• Title, Summary, Keyword: 연성도

Search Result 3,455, Processing Time 0.048 seconds

Kui-Myeong-kui as sprauchlement of Pungmul-Kut - especially in Jeollanambuk-do (풍물굿으로서의 기명기와 그 접변현상 - 전라남북도를 중심으로)

  • Park, Heung-Ju
    • (The) Research of the performance art and culture
    • /
    • no.32
    • /
    • pp.131-169
    • /
    • 2016
  • We will study cultural sprauchling about Pungmul-Kut to find out the sphere of "Gui-myeong-gui" alongside Jeollanam-do, Jeollabuk-do western coast. In this area, there are some traits and terms about Gui-myeong-gui, a sort of Pungmul-Kut and Goon-go. Several Pungmul-Kuts which border the sphere of Gui-myeong-gui are Goon-gui in a southern direction, Unnyeongnongak of Honamudonongak in a eartern direction, and Yeongmujangnongak. The acculturation occurs in two ways. One is the possible acculturation with Goon-gi or Goon-go in coastal areas. The other is the acculturation with Honamudonongak. Especially, this phenomenan appears in double-way interaction. At first, there is the influence of Gui-myeong-gui in Honamudonongak. Kim Bau's style, which might relate to Gui-myeong-gui in Geommopojin, incorporate one of Panje of Honamudonongak through Park Namsik. This phenomenon is porved by the affinity between Eunjijaetji Galag of Honamudonongak GeollibKut and Eungmagaenggaeng Galag of Goon-go, and by the similarity to Neonari-Galag. In case of Neonari-Galag, the role of Jing in Neonari-Galag is replaced by Janggu in Honamudonongak, because of the geatest popularity of Janggu in those days. Secondly, there is the influence of Honamudonongak in Gui-myeong-gui. Northern sphere of Gui-myeong-gui like Buan-gun, Okgu-gun has been influenced since early $20^{th}$ century. In addition, the phenomenon which the sphere of Gui-myeong-gui accepts actively Honamudonongak could occur. So this thesis fragmentarilly checks the existence and traits of Gui-myeong-gui. Based on it, we would be able to reveal and reconstitute the nature of Gui-myeong-gui by understanding acculturation of Pungmul-Kut and by comparing Goon-go with Honamudonongak and Yeongmujangnongak in several regions. Also this thesis draws attention about meanings and effects of Yeonhuinongak's acceptace of Goon-beop.

Principles of Space Resources Exploitation under International Law (국제법상 우주자원개발원칙)

  • Kim, Han-Teak
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
    • /
    • v.33 no.2
    • /
    • pp.35-59
    • /
    • 2018
  • Professor Bin Cheng said that outer space was res extra commercium, while the moon and the other celestial bodies were res nullius before the 1967 Outer Space Treaty(OST). However, Article 2 of the OST made the moon and other celestial bodies have the legal status as res extra commmercium, not appropriated by any country or private enterprises or individual person, but the resources there can be freely available, as those on the high seas. The non-appropriation principle was introduced to corpus juris spatialis internationalis. Whether or not the non-appropriation principle is binding for the non-parties of the OST, many scholars see this principle as an international customary law, even developing into jus cogens. Article 11(2) of the Moon Agreement(MA) reconfirms the nonappropriation principle of Article 2 of the OST, but it has much less effect than the OST because the MA binds only the 18 parties involved. The MA applies only to the moon and celestial bodies other than the Earth in the Solar System, the OST's application scope extends to the Galaxy because the OST has no such substantive enactment. As referred to in the 2015 CSLCA of USA or Luxembourg's Law of Space Resources, allowing individuals and enterprises run by other countries to commercially explore and utilize the space resources, the question may arise whether this violates the non-appropriation principle under Article 2 of the OST and Article 11 of the MA. In the case of the CSLCA, the law explicitly specifies that sovereignty, possessory rights, and judiciary rights to a specific celestial body cannot be claimed, let alone ownership. This author believes that this law respects the legal status of outer space and the celestial bodies as res extra commmercium. As long as any countries or private enterprises or individuals respect the non-appropriation principle of outer space and the celestial bodies, they could use, exploit it. Another question might be raised in the difference between res extra commercium on the high seas and res extra commercium in outer space and the celestial bodies. Collecting resources on the high seas and exploiting space resources should be interpreted differently. On the high seas, resources can be collected without any obstacles like fishing, whereas, in the case of the deep sea-bed area, the Common Heritage of Mankind principles under the UNCLOS should be operated by the International Seabed Authority as an international regime. The nature or form of the sea resources found on the high seas are thus different from that of space resources, which are fixed on the moon and the celestial bodies without water. Thus, if individuals or private enterprises collect these resources from outer space and the celestial bodies, they might secure a certain section and continue collecting or mining works without any limitation. If an American enterprise receives an approval from the U.S. government, secures the best location and collects resources on the moon, can other countries' enterprises access to this area? How large the exploiting place can be allotted on the moon? How long should such a exploiting activity be lasted? Under the current international space law, these matters might be handled according to the principle of "first come, first served." As a consequence, the international community should provide a guideline or a proposal for the settlement of any foreseeable disputes during the space activity to solve plausible space legal questions in the near future.

Comparison of Tc-99m-Tetrofosmin and Tc-99m-MIBI Scintimammography in Differential Diagnosis of Breast Mass (유방종양의 감별진단에서 Tc-99m-Tetrofosmin과 Tc-99m-MIBI 유방신티그라피의 비교)

  • Park, Jung-Mi;Choi, Joon-Young;Lee, Kyung-Han;Choi, Yong;Choe, Yearn-Seong;Kim, Sang-Eun;Kim, Byung-Tae;Nam, Seok-Jin;Yang, Jeong-Hyun
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
    • /
    • v.34 no.5
    • /
    • pp.393-402
    • /
    • 2000
  • Purpose: Tc-99m-MIBI (MIBI) and Tc-99m-Tetrofosmin (TF) are commonly used for scintimammog (SMM). We compared the diagnostic ability of SMM using Tc-99m-MIBI and Tc-99m-TF for the diagnosis of breast mass. Materials and Methods: The study subjects were comprised of 123 breast lesior 86 normal breasts of 114 patients who underwent SMM. Bilateral prone images and anterior supine images obtained at 5 minutes and 1 or 3 hours after intravenous injection of 740 MBq of either MIBI or TF. of tumors were not significantly different between the MIBI and TF groups. First, two observers read the SMM without clinical information (1st interpretation), then read again with information about location (2nd interpretation). Sensitivity and specificity of each radiopharmaceutical for the diagnosis of cancer were evaluated in terms of image acquisition time, tumor size, and location. Results: The SMM a good agreement between two observers for 1st and 2nd interpretation, except for TF SMM at 3 hr. first interpretation, the sensitivities at 5 min, 1 hr, and 3 hr were not significantly different between MIBI TF SMM (81.6%, 80.0%, 60.9% in MIBI vs. 88.9%, 80.6%, 42.9% in TF), although the sensitivities of images were significantly lower than 5 min images in both MIBI and TF SMM. The specificity of TF at was superior to that of MIBI (81.5%, 90.0%, 82.9% in MIBI vs. 96.7%, 100%, 90.0% in TF, p<0.01 MIBI TF at 5 min). For the second interpretation with information of mass location, the sensitivities at 3 hr were significantly lower than 5 min images (86.8%, 86.7%, 78.3% in MIBI vs. 88.9%, 93.5%, 57.1% between MIBI and TF SMM. However, there was no significant difference in the specificity (60.0%, 75.0% for MIBI vs. 86.7%, 100%, 100% for TF). MIBI and TF SMM showed lower sensitivities for the with less than 1 cm than tumors with more than 1 cm. However, the location of tumors did not sensitivity and specificity between MIBI and TF SMM. Conclusion: The ability for the differential of breast tumor is similar between MIBI and TF SMM, and delayed image is not necessary. TF may be than MIBI considering the specificity of SMM without clinical information and labeling convenience.

  • PDF

Effect of Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure after Early Surfactant Therapy in Moderate Respiratory Distress Syndrome (중등도 신생아 호흡 곤란 증후군에서 폐 표면 활성제 조기 투여 후 Nasal CPAP의 치료 효과)

  • Kim, Eun Ji;Kim, Hae Sook;Hur, Man Hoe;Lee, Sang Geel
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
    • /
    • v.45 no.10
    • /
    • pp.1204-1212
    • /
    • 2002
  • Purpose : Early surfactant therapy with either gentle ventilation, high-frequency ventilation or aggressive weaning of mechanical ventilation are principles for the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome(RDS). We studied to determine the accessibility of noninvasive nasal continuous positive airway pressure(CPAP) rather than mechanical ventilation by invasive intubation after early surfactant therapy. Methods : The study group consisted of 14 infants who were born and diagnosed with moderate respiratory distress syndrome and received early surfactant therapy with nasal CPAP of PEEP 5-6 cm $H_2O$ within two hours after birth in the Fatima neonatal intensive care unit for two years from January 1999 to August 2001. The control group consisted of 15 infants who were diagnosed with the disease and could be weaned from mechanical ventilator within five days after birth during the same period. Results : The characteristics, the severity of clinical symptoms and laboratory findings in the two groups at birth showed no significant difference. Neither did the interim analysis of laboratory data in two groups. Of 14 infants in the study group who received nasal CPAP after early surfactant therapy, only two infants showed weaning failure with this therapy. In the response cases, duration of CPAP was five days and mean airway pressure was $5.4{\pm}0.5cm$ $H_2O$. Two had the complication of CPAP with abdominal distension. Final complications and outcomes in the two groups showed no signifcant difference(P>0.05). Conclusion : The clinical courses in the two groups showed no significant difference. Therefore, we suggest that early surfactant therapy with noninvasive nasal CPAP is a simple and safe method rather than aggressive weaning after invasive mechanical ventilation in moderate respiratory distress syndrome.

A Refined Method for Quantification of Myocardial Blood Flow using N-13 Ammonia and Dynamic PET (N-13 암모니아와 양전자방출단층촬영 동적영상을 이용하여 심근혈류량을 정량화하는 새로운 방법 개발에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Joon-Young;Lee, Kyung-Han;Kim, Sang-Eun;Choe, Yearn-Seong;Ju, Hee-Kyung;Kim, Yong-Jin;Kim, Byung-Tae;Choi, Yong
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
    • /
    • v.31 no.1
    • /
    • pp.73-82
    • /
    • 1997
  • Regional myocardial blood flow (rMBF) can be noninvasively quantified using N-13 ammonia and dynamic positron emission tomography (PET). The quantitative accuracy of the rMBF values, however, is affected by the distortion of myocardial PET images caused by finite PET image resolution and cardiac motion. Although different methods have been developed to correct the distortion typically classified as partial volume effect and spillover, the methods are too complex to employ in a routine clinical environment. We have developed a refined method incorporating a geometric model of the volume representation of a region-of-interest (ROI) into the two-compartment N-13 ammonia model. In the refined model, partial volume effect and spillover are conveniently corrected by an additional parameter in the mathematical model. To examine the accuracy of this approach, studies were performed in 9 coronary artery disease patients. Dynamic transaxial images (16 frames) were acquired with a GE $Advance^{TM}$ PET scanner simultaneous with intravenous injection of 20 mCi N-13 ammonia. rMBF was examined at rest and during pharmacologically (dipyridamole) induced coronary hyperemia. Three sectorial myocardium (septum, anterior wall and lateral wall) and blood pool time-activity curves were generated using dynamic images from manually drawn ROIs. The accuracy of rMBF values estimated by the refined method was examined by comparing to the values estimated using the conventional two-compartment model without partial volume effect correction rMBF values obtained by the refined method linearly correlated with rMBF values obtained by the conventional method (108 myocardial segments, correlation coefficient (r)=0.88). Additionally, underestimated rMBF values by the conventional method due to partial volume effect were corrected by theoretically predicted amount in the refined method (slope(m)=1.57). Spillover fraction estimated by the two methods agreed well (r=1.00, m=0.98). In conclusion, accurate rMBF values can be efficiently quantified by the refined method incorporating myocardium geometric information into the two-compartment model using N-13 ammonia and PET.

  • PDF

Synthesis of a Dopamine Transporter Imaging Agent, N-(3-[$^{18}F$]fluoropropyl)-$2{\beta}$-carbomethoxy-$3{\beta}$-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane (도파민운반체 방사성추적자 N-(3-[$^{18}F$Fluoropropyl)-$2{\beta}$-carbomethoxy-$3{\beta}$-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane의 합성)

  • Choe, Yearn-Seong;Oh, Seung-Jun;Chi, Dae-Yoon;Kim, Sang-Eun;Choi, Yong;Lee, Kyung-Han;Kim, Byung-Tae
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
    • /
    • v.33 no.3
    • /
    • pp.298-305
    • /
    • 1999
  • Purpose: N-(3-[$^{18}F$]Fluoropropyl)-$2{\beta}$-carbomethoxy-$3{\beta}$-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane [$^{18}F$]FP-CIT) has been shown to be very useful for imaging the dopamine transporter. However, synthesis of this radiotracer is somewhat troublesome. In this study, we used a new method for the preparation of [$^{18}F$]FP-CIT to increase radiochemical yield and effective specific activity. Materials and Methods: [$^{18}F$]FP-CIT was prepared by N-alkylation of nor-${\beta}$-CIT (2 mg) with 3-bromo-1-[$^{18}F$]fluoropropane in the presence of $Et_3N$ (5-6 drops of $DMF/CH_3CN$, $140^{\circ}C$, 20 min). 3-Bromo-1-[$^{18}F$]fluoropropane was synthesized from $5{\mu}L$ of 3-bromo-1-trifluoromethanesulfonyloxypropane (3-bromopropyl-1-triflate) and $nBu_4N^{18}F$ at $80^{\circ}C$. The final compound was purified by reverse phase HPLC and formulated in 13% ethanol in saline. Results: 3-Bromo-1-[$^{18}F$]fluoropropane was obtained from 3-bromopropyl-1-triflate and $nBu_4N^{18}F$ in 77-80% yield. N-Alkylation of nor-${\beta}$-CIT with 3-bromo-1-[$^{18}F$]fluoropropane was carried out at $140^{\circ}C$ using acetonitrile containing a small volume of DMF as the solvents. The overall yield of [$^{18}F$]FP-CIT was 5-10% (decay-corrected) with a radiochemical purity higher than 99% and effective specific activity higher than the one reported in the literature based on their HPLC data. The final [$^{18}F$]FP-CIT solution had the optimal pH (7.0) and it was pyrogen-free. Conclusion: In this study, 3-bromopropyl-1-triflate was used as the precursor for the [$^{18}F$]fluorination reaction and new conditions were developed for purification of [$^{18}F$]FP-CIT by HPLC. We established this new method for the preparation of [$^{18}F$]FP-CIT, which gave high effective specific activity and relatively good yield.

  • PDF

Quantification of Myocardial Blood flow using Dynamic N-13 Ammonia PET and factor Analysis (N-13 암모니아 PET 동적영상과 인자분석을 이용한 심근 혈류량 정량화)

  • Choi, Yong;Kim, Joon-Young;Im, Ki-Chun;Kim, Jong-Ho;Woo, Sang-Keun;Lee, Kyung-Han;Kim, Sang-Eun;Choe, Yearn-Seong;Kim, Byung-Tae
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
    • /
    • v.33 no.3
    • /
    • pp.316-326
    • /
    • 1999
  • Purpose: We evaluated the feasibility of extracting pure left ventricular blood pool and myocardial time-activity curves (TACs) and of generating factor images from human dynamic N-13 ammonia PET using factor analysis. The myocardial blood flow (MBF) estimates obtained with factor analysis were compared with those obtained with the user drawn region-of-interest (ROI) method. Materials and Methods: Stress and rest N-13 ammonia cardiac PET imaging was acquired for 23 min in 5 patients with coronary artery disease using GE Advance tomograph. Factor analysis generated physiological TACs and factor images using the normalized TACs from each dixel. Four steps were involved in this algorithm: (a) data preprocessing; (b) principal component analysis; (c) oblique rotation with positivity constraints; (d) factor image computation. Area under curves and MBF estimated using the two compartment N-13 ammonia model were used to validate the accuracy of the factor analysis generated physiological TACs. The MBF estimated by factor analysis was compared to the values estimated by using the ROI method. Results: MBF values obtained by factor analysis were linearly correlated with MBF obtained by the ROI method (slope = 0.84, r = 0.91), Left ventricular blood pool TACs obtained by the two methods agreed well (Area under curve ratio: 1.02 ($0{\sim}1min$), 0.98 ($0{\sim}2min$), 0.86 ($1{\sim}2min$)). Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrates that MBF can be measured accurately and noninvasively with dynamic N-13 ammonia PET imaging and factor analysis. This method is simple and accurate, and can measure MBF without blood sampling, ROI definition or spillover correction.

  • PDF

Determination of the Optimum Sampling Area for the Benthic Community Study of the Songdo Tidal Flat and Youngil Bay Subtidal Sediment (송도 갯벌과 영일만 조하대 저서동물의 군집조사를 위한 적정 채집면적의 결정)

  • Koh, Chul-Hwan;Kang, Seong-Gil;Lee, Chang-Bok
    • The Sea
    • /
    • v.4 no.1
    • /
    • pp.63-70
    • /
    • 1999
  • The optimum sampling area which can be applied to the benthic community study is estimated from large survey data in the Songdo tidal flat and subtidal zone of Youngil Bay, Korea. A total of 250 samples by 0.02 $m^2$ box corer for the benthic fauna in Songdo tidal flat and 50 samples by 0.1 $m^2$ van Veen grab in Youngil Bay were taken from the total sampling area of 5 $m^2$. It was assumed that the sampling area could contain sufficient information on sediment fauna, if cumulative number of species, ecological indices, and similarity index by cluster analysis reflect the similarity level of 75% to those found at total sampling area (5 $m^2$). A total of 56 and 60 species occurred from Songdo tidal flat and Youngil Bay, respectively. The cumulative curve of the species number ($N_{sp}$) as a function of the sampling area (A in $m^2$ ) was fitted as $N_{sp}=37.379A^{0.257}$ ($r^2=0.99$) for intertidal fauna and $N_{sp}=40.895A^{0.257}$ ($r^2=0.98$) for subtidal fauna. Based on these curves and 75% of similarity to the total sampling area (5 $m^2$), the optimum sampling area was proposed as 1.6 $m^2$ for the intertidal and 1.5 $m^2$ for the subtidal fauna. Ecological indices (species diversity, richness, evenness and dominance indices) were again calculated on the basis of species composition in differently simulated sample sizes. Changes in ecological indices with these sample sizes indicated that samplings could be done by collecting fauna from < 0.5 $m^2$-1.5 $m^2$ on the Songdo tidal flat and from < 0.5 $m^2$-1.2 $m^2$ in Youngil Bay. Changes in similarity level of all units of each simulated sample size showed that sampling area of 0.3 $m^2$ (Songdo tidal flat) and 0.6 $m^2$ (Youngil Bay) should be taken to obtain a similarity level of 75%. In conclusion, sampling area which was determined by cumulative number of species, ecological indices and similarity index by cluster analysis could be determined as 1.5 $m^2$ (0.02 $m^2$ box corer, n=75) for Songdo tidal flat and 1.2 $m^2$ (0.1 $m^2$ van Veen grab, n=12) for Youngil Bay. If these sampling areas could be covered in the field survey, population densities of seven dominant species comprising 68% of the total faunal abundance occurring on Songdo tidal flat and six species comprising 90% in Youngil Bay can be estimated at the precision level of P=0.2.

  • PDF

A Novel in Vitro Method for the Metabolism Studies of Radiotracers Using Mouse Liver S9 Fraction (생쥐 간 S9 분획을 이용한 방사성추적자 대사물질의 새로운 체외 측정방법)

  • Ryu, Eun-Kyoung;Choe, Yearn-Seong;Kim, Dong-Hyun;Lee, Sang-Yoon;Choi, Yong;Lee, Kyung-Han;Kim, Byung-Tae
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
    • /
    • v.38 no.4
    • /
    • pp.325-329
    • /
    • 2004
  • Purpose: Usefulness of mouse liver S9 fraction was evaluated for the measurement of the metabolites in the in vitro metabolism study of $^{18}F$-labeled radiotracers. Materials and Methods: Mouse liver S9 fraction was isolated at au early step in the course of microsome preparation. The in vitro metabolism studies were tarried out by incubating a mixture containing the radiotracer, S9 fraction and NADPH at $37^{\ciirc}C$, and an aliquot of the mixture was analyzed at the indicated time points by radio-TLC. Metabolic defluorination was further confirmed by the incubation with calcium phosphate, a bone mimic. Results: The radiotracer $[^{18}F]1$ underwent metabolic defluorination within 15 min, which was consistent with the results of the in vivo method and the in vitro method using microsome. Radiotracer $[^{18}F]2$ was metabolized to three metabolites including $4-[^{18}F]fluorobenzoic$ acid within 60 min. It is likely that the one of these metabolites at the origin of radio-TLC was identical with the one that obtained from the in vivo and in vitro (microsome) method. Compared with the in vitro method using microsome, the method using S9 fraction gave a similar pattern of the metabolites but with a different ratio, which can be explained by the presence of cytosol in the S9 fraction. Conclusion: These results suggest that the findings of the in vitro metabolism studies using S9 fraction can reflect the in vivo metabolism of novel radiotracers in the liver. Moreover, this method can be used as a tool to determine metabolic defluorination along with calcium phosphate absorption method.

Improving Diagnostic Accuracy for Malignant Nodes and N Staging in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Using CT-Corrected FDG-PET (비소세포폐암에서 CT-보정 양전자단층촬영술을 이용한 악성 림프절 평가 및 N 병기 결정 성적 향상)

  • Lee, Eun-Jeong;Choi, Joon-Young;Lee, Kyung-Soo;Chung, Hyun-Woo;Lee, Su-Jin;Cho, Young-Seok;Choi, Yong;Choe, Yearn-Seong;Lee, Kyung-Han;Kwon, O-Jung;Shim, Young-Mog;Kim, Byung-Tae
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
    • /
    • v.39 no.4
    • /
    • pp.231-238
    • /
    • 2005
  • Purpose: We investigated prospectively whether the interpretation considering the patterns of FDG uptake and the findings of unenhanced CT for attenuation correction can improve the diagnostic accuracy for assessing malignant lymph node (LN) and N stage in non-small cell lung cancor (NSCLC) using CT-corrected FDG-PET (PET/CT). Materials & Methods: Subjects were 91 NSCLC patients (M/F 62/29, age: $60{\pm}9$ yr) who underwent PET/CT before in dissection. We evaluated the maximum SUV (maxSUV), patterns of FDG uptake, short axis diameter, and calcification of LN showing abnormally increased FDG uptake. Then we investigated criteria improving the diagnostic accuracy and correlated results with postoperative pathology. In step 1, in was classified as benign or malignant based on maxSUV only. In step 2, LN was regarded as benign if it had lower maxSUV than the cut-off value of step 1 or it had calcification irrespective of its maxSUV. In step 3, LN regarded as malignant in step 2 was classified as benign if they had indiscrete margin of FDG uptake. Results: Among 432 LN groups surgically resected (28 malignant, 404 benign), 71 showed abnormally increased FDG uptake. We determined the cut-off as maxSUV=3.5 using ROC curve analysis. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for assessing malignant LN were 64.3%, 86.9%, 85.4% in step 1, 64.3%, 95.0%, 93.1% in step 2, and 57.1%, 98.0%, 95.4% in step3, respectively. The accuracy for assessing N stage was 64.8% in step 1, 80.2% in step 2, and 85.7% in step 3. Conclusion: interpreting PET/CT, consideration of calcification and shape of the FDG uptake margin along with maxSUV can improve the diagnostic accuracy for assessing malignant involvement and N stage of hilar and mediastinal LNs in NSCLC.