook;Kim, Kwan Woo;Lee, Sung Soo;Ko, Yeoung Gyu;Lee, Yong Jae;Kim, Sung Woo;Jeon, Da Yeon;Roh, Hee Jong;Yun, Yeong Sik;Kim, Do Hyung
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2019
  • This study was conducted to predict the energy requirements for maintenance and growth of female Korean black goats during their growth and pregnancy phases. Fifty female goats ($18.7{\pm}0.27kg$) in their growth phase with an average age of 5 months were stratified by weight and randomly assigned into 5 groups. They were fed 5 diets varying in metabolic energy (ME) [2.32 (G1), 2.49 (G2), 2.74 (G3), 2.99 (G4), and 3.24 (G5) Mcal/kg] until they were 9-month-old. After natural breeding, 50 female goats ($30.7{\pm}0.59kg$) were stratified by weight and randomly assigned into 5 groups. They were fed 5 diets varying in ME [2.32 (P1), 2.43 (P2), 2.55 (P3), 2.66 (P4), and 2.78 (P5) Mcal/kg]. The average feed intake ranged between 1.5 and 2.0% of the body weight (BW), and there was no significant difference between the treatment groups with goats in growth or pregnancy phases. Average daily gain (ADG) in diet demand during the growth phase increased with an increasing ME density and ranged from 46 to 69 g/d (p<0.01). Feed conversion ratio (FCR) improved with the ME density during the growth phase (p<0.01). The intercept of the regression equation between ME intake and ADG indicated that energy requirement for maintenance of goats during growth and pregnancy phases was $103.53kcal/BW^{0.75}$ and $102.7kcal/BW^{0.75}$, respectively. These results may serve as a basis for the establishment of goat feeding standards in Korea. Further studies are required to assess the nutrient requirement of goats using various methods for improving accuracy.

Improvement of Microbiological Quality of Ganjang-gejang by Acetic Acid Washing and Addition of Chitosan (초산 세척과 키토산 첨가에 의한 간장게장의 미생물학적 품질 향상)

  • Lee, Seok-Gyu;Lee, Bo-Ram;Yuk, Hyun-Gyun
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.296-302
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    • 2019
  • Ganjang-gejang (soy sauce-marinated crab) is a ready-to-eat (RTE) seafood and is also one of the most popular traditional dishes in Korea. It is generally prepared by washing raw blue crabs and then preserving them in soy sauce. Since this process does not involve cooking or any treatment with heat, it is difficult to control the microbiological quality of the final product. Thus, the objectives of this study were to compare the efficacies of various sanitizers in eliminating microorganisms on raw blue crab during the washing step and to evaluate the effectiveness of chitosan on the inhibition of microbial growth in the ganjang-gejang during storage. The raw blue crabs were submerged in chlorinated water (50 mg/L), peracetic acid (40 mg/L), acetic acid (5%) and lactic acid (5%) for 10 min at $25^{\circ}C$, respectively. The blue crabs treated with 5% acetic acid were marinated with soy sauce containing 0.5 and 1% of soluble chitosan, followed by storing them at 4 and $12^{\circ}C$ for up to 30 days. Results show that 5% acetic acid reduced the microbial populations on the blue crabs by 1.5 log CFU/g, which was significantly higher than those of other treatments. Based on these results, 5% acetic acid was selected for the washing step. The microbial populations of all ganjang-gejang samples significantly increased to about 8.0 CFU/g at $12^{\circ}C$ for 7 days. At $4^{\circ}C$, the microbial populations of the products containing 1% chitosan increased by about 2.9 CFU/g for 20 days, which were significantly lower than those (4.2-4.5 log CFU/g) of the products without and with 0.5% chitosan. Thus, these results suggest that 5% acetic acid washing of raw blue crabs and the addition of 1% chitosan in ganjang-gejang could improve the microbiological quality of the final products under refrigerated condition.

Improvement of Nitrification Efficiency by Activated Nitrifying Bacteria Injection at Low Temperature (활성화된 질산화균 주입에 의한 저온 질산화효율 향상)

  • Lim, Dongil;Kim, Younghee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Urban Environment
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.473-483
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    • 2018
  • In this study, we have developed a lab scale bioreactor to identify the characteristics of nitrification reaction according to operation condition (temperature, inhibitor (as Cl), activated nitrifying bacteria (ANB). etc) to improve nitrification efficiency at low temperature. Recovery rate of nitrification took about 4 days to reach the normal level by injected ANB after inhibition shock of CI injection at $20^{\circ}C$, when measured the concentration of $NO_2{^-}-N+NO_3{^-}-N$ in the effluent. In the case of $10^{\circ}C$, recovery of nitrification rate took about 4 days to reach the level of half to the normal level and 7 days for complete recovery which took 3 days more than those at $20^{\circ}C$. At $10^{\circ}C$ considering the winter season, the specific nitrification rate(SNR) of the from 1 day to 6 days after injected ANB according to its operation condition increased from 0.029 to 0.767 mgN/gSS/hr. The simulated SNR for the 8th day after the injected ANB at $10^{\circ}C$ was 0.840, 3.625 mgN/gSS/hr, respectively as linear function and exponential function, expecting to exceed level of 2.592 mgN/gSS/hr at normal condition. It was confirmed that injection of ANB during low temperature operation has many effects for improving nitrification efficiency through this study. In future studies, if further studies are carried out the determination of ANB injection and the design of efficient ANB reactor considering the changes of operating characteristics by site, it will contribute to the improvement of nitrification efficiency in winter season.

Study on Pile Cloth Rugs Produced after the Late Joseon Period (조선 말기 이후 첨모직 깔개에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Yoon-Mee;Oh, Joon Suk
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.51 no.4
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    • pp.84-107
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    • 2018
  • Cheommojik is a pile cloth, a type of textile whose surface is covered with short piles. The term chaedam was used during the late Joseon dynasty to refer to pile cloth rugs, while the terms yoongjeon, dantong and yangtanja were used in the early twentieth century. Various documents, newspaper articles and photographs confirm that pile cloth rugs were used by the general public as well as the royal family from the late Joseon dynasty onward, and that there were domestic manufacturers of such rugs at that time. This study investigated six pile cloth rugs that were produced after the late Joseon dynasty, five of which feature Persian knots made of cut pile, the other being made with the loop pile method. The cut pile rugs are rectangular in shape and measure between 72-98cm by 150-156cm; and they are decorated in the middle with patterns of butterfly, deer, and tiger or the ten longevity symbols, and along the edges with patterns composed of 卍 symbols. The ground warp of all six rugs are made from cotton yarn, while the ground weft is made of cotton yarn on three pieces, wool on one piece and cotton and viscose rayon. The ground weft yarn from four pieces are Z-twist yarn made with two or more S-twist cotton yarn. Four to six colors were used for the pile weft, all being natural colors except for red. Two or more S- or Z-twist yarn were twisted together in the opposite twist for the pile weft, with the thickness determining the number of threads used. Six or more weft threads were used to make the start and end points of the rug; and the ground warp ends were arranged by tying every four of them together. For the left and right edges, three or more threads were wrapped together into a round stick-like form, and the second and third inner ground warps from the edges were stitched on to the wrapped edge. For the loop pile, loops were made in the direction of the warp; the ground warp and the ground weft may have been made with cotton, the pile warp with wool yarn. An analysis of the components of three rugs was conducted to determine which types of animal hair were used for the pile weft. Despite some inconclusive results, it was revealed that goat hair and fat-tailed sheep hair were used, raising the possibility that various kinds of animal fur were used in the production of pile cloth rugs. The six rugs examined in this study are estimated to have been made between the late 1800s and the early 1900s. Although the manufacturer of the rugs cannot be confirmed, we concluded that the rugs were produced in Korea after referring to the documentation of the domestic production of pile cloth rugs during the aforementioned period and the form and placements of the patterns on the rugs.

Evaluation of Cryptosporidiurn Disinfection by Ozone and Ultraviolet Irradiation Using Viability and Infectivity Assays (크립토스포리디움의 활성/감염성 판별법을 이용한 오존 및 자외선 소독능 평가)

  • Park Sang-Jung;Cho Min;Yoon Je-Yong;Jun Yong-Sung;Rim Yeon-Taek;Jin Ing-Nyol;Chung Hyen-Mi
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.16 no.3 s.76
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    • pp.534-539
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    • 2006
  • In the ozone disinfection unit process of a piston type batch reactor with continuous ozone analysis using a flow injection analysis (FIA) system, the CT values for 1 log inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum by viability assays of DAPI/PI and excystation were $1.8{\sim}2.2\;mg/L{\cdot}min$ at $25^{\circ}C$ and $9.1mg/L{\cdot}min$ at $5^{\circ}C$, respectively. At the low temperature, ozone requirement rises $4{\sim}5$ times higher in order to achieve the same level of disinfection at room temperature. In a 40 L scale pilot plant with continuous flow and constant 5 minutes retention time, disinfection effects were evaluated using excystation, DAPI/PI, and cell infection method at the same time. About 0.2 log inactivation of Cryptosporidium by DAPI/PI and excystation assay, and 1.2 log inactivation by cell infectivity assay were estimated, respectively, at the CT value of about $8mg/L{\cdot}min$. The difference between DAPI/PI and excystation assay was not significant in evaluating CT values of Cryptosporidium by ozone in both experiment of the piston and the pilot reactors. However, there was significant difference between viability assay based on the intact cell wall structure and function and infectivity assay based on the developing oocysts to sporozoites and merozoites in the pilot study. The stage of development should be more sensitive to ozone oxidation than cell wall intactness of oocysts. The difference of CT values estimated by viability assay between two studies may partly come from underestimation of the residual ozone concentration due to the manual monitoring in the pilot study, or the difference of the reactor scale (50 mL vs 40 L) and types (batch vs continuous). Adequate If value to disinfect 1 and 2 log scale of Cryptosporidium in UV irradiation process was 25 $mWs/cm^2$ and 50 $mWs/cm^2$, respectively, at $25^{\circ}C$ by DAPI/PI. At $5^{\circ}C$, 40 $mWs/cm^2$ was required for disinfecting 1 log Cryptosporidium, and 80 $mWs/cm^2$ for disinfecting 2 log Cryptosporidium. It was thought that about 60% increase of If value requirement to compensate for the $20^{\circ}C$ decrease in temperature was due to the low voltage low output lamp letting weaker UV rays occur at lower temperatures.

Effect of Plowing Frequency and Sowing Dates on the Agronomic Characteristics, Feed Value, Weed Yield and Palatability of Silage Corn (경운횟수와 파종기 이동이 사일리지용 옥수수의 생육특성, 사료가치, 잡초발생 및 가축의 기호성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Sang-Moo;Kim, Byoung-Tae;Hwang, Joo-Hwan;Jeon, Byoung-Tae;Moon, Sang-Ho
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.209-218
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    • 2007
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate effect of plowing frequency and sowing dates on the agronomic characteristics, feed value, weed yield and palatability of silage corn. Treatments were a basal treatment(C: May 5 seeding, plowing once, weeding control once), T1(May 12 seeding, plowing twice, weeding control 0 time), T2(May 19 seeding, plowing three times, weeding control 0 time, T3(May 26 seeding, plowing four times, weeding control 0 time) and T4(June 2 seeding, plowing five times, weeding control 0 time). The experiment was performed at the College of Life and Natural Sciences of Sangju University in Sangju in 2006. The plant height and ear height showed highly in order to C > T1 > T2 > T3 > T4 treatment, leaf length was the highest at T2 (96.0cm). Leaf width and number of dead leaf were the highest at C and T3 (11.2cm), C, C and T1 (4.6), respectively. Stem diameter was the highest at T3 as 31mm, while T2 was the lowest as 25mm (p<0.05). Ear circle showed highly in order of C > T1 > T4 > T3 > T4 (p<0.05), and tip filling degree was the highest at C treatment as 8.8, while T4 treatment was the lowest as 6.0 (p<0.05). The stem hardness and grain hardness were C < T1 < T2 < T3 < T4 (p<0.05). Stem saccharinity was T1(6.1%) was the highest, while T2(3.0%) was the lowest(P<0.05). Fresh yield of weed was the lowest at C treatment as 500 kg/ha, but T1 treatment was the highest as 44,100 kg/ha (p<0.05). Weed coverage rate showed highly in order of T1 > T2 > T3 > T4 > C treatment (p<0.05). Fresh yield of corn was the highest at C treatment as T3,550 kg/ha, but T4 treatment was the lowest as 65,500 kg/ha (p<0.05). Dry matter yield of corn showed highly in order of C(26,978 kg/ha) > T1(26,130 kg/ha) > T2(20,255 kg/ha) > T3(20,255 kg/ha) > T4(17,508 kg/ha) treatment (p<0.05). Crude protein content was T1(7.69%) > T4(7.42%) > T2(6.34%) > T3(5.99%) > C(5.91%) treatment (p<0.05), and Crude fat content showed highly in order of C (2.13%) > T1(2.04%) > T2(1.96%) > T3(1.95%) > T4(1.84%) treatment. Relative palatability of Holstein, Korean native goat and spotted deer was the highest at C treatment, but Korean native cattle was the highest at T1 treatment.