• Title, Summary, Keyword: 양분수지

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Comparison of nutrient balance and nutrient loading index for cultivated land nutrient management (농경지 양분관리를 위한 양분수지 지표와 양분부하 지표간의 비교)

  • Lee, Jun-Hyung;Yoon, Young-Man
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.554-567
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    • 2019
  • Recently, concerns regarding the environmental impact due to nutrient input in croplands have increased. Therefore, the government is promoting the introduction of a nutrient management system in croplands to solve the problem of excessive nutrient input. This study was carried out to establish nutrient indicators in regional croplands to facilitate the introduction of the national nutrient management system in Korea. The nutrient load and balance indicators for nitrogen and phosphorus were analyzed for nine provinces (Gang-won, Gyeong-gi, Chung-buk, Chung-nam, Jeon-buk, Jeon-nam, Gyeong-buk, Gyeong-nam, and Jeju). In the correlation analysis between the nutrient load and nutrient balance, the correlation coefficient (r) for nitrogen was 0.2504, which was not statistically significant at the 5% significance level. However, the correlation coefficient for phosphorus was 0.7375, which was statistically significant at the 5% significance level. In the nutrient management index, phosphorus showed mutual compatibility between the nutrient load and the nutrient balance indicators, but nitrogen showed no mutual compatibility between the nutrient load and the nutrient balance indicators. Therefore, utilization of the nutrient balance indicator, reflecting the characteristics of the agricultural environment, was more reasonable as a nutrient management index for regional nutrient management.

The Recycling of Nutrient Balance from Small Oranic farming System in Korea (소규모 유기농가단위 경축연계 자원순환 모델연구(I))

  • Yoon, Sung-Hee;Park, Dong-Ha;Choi, Si-Young;Kim, Jeong-Eun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Organic Agriculture Conference
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    • pp.307-307
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    • 2009
  • 우리나라에서 농가단위 경축순환농업 모델에 대한 조사와 농장내 순환구조에서 양분수지를 조사한 사례도는 미미한 실정이다. 이에 경축연계 자원순환 유기농업농가의 실천사례 발굴하고, 실천모델별 축산형태 및 경종형태를 조사하여 경종부분의 양분순환과 양분수지를 조사하고자 하였다. 발굴된 농가단위 경축순환농업 사례는 3가지 형태로 모두 한우를 11~21두 범위에서 사육하는 동시에 $15,510m^2$의 밭농사를 수행하는 농가, $8,019m^2$의 밭농사와 $8,250m^2$ 논농사를 동시에 수행하는 농가, $26,400m^2$의 논농사만 수행하는 농가들이었다. 각 모델에서 배합사료는 모두 외부에서 구입하고 있었으며 조사료의 자급율은 25 ~ 100%인 것으로 조사되었다. 특히, 한우 20두와 논농사 $26,400m^2$를 경영하는 농가에서 조사료(볏짚)의 100%를 자급하였고 동시에 한우사육과정에서 발생한 자급퇴비를 전량 논농사에 사용하여 유기농 벼농사를 유지하고 있었다. 밭농사를 함께 수행하는 농가에서는 자급퇴비 외에 외부로부터 유박비료 및 발효유기질비료를 구입하여 양분을 충당하고 있었다. 각 농가의 토양이화학성을 분석한 결과 pH는 5.49~7.61, 유기물 함량은 1.37~1.40%, 유효인산 함량 253.32~329.63 mg/kg, 칼륨 0.24~0.3, 칼슘 3.97~10.1, 마그네슘 0.89~1.77 $Cmol^+$/kg, CEC는 7.92~11 $Cmol^+$/kg 이었므며 토양내 잔류농약은 검출되지 않았다. 농가별로 발생한 우분퇴비의 성분 분석결과는 전질소 0.68 ~ 0.73%, 전인산 0.68 ~ 0.86%, 칼륨 0.70~0.78% 수준이었다. 각 사례농가별 투입한 실제시비량, 토양분석결과와 사용된 자재의 성분 분석결과를 이용한 시비처방법에 따른 시비량 및 표준시비법에 따른 시비량을 산출하여 3요소의 양분수지를 계산하였다. 이와 함께 유기질비료의 무기화율을 감안한 시비량도 산출하였다. 양분수지를 분석한 결과 3농가 모두 실제시비량은 3요소 모두 초과 되는 것으로 나타났으며, 특히 인산과 칼륨이 2배정도 초과되는 경향을 보였다. 그러나 투입된 자급퇴비 및 유기질비료의 무기화율을 감안한 시비량으로 환산할 경우에는 질소성분이 3농가 모두 부족한 것으로 산출되었으며, 인산과 가리 성분은 충분하거나 초과되는 것으로 계산되었다. 농장내 축산경영을 통해 발생하는 자급퇴비만을 이용할 경우에 경종부문의 양분수지를 산출한 결과를 보면 실제시비량 기준으로 질소는 56~186%, 인산은 90~346%, 칼륨은41~221%로 양분수지가 달라졌으며, 무기화를 감안한 기준으로는 질소는 16~53%, 인산은 52~197%, 칼륨은 41~221%로 양분수지가 달라졌다. 소규모 유기농가단위 경축연계 자원순환 모델 연구를 통해 유기경종농업이 유지될 수 있으나, 3요소별 양분수지의 불균형이 발생할 수 있는 것으로 조사되었으며, 유기질비료의 특성상 무기화율을 감안한 시비량을 적용할 경우에는 질소 성분의 부족과 동시에 인산, 칼륨 성분의 과다가 예측되었다. 따라서 이러한 성분의 불균형을 조정할 시비체계 연구가 필요한 것으로 판단되었다. 본 연구는 농촌진흥청의 "유기가축사양 및 유기 순환체계모델" 연구사업의 세부과제로 수행한 1년차 결과입니다.

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Improvement of Nutrient Balance using Feed Crops for Regional Nutrient Management (지역 양분관리를 위한 조사료 단지의 양분수지 개선효과)

  • Yang, Heon-yong;Kim, Jung-Gyun;Oh, Byung Wook;Seo, Il-hwan
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.89-95
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    • 2020
  • Livestock facilities in Korea are on their way of enlargement resulting in increment of livestock manure. When the livestock manure treated inappropriate way during application to the agricultural area, environmental damage can be occurred such as bad smell, water and air pollution. Therefore it is important to make a good management plan for livestock manure treatment. In order to effectively apply organic fertilizer made by livestock manure in terms of quantity and quality, the current status of nutrient in agricultural land should be calculated quantitatively by scientific way. The OECD suggest member countries to calculate the nutrient balance as an agricultural environment indicator which represents the difference between nutrient inputs and outputs of the amount of nutrients in various ways. In this paper, we calculated the nutrient balances according to three cities which have different characteristics such as urban or rural areas. To reduce the nutrient balance, we considered how to reduce the amount of chemical fertilizer by using organic fertilizer made by livestock manure. And public treatment facilities for livestock manure can be a good solution except civil complaints for location selection. Among the options, manure fertilizer application to the agricultural area for cultivation of forage crops was mainly considered to reduce the nutrient balance by decreasing input of chemical fertilizers and increasing output of crop production. Using the field monitoring data, it can be calculated that the daily nitrogen reductions by 116.5 kg/ha and the daily phosphorus increments by 2.7 kg/ha.

Evaluation of Livestock Manure Utilization Rates as Agricultural Purpose in Developed OECD Countries by Using Nutrient Balances (OECD 양분수지를 이용한 축산선진국의 농경지 축산분뇨 이용실태 평가)

  • Kim, Pil-Joo;Lee, Yong-Bok;Lee, Youn;Yun, Hong-Bae;Lee, Kyung-Dong
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.337-342
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    • 2008
  • The nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) balances in Korea during 1985-2006, which calculated according to the surface balance method of the PARCOM guidelines, continually increased with the lapse of year, and then might keep the highest levels with about $250kg\;N\;ha^{-1}$ and $50kg\;P\;ha^{-1}$ in 2006 among OECD countries. National phosphorus balance of the developed OECD countries (Belgium, Denmark, Germany, The Netherlands) in the livestock feeding industries has significantly decreased, due to limit livestock feeding density and nutrient application level by using strong legislation. However, Korean P balance was not apparent decrease, since the number of livestock feeding heads has been increasing, irrespective with the decrease of chemical fertilizer consumption. Manure P portion to the total P input amount of the above four OECD Countries in nutrient balance has continuously inclined to 60-70%. Therefore, the large portion of livestock manure might be used as nutrient source in agricultural side in these countries. In particular, manure P application levels of Belgium and The Netherlands, which have relatively high P balance and manure P portion to total P input dose, was estimated to be $31-33\;kg\;p\;ha^{-1}$ in 2004, and it was similar level with that of Korea in 2006. The manure P application levels for agricultural purpose has continuously decreased in these two OECD countries. In contrast, our manure P application rate continuously increased, and therefore we need the strong political countermeasure to control livestock feeding density at the resonable level.

Nutrient Balance and Vegetable Crop Production as Affected by Different Sources of Organic Fertilizers (유기자원에 따른 양분수지 및 작물생산)

  • Agus, Fahmuddin;Setyorini, Diah;Hartatik, Wiwik;Lee, Sang-Min;Sung, Jwa-Kyung;Shin, Jae-Hoon
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.1-13
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    • 2009
  • Understanding the net nutrient balance in a farming system is crucial in assessing the system's sustainability. We quantified N, P and K balances under vegetable organic farming in a Eutric Haplud and in West Java, Indonesia in five planting seasons from 2005 to 2007. The ten treatments and three replications, arranged in a completely randomized block design, included single or combined sources of organic fertilizers: barnyard manure, compos ts or green manures. The organic matter rates were adjusted every planting season depending on the previous crop responses. The result sshowed that the application of ${\geq}20$ t $ha^{-1}$ barnyard manure per crop resulted in positive balances of N, P, and K, except in the second crops of 2006 where potassium balance were -25 to -11 kg $ha^{-1}$ under the treatments involving cattle barnyard manure, because of low K content of these treatments and high K uptake by Chinese cabbage. Application of 20 to 25 t $ha^{-1}$ of plant residue or 5 t $ha^{-1}$ of Tithonia compost also resulted in a negative K balance. Soil available P increased significantly under ${\geq}25$ t $ha^{-1}$ barnyard manure and that under chicken manure had the highest available P. Accordingly, chicken barnyard manure gave the highest crop yield because of relatively higher N, P, and K contents. Plant residues gave the lowest yield due to the lowest nutrient content among all sources. Reducing the use of barnyard manure to 12.5 t $ha^{-1}$ and substituting it with Tithonia compost, Tithonia green manure or vegetable plant residue compost gave insignificantly different yield compared to the application of 25 t $ha^{-1}$ barnyard manure singly. In the long run, application of 25 t ha-1 cattle, goat, and horse manure or about 20 t $ha^{-1}$ chicken manure is recommendable for sustaining the fertility of this Andisol for vegetable production.

Nutrient Balance during Rice Cultivation in Sandy Soil affected by the Fertilizer Management (사질논에서 벼 재배기간 중 시비방법별 양분수지)

  • Roh, Kee-An;Ha, Ho-Sung
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.155-163
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    • 1999
  • Nutrient balance during rice cultivation in the paddy of a local area under the environmental protection for drinking water supply was investigated. To compare nutrient balance in the paddy soil applied with different types of fertilization, 7 treatments were selected as followings : Recommended level of chemical fertilizers(R), Conventional fertilization(CF), Fresh cow manure(FCM), Cow manure compost(CMC), Straw compost+reduced chemical fertilizer(SCF), Fresh straw+recommended level of fertilizers(FSC), and no fertilization as control(C). Here, FCM, CMC and SCF were applied at the same level of total nitrogen as recommended in R. Rice yield was the highest in the recommendation(R) and fresh cow manure (FCM) treatments with $6,730kg\;ha^{-1}$(index 100), and followed by SCF (index 98), FSC (index 98), CMC(index 94), and CF(index 94). But statistically significant difference was not recognized among treatments except the control. Nitrogen infiltration loss was high in the simple chemical fertilizer treatments with $63kg\;ha^{-1}$ in CF and $58kg\;ha^{-1}$ in R during rice cultivation, respectively. Nitrogen infiltration loss was decreased below half level of chemical fertilizer treatments with cow manure treatments ($23kg\;ha^{-1}$ in FCM and $27kg\;ha^{-1}$ in CMC) and with reducing chemical fertilizer treatment by adding straw compost ($25kg\;ha^{-1}$). Phosphate was not leached during rice cultivation in paddy soil of a fluvial deposit type, in which oxidation horizon was developed broadly under around 15 cm depth of surface soil. Phosphate balance (A-B) was closed to 0 in all treatments except cow manure treatment (CMC), in which it was $+30kg\;ha^{-1}$ and show the possibility of over accumulation of phosphate by continuously replicated application of cow manure compost. Potassium balance was negative value in all but straw recycling treatment (FSC). It means that potassium was continuously supplied from soil minerals, uptaken by plants or eluted out of soil. In conclusion, by substituting inorganic fertilizer for organic fertilizer or reducing application rate of chemical fertilizer through mixing organic fertilizer, it would be possible to achieve the same rice yield as in the recommendation treatment and to decrease nutrient leaching below half level in rice paddy soil.

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Understanding Spatial Variations of Water Quality Using Agricultural Nutrient Indices in Chonnam Province (전남 지역 농업분야 양분 지표를 이용한 수질 공간 변이 해석)

  • Jeon, Byeong-Jun;Lim, Sang-Sun;Lee, Kwang-Seung;Lee, Se-In;Ham, Jong-Hyun;Yoo, Sun-Ho;Yoon, Kwang-Sik;Choi, Woo-Jung
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.44-51
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    • 2014
  • BACKGROUND: Water quality of rural areas are susceptible to agricultural nutrient input and supply such as chemical fertilizer and livestock manure. This study was conducted to evaluate the usefulness of nutrient (N and P) indices in understanding spatial variations of water quality across Chonnam province which is a typical agricultural region in Korea. METHODS AND RESULTS: The nutrient indices including chemical fertilizer supply, livestock manure production, and nutrient balance were correlated with water quality data (T-N, T-P, BOD, and COD) for the twenty-two districts of the province. Concentration of T-N were positively correlated with chemical fertilizer supply, livestock manure N production, and nutrient balance (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Meanwhile, T-P concentration was not correlated with these nutrient indices; however, there was a tendency that T-P concentration increases with livestock manure P production (P=0.06) and with nutrient balance (P=0.09). These results suggest that T-N concentration is susceptible to both chemical fertilizer and livestock manure; whereas T-P is likely to be affected by livestock manure rather than chemical fertilizer. The concentrations of BOD and COD were also positively (P<0.05 or P<0.01) correlated with livestock manure production. CONCLUSION: This study shows the usefulness of nutrient indices in understanding spatial variations of water quality and suggests that livestock manure rather than chemical fertilizer can be a more critical water pollution source and thus highlights the need for more attention to livestock manure treatments for rural water quality management.

Case studies for estimation nitrogen and phosphorous balance with different cropping systems in upland (현장사례를 통한 밭 작부의 질소와 인산양분 수지 평가)

  • Yun, Hong-Bae;Lee, Sang-Min;Kim, Myung-Sook;Lee, Ye-Jin;Lee, Yeoun;Lee, Jong-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.762-766
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    • 2011
  • Cropping system is very important for environment conservation and improvement of nutrient recovery rates in agricultural land. This case study was conducted to identify the nutrient balance of major upland cropping types with different districts. Typical cropping systems at MuAn and HaeNam located in the south coast district were cultivated with soybean-chinese cabbage or garlic and garlic-soybean-chinese cabbage-hot pepper. Alpine district, PyeongChang was cultivated with double cropping of chinese cabbage and potato-radish or chinese cabbage for one year. Typical cropping type of AnDong, YeongYang where are well known for hot pepper cultivation was hot pepper's mono cropping and hot pepper-soybean or hot pepper-sesame for one year. But SeoSan and HongSeong, where are located in mid-west coast had variety cropping system compareed to other districts. Double cropping of chinese cabbage, a heavy fertilizing crop, caused higher nutrient balance in the field when it was cultivated consistently. Experiment showed that heavy fertilizing crops, such as chinese cabbage, garlic and onion, need to be rotated with soybean and sesame cultivation which need smaller fertilizer level. Alpine arable land has shown higher nutrient balance than other areas, and the introduction of rotation crops are needed to reduce nutrient balance and environmental protection.

Effect of Soil Incorporation of Graminaceous and Leguminous Manures on Tomato (Lycoperiscon esculentum Mill.) Growth and Soil Nutrient Balances (화본과 및 두과 녹비작물 토양환원에 따른 토마토 생육 및 토양 양분수지량 변화)

  • Lee, In-Bog;Kang, Seok-Beom;Park, Jin-Myeon
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.343-348
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    • 2008
  • To investigate the effects of incorporation of green manures (GM) into a sandy loam soil on growth, yield, and nutrient uptake of tomato (Lycoperiscon esculentum Mill.) and nutrient balances (input minus offtake of nutrients), five tomato production systems were compared under the condition of plastic film house: 1) a no input system (no additional amendment or inputs, 0-To-0-To); 2) a conventional system (application of N-P-K chemical fertilizers, Cf-To-Cf-To); 3) a leguminous GM-containing system (hairy vetch-tomato-soybean-tomato, Hv-To-Sb-To); 4) a graminaceous GM-containing system (rye-tomato-sudan grass-tomato, Ry-To-Sd-To); and 5) system mixed with leguminous and graminaceous GMs (rye-tomatosoybean- tomato, Ry-To-Sb-To). Here, hairy vetch and rye were cultivated as winter cover crops during late $Dec{\sim}late$ Feb and soybean and sudan grass were cultivated as summer cover crops during late $Jun{\sim}mid$ Aug. All of them cut before tomato planting and then incorporated into soil. Biomass of GMs was greater in summer season than that of winter season. Nitrogen amount fixed by a leguminous plants was about $126\;kg\;ha^{-1}$ per a cropping season, corresponding to 60% N level needed for tomato production, which was comparable to 50 and $96\;kg\;ha^{-1}$ fixed by rye and sudan grass. As a result, tomato yield of Hv-To-Sb-To system (legume GM treatment) was similar to Cf-To-Cf-To (conventional), but that in Ry-To-Sd-To system (graminaceous GM treatment) was not attained to a half level of conventional treatment. Nutrient budgets for N, P and K on the conventional farm were balanced or somewhat positive exception for minus-balanced K. Ry-To-Sd-To system showed a positive N, P and K budgets due to the depressed growth of tomato which is caused by high C/N ratio and low N-fixing capacity of the GMs. Inversely, those of Hv-To-Sb-To system were negative in all of N, P and K budgets because of increased growth and yield of tomato with high nitrogen-supplying capacity as well as low C/N ratio of leguminous GM. In conclusion, although conventional cultivation has an advantage in relation to N, P and K nutrient budgets rather than GM-incorporated systems, a leguminous GMs could be recommended as nitrogen reservoir and soil amendment because the yield of tomato between use of leguminous GM and conventional cultivation was not only significantly difference, but also GMs commonly reduce nutrient loss and improve microbial communities.

Analysis of Nutrient Cycling Structure of a Korean Beef Cattle Farm Combined with Cropping as Affected by Bedding Material Types (깔개물질의 종류에 따른 한우-경종 결합 농가의 양분순환 구조 분석)

  • Lim, Sang-Sun;Kwak, Jin-Hyeob;Park, Hyun-Jung;Lee, Sun-Il;Lee, Dong-Suk;Kim, Yong-Soon;Yun, Bong-Ki;Kim, Sun-Woo;Choi, Woo-Jung
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.41 no.5
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    • pp.354-361
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    • 2008
  • In this study, we analyzed nutrient cycling structure of a small farm (cattle of 100 heads and arable lands of 2.5 ha) in Jeonnam province to investigate the effects of nutrients input by the addition of bedding materials (sawdust and rice hull) and nutrients loss before the application to the soils (the period during manure storage in the feedlot and composting process) on nutrient cycling structure. Sawdust and rice hull added as bedding materials increased N by 1.6% and 14.2% and $P_2O_5$ by 3.1% and 27.4%, respectively, relative to the amount of nutrients produced by excretion. This result suggests that the addition of nutrients via bedding materials should be considered for better estimation of nutrient balance. The most significant characteristics of the nutrient cycling structure was loss of mass and nutrients during the storage (21 days) and composting period (90 days). During this period, 78.4% of N and 9.5% of $P_2O_5$ was lost from sawdust compost; meanwhile, the percentages of loss for rice hull compost were 81.6% and 10.3%, respectively. A lower percentage of nutrients loss in sawdust compost than that in rice hull compost was attributed to the relatively slow decomposition rate of organic materials in the sawdust compost which has higher C/N ratio and lignin contents. Therefore, it was concluded that estimation of nutrient balance should be conducted based on nutrient contents in the final compost being applied to the lands rather than the amount of nutrients contained in the livestock excretion. In addition, the effects of bedding materials on nutrient losses should be also taken into account.