• Title, Summary, Keyword: 연료개질장치

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Improvement in Reduction Performance of LNT-Catalyst System with Micro-Reformer in Diesel Engine (연료 개질장치의 적용에 따른 디젤 LNT 환원성능 개선 특성)

  • Park, Cheol-Woong;Kim, Chang-Gi;Kim, Kwan-Tae;Lee, Dae-Hoon;Song, Young-Hoon
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B
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    • v.34 no.7
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    • pp.689-696
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    • 2010
  • The Because of its high thermal efficiency, the direct injection (DI) diesel engine has emerged as a promising potential candidate in the field of transportation. However, the amount of nitrogen oxides ($NO_x$) increases in the local high-temperature regions and that of particulate matter (PM) increases in the diffusion flame region during diesel combustion. In the de-$NO_x$ system the Lean $NO_x$ Trap (LNT) catalyst is used, which absorbs $NO_x$ under lean exhaust gas conditions and releases it in rich conditions. This technology can provide a high $NO_x$-conversion efficiency, but the right amount of reducing agent should be supplied to the catalytic converter at the right time. In this research, the emission characteristics of a diesel engine equipped with a micro-reformer that acts as a reductants-supplying equipment were investigated using an LNT system, and the effects of the exhaust-gas temperature were also studied.

Development of Composite RPF by mixing the sludge with plastic waste (슬러지와 플라스틱 폐기물을 혼합한 복합고형연료 개발)

  • Lee, Jangkun;Kim, Minsun;Roh, Seungmin
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.206.2-206.2
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    • 2010
  • 현재 RPF 생산공정에서 생산된 RPF는 약 7,500~8,500kcal/kg 의 높은 열량을 지니고 있다. 이러한 특성으로 연소시 소각로 내부의 온도가 부분적으로 급격히 상승하여 적정온도조절이 어렵고, 로내 장치들의 내구성이 저하되는 등 문제가 발생하고 있다. 또한, RPF에 포함된 비교적 높은 농도의 염소 함량(0.8~1.8% wt)으로 인해 다량의 대기오염물질이 발생되는 단점이 나타나고 있다. 따라서, 이러한 문제점들을 개선하기 위해 RPF의 개질이 필요하며 본 연구에서는 슬러지와 RPF를 혼합하여 열량, 성형성, 염소함량등을 고려하여 최적의 혼합비율을 선정하였다. J하수처리장에서 발생하는 하수슬러지를 이용하여 5, 15, 25, 30, 35%를 RPF 성형공정에 혼합하여 실험하였다. 5% 혼합시 발열량은 약 6,300~6,800kcal/kg, 염소농도는 0.8~1.6%(wt), 15% 혼합시 발열량은 5,500~6,000kcal/kg, 염소농도는 0.7~1.4%(wt), 25% 혼합시 발열량은 5,200~5,900kcal/kg, 염소농도는 0.6~1.1%(wt), 30% 혼합시 발열량은 5,000~5,700kcal/kg, 염소농도는 0.6~1.0%(wt), 35% 혼합시 발열량은 4,800~5,200kcal/kg, 염소농도는 0.4~0.6%(wt)으로 나타났다. 각 혼합비율에서 관찰된 성형성은 5~25% 혼합까지는 성형된 RPF와 유사하게 일정한 크기 및 강도를 유지 할 수 있었으나, 25% 이상 혼합시 분말형태의 가루가 많이 발생되며 강도가 약해져 쉽게 부스러지는 문제점등이 나타났다. 연료의 개질 형태나 성형성등을 고려하였을 때 슬러지 혼합비율이 약 15~25% 정도가 최적 혼합비율인 것으로 나타났다.

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Effect of Scale and Fuel Type on Heat-recirculating Swiss-roll Combustor Performance for Fuel Cell Reformer Applications (연료전지 개질기로 활용을 위한 스위스 롤 연소기의 크기와 연료의 종류에 따른 특성연구)

  • Kim, Youn-Ho;Huh, Hwan-Il;Ronney, Paul D.
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Propulsion Engineers
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.11-18
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    • 2011
  • The geometrically similar swiss roll reactors of different physical sizes were tested with the aim of independently determining the effects of Re and Da. It is found that the difference between catalytic and non-catalytic combustions extinction limits are narrowed as scale decreases. In addition to assess the importance of fuel chemistry, different families of fuels including alkanes and ethers were tested. From these results the effect of scale and fuel type on microscale reactor performance and implications for practical micro combustion devices are discussed.

Design of the Fuel Cell Powered Line-Interactive UPS System (연료전지 시스템을 이용한 Line-Interactive 방식의 무정전 전원 공급 장치의 설계)

  • Choi, Woo-Jin;Jeon, Hee-Jong
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Illuminating and Electrical Installation Engineers
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.205-212
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    • 2004
  • In this paper the design of a 1-[KVA] fuel cell powered line-interactive UPS system employing modular (fuel cell & DC/DC converter) blocks is proposed. The proposed system employs the two fuel cell modules along with suitable DC/DC converters and these modules share the DC-Link of the DC/AC inverter. A supercapacitor module is also employed to compensate for the instantaneous power fluctuations and to overcome the slow dynamics of the fuel processor. The energy stored in the supercapacitor can also be utilized to handle the overload conditions for a short time period. Due to the absence of batteries, the system satisfies the demand for an environmentally friendly and dean source of the energy. A complete design example illustrating the amount of hydrogen storage required for 1hr power outage, and sizing of supercacpacitor for transient load demand is presented for a 1-[KVA] UPS.

Development of $20Nm^3$/hr Scale High Efficiency Steam Reformer for Hydrogen Fueling Station (수소스테이션용 $20Nm^3$/hr급 컴팩트형 고효율 수소제조장치 기술개발)

  • Oh, Young-Sam;Park, Dal-Young;Cho, Young-Ah
    • New & Renewable Energy
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    • v.1 no.4
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    • pp.12-18
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    • 2005
  • 세계적으로 수소에너지를 미래 에너지의 대안으로 여겨지고 있기 때문에 수소에너지 관련기술은 미래 국가 경쟁력을 좌우할 것으로 예상되고 있으며 수소에너지시대의 핵심인 수소스테이션 관련기술을 개발은 국가 연료전지 시장을 비롯한 수소 자동차 산업 전반에 큰 영향을 미칠 것으로 예상되고 있다. 이에 따라 전 세계적으로 수소에너지를 차세대 에너지원으로 개발하기 위하여 전력을 다하고 있으며 수소제조기술개발 및 수소스테이션 실증연구가 진행되고 있다. 본 연구에서는 수소스테이션용 $20Nm^3$/hr급 컴팩트형 고효율 수소제조장치 기술개발내용에 대하여 소개하고자 한다.

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Operation Results of the SOFC System Using 2 Sub-Module Stacks (2 모듈 스택을 이용한 SOFC 시스템 운전결과)

  • Lee, Tae-Hee
    • Transactions of the Korean hydrogen and new energy society
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.405-411
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    • 2010
  • A 5kW class SOFC cogeneration system consisted of a hot box part, a cold BOP (balance of plant) part, and a hot water reservoir. The hot box part contained a stack, a fuel reformer, a catalytic combustor, and heat exchangers. A cold BOP part was composed of blowers, pumps, a water trap, and system control units. A 5kW stack was designed to integrate 2 sub-modules. In this paper, the 5kW class SOFC system was operated using 2 short stacks connected in parallel to test the sub-module and the system. A short stack had 15 cells with $15{\times}15 cm^2$ area. When a natural gas was used, the total power was about 1.38 kW at 120A. Because the sub-modules were connected in parallel and current was loaded using a DC load, voltages of sub-modules were same and the currents were distributed according to the resistance of sub-modules. The voltage of the first stack was 11.46 V at 61A and the voltage of the second stack was 11.49V at 59A.

Study on Hydrogen Production and CO Oxidation Reaction using Plasma Reforming System with PEMFC (고분자 전해질 연료전지용 플라즈마 개질 시스템에서 수소 생산 및 CO 산화반응에 관한 연구)

  • Hong, Suck Joo;Lim, Mun Sup;Chun, Young Nam
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.656-662
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    • 2007
  • Fuel reformer using plasma and shift reactor for CO oxidation were designed and manufactured as $H_2$ supply device to operate a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). $H_2$ selectivity was increased by non-thermal plasma reformer using GlidArc discharge with Ni catalyst simultaneously. Shift reactor was consisted of steam generator, low temperature shifter, high temperature shifter and preferential oxidation reactor. Parametric screening studies of fuel reformer were conducted, in which there were the variations of the catalyst temperature, gas component ratio, total gas ratio and input power. and parametric screening studies of shift reactor were conducted, in which there were the variations of the air flow rate, stema flow rate and temperature. When the $O_2/C$ ratio was 0.64, total gas flow rate was 14.2 l/min, catalytic reactor temperature was $672^{\circ}C$ and input power 1.1 kJ/L, the production of $H_2$ was maximized 41.1%. And $CH_4$ conversion rate, $H_2$ yield and reformer energy density were 88.7%, 54% and 35.2% respectively. When the $O_2/C$ ratio was 0.3 in the PrOx reactor, steam flow ratio was 2.8 in the HTS, and temperature were 475, 314, 260, $235^{\circ}C$ in the HTS, LTS, PrOx, the conversion of CO was optimized conditions of shift reactor using simulated reformate gas. Preheat time of the reactor using plasma was 30 min, component of reformed gas from shift reactor were $H_2$ 38%, CO<10 ppm, $N_2$ 36%, $CO_2$ 21% and $CH_4$ 4%.

A Study on Organic/Inorganic Composite Membrane for Low humidity and High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (저가습 고온 고분자 연료전지용 유-무기 복합막에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Young-Woo;Kim, Mi-Nai;Lim, Sung-Dae;Park, Seok-Hee;Yoon, Young-Gi;Yang, Tae-Hyun;Kim, Chang-Soo;Nam, Ki-Sook
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.135.1-135.1
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    • 2010
  • 최근 고온에서 사용 가능한 PEMFC용 고분자전해질 막 개발에 대한 연구가 활발히 진행되고 있다. PEMFC가 고온에서 작동하게 되면 높은 성능과 많은 장점을 갖게 된다. PEMFC를 $100^{\circ}C$ 이상에서 운전하게 될 경우 백금 전극 반응을 향상시켜 고가의 백금 촉매 양을 줄일 수 있게 되고, 수소연료 속에 미량 포함된 CO에 의한 촉매표면 피독현상에 대한 내구성을 높일 수 있어 저 순도 수소연료 사용이 가능해 진다. 또한 가습장치와 수소 연료 개질장치의 부피를 줄일 수 있게 되어 전체적인 PEMFC 시스템이 단순화 된다. 현재 연료전지용 고분자 전해질막으로 DuPont사의 과-불소계 고분자 전해질막인 Nafion$^{(R)}$이 가장 널리 사용되고 있다. Nafion$^{(R)}$은 유연한 분자구조 안에 소수성이 강한 주사슬과 친수성을 나타내는 술폰산이 결합된 곁사슬이 존재하여 술폰화 곁사슬의 클러스터 둘레에는 친수성 영역이 형성이 되기때문에 소수/친수 상 분리가 잘되어 이온 클러스터 형성이 용이하지만 제조비용이 높은 단점을 갖고 있다. 특히, 전해질 막내에서 Bronsted base 역할을 하는 물에 의해 이온전도가 이루어지기 때문에 고온에서는 수분증발로 인해 성능이 급격히 감소된다. 따라서, 본 연구에서는 고온 저가습 조건에서 운전이 가능하고 Nafion이 갖는 문제점을 해결하고자, 내열특성이 뛰어나며 높은 수소이온 전도도 학보가 용이한 Sulfonated Poly(aryl ether)sulfone(SPAES) 고분자 전해질에, 고온에서도 수화성이 유지될 수 있도록 지르코니아를 황산화한 sulfated zirconia(s-$ZrO_2$)를 함침하여 복합 고분자전해질막을 제조하여 고온 저가습 조건에서의 수소이온 전도 특성에 관한 연구를 수행하였다. 개발된 막의 물리/화학적 특성은 water content(Wup%), 이온교환 용량(IEC, meq $g^{-1}$), 수소이온전도도(s $cm^{-1}$) 열 중량 분석(TGA), X선 회절분석(XRD) 등을 통하여 분석 및 관찰하였다. 내화학 및 열적 특성분석 결과, 황산화 반응공정으로 $ZrO_2$에 술폰산기가 안정적으로 결합하고 있음이 관찰되었으며, 본 연구에서 개발된 유 무기 복합막이 $250^{\circ}C$이상 열적안정성을 확보하고 있는 것으로 판단되었다. $100^{\circ}C$ 이하의 저온 영역에서, 일정 비율의 s-$ZrO_2$/SPAES막에서 이온교환용량(IEC)이 순수 SPAES 막보다 낮음에도 불구하고, water uptake가 증가함과 동시에 수소이온 전도도가 향상된 것을 관찰하였다. 또한, 고온에서는 수소이온이 자유롭게 이동할 수 있는 water channel을 형성하는 free water는 증발 하지만 s-$ZrO_2$와 SPAES의 술폰산기 사이에 강력하게 결합하고 있는 bound Water는 $100^{\circ}C$ 이상의 고온 영역에서도 존재하여, 비록 무가습 조건에서도 일정 비율의 s-$ZrO_2$/SPAES50 전해질 막의 경우, 높은 전도도를 나타냄을 관찰할 수 있었다. 따라서 본 연구를 통해 저가습 고온 적용을 목적으로 개발된 s-$ZrO_2$/SPAES50막은 우수한 내열 특성을 나타냄과 동시에 저가습 고온 영역($120^{\circ}C$, $50RH{\downarrow}$)에서 높은 수소이온 전도도를 유지하여, 고온 저가습 연료전지 운전에 적합할 것으로 사료된다.

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Efficiency Analysis of Compact Type Steam Reformer (컴팩트형 수증기 개질장치 효율분석)

  • Oh, Young-Sam;Song, Taek-Yong;Baek, Young-Soon;Choi, Lee-Sang
    • Transactions of the Korean hydrogen and new energy society
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.304-312
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    • 2002
  • In this study, the performance of the $5Nm^3/hr$ compact type steam reformer which was developed for application of fuel cell or hydrogen station was evaluated in terms of gas process efficiency. For these purposes, reforming efficiency and total efficiency with system load change were analyzed. The reforming efficiency was calculated from the total molar flow of hydrogen output over total fuel flow input to the reformer and the burner on the higher heating value(HHV). In the case of the total efficiency, recovered heat at the heat recovery exchanger was considered. From the results, it was known that system performance was stable, because methane conversion showed the a slight decline which is about 2% though increasing system load to full. Reforming efficiency was increased from 20% to 58%, respectively as increasing system load from 10% to 90%. It was found that total efficiency was higher then reforming efficiency because of terms of heat recovered. As a results, it was known that total efficiency was increased form 75% to 83% at the 10% and 90% system load, respectively. From these results, it is concluded that compact steam reformer which is composed of stacking plate-type reactors is suitable to on-site hydrogen generator or to fuel cell application because of quick start within 1 hr and good performance.

Operation Results of a 5kW-Class SOFC System Composed of 2 Sub-Module Stacks (2 모듈 스택을 이용한 5kW급 SOFC 시스템 운전결과)

  • Lee, Tae-Hee;Choi, Mi-Hwa;Yoo, Young-Sung
    • Transactions of the Korean hydrogen and new energy society
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.609-615
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    • 2011
  • A 5 kW class SOFC system for cogeneration power units was consisted of a hot box part and cold BOPs. High temperature components such as a stack, a fuel reformer, a catalytic combustor, and heat exchanges are arranged in the bot box considering their operating temperatures for the system efficiency. The hot box was made of ceramic boards for the thermal insulation. A 5 kW class SOFC stack was composed of 2 sub-modules and each module had 64 cells with $15{\times}15cm^2$ area and stainless steel interconnects. The 5 kW class SOFC system was operated with a hydrogen and a city gas. With a hydrogen, the total power of the stacks was about 7.1 kWDC and electrical efficiency was about 49.3% at 80 A. With a city gas, the total power of the stacks was about 5.7 $kW_{DC}$ and electrical efficiency was about 38.8% at 60 A. Under self-sustained operating condition, the system efficiency including a power conditioning loss and a consumed power by BOPs was about 30.2%.