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Survey on Packaging Waste Occurrence and Recycling for Each Packaging Material in Europe (유럽의 포장 폐기물 발생 및 포장 재료별 재활용에 관한 고찰)

  • Kim, Doyeon;Ko, Euisuk;Lee, Hakrae;Shim, Woncheol;Yang, Liming;Kim, Jaineung
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF PACKAGING SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.17-26
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    • 2017
  • In order to confirm European packaging waste statistics, this study was investigated annual variability of packaging waste generated, target of recovery and recycling rate for packaging waste and recycling rate of European countries based on Eurostat database. Eurostat is regional society statistics organization designated by European community to distribute development, production and European statistics. From 2005 to 2013, paper and paperboard packaging were generated the largest amount among the total amount of packaging waste generated during the period and the share of main packaging materials were generally constant among the packaging materials. In addition, European Union member countries have established target for the recycling rate and recycling rate for packaging waste which has been well maintained by most EU countries since the 2008 directive was enacted. The recycling rate for whole packaging waste such as glass, paper and paperboard, metal, plastic, wood continues to increase in Europe. In this study, Europe packaging waste statistics were organized and analyzed as yearly transformation of Europe packaging waste occurrence and disposal, recycling rate and recovery rate target value of Europe countries and recycling rate of each country in Europe base on centralized Eurostat database. Moreover GDP reduction were also confirmed due to trend changes and indirect impacts such as economic slump by packaging waste and recycling.

The Flow Control by a Horizontal Splitter Plate for a Square Prism near a Wall (벽면에 근처에 놓인 정방형주의 수평 분리판에 의한 유동 제어)

  • Ro, Ki-Deok;Lee, Sang-Jun;Lee, Gyeong-Yun;Jang, Jae-Dong;Jung, Yong-Gil
    • Journal of Advanced Marine Engineering and Technology
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.625-631
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    • 2011
  • The passive control of fluid force acting on a square prism near a plane wall was studied by attaching horizontal splitter plate on the corner of the prism. The width of the splitter plate was 10% of the square width. The experiments were performed by measuring of fluid force on the prism and by visualization of the flow field using PIV. The experimental parameters were the attaching position and the space ratios G/B between the prism and wall. The flow between the prism and wall was remarkable and Karman vortex in the wake of the prism was considerable in the space ratio over 0.4. The point of inflection of average lift coefficient and Strouhal number on the prism were represented at the space ratio G/B=0.4 for the prototype prism and G/B=0.6 for the prism having horizontal splitter plate. The drag of the prism was reduced average 4.5% with the space ratios by attaching the horizontal splitter plate at the rear and lower corner on the prism. In this case, the size of the separated region on the upside of the prism was smaller than that of prism without the splitter plate.

A Fundamental Study for Design of Electric Energy Harvesting Device using PZT on the Road (도로용 압전발전체 시험모듈 설계를 위한 기초 실험 연구)

  • Lee, Jae-Jun;Ryu, Seung-Ki;Moon, Hak-Yong;Kwon, Soo-Ahn
    • International Journal of Highway Engineering
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.159-166
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    • 2011
  • Green house gas emissions are increasing as development of the industrial economy of the international community. Many countries in the world are endeavoring to reduce green house gas emissions under severe climate change. In order to protect grobal warming, government is trying to reduce green gas emissions under "Low Carbon Green Growth Policy" and investing climiate-firendly industries such as renewable energy harvesting. Renewable energy has been rapidly developing as a result of investment for development technology of using natural energy such as solar, wind, tidal, etc. There are lots of waste energy in the road space. However, nobody is not interested in waste energy from the road space. This paper present a fundamentally experimental study of energy harvesting technique to use waste energy in the road. The waste energy in the road is covered a pressure and impact of vehicles on the road, the radiant heat from asphalt pavement, road noise and vibration etc. In this study, an energy harvesting device using piezoelectric element is proposed and various tests are conducted to investigate a characteristic of this device as function of impact loading based on piezoelectric effect behavior. This paper shows the energy harvesting results of the device using domestic piezoelectirc element as a function of impact load size and pavement types.

Airloads and Structural Loads Analysis of LCH Rotor Using a Loose CFD/CSD Coupling (유체-구조 연계해석을 통한 소형민수헬기(LCH) 공력 및 구조하중 해석)

  • Lee, Da-Woon;Kim, Kiro;Yee, Kwan-Jung;Jung, Sung-Nam
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Aeronautical & Space Sciences
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    • v.47 no.7
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    • pp.489-498
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    • 2019
  • The airloads and structural loads of Light Civil Helicopter (LCH) rotor are investigated using a loose CFD/CSD coupling. The structural dynamics model for LCH 5-bladed rotor cwith elastomeric bearing and inter-bladed damper is constructed using CAMRAD-II. Either isolated rotor or rotor-fuselage model is used to identify the effect of the fuselage on the aeromechanics behavior at a cruise speed of 0.28. The fuselage effect is shown to be marginal on the aeromechanics predictions of LCH rotor, though the effect can be non-negligible for the tail structure due to the prevailing root vortices strengthened by the fuselage upwash. A lifting-line based comprehensive analysis is also conducted to verify the CFD/CSD coupled analysis. The comparison study shows that the comprehensive analysis predictions are generally in good agreements with CFD/CSD coupled results. However, the predicted comprehensive analysis results underestimate peak-to-peak values of blade section airloads and elastic motions due to the limitation of unsteady aerodynamic predictions. Particularly, significant discrepancies appear in the structural loads with apparent phase differences.

An Experimental Study on the Effect of Adoption of Special Rudders on Course Stability of a Ship (특수타의 채택이 침로 안정성에 미치는 영향에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • Sohn, K.H.;Kim, J.H.;Kim, H.S.;Kim, Y.S.;Ha, M.K.
    • Journal of the Society of Naval Architects of Korea
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.27-37
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    • 1997
  • The paper deals with the effectiveness of various special rudders on course stability of a ship. We adopted five types of rudder, such as one normal rudder and four special rudders, which contain two rudders with concave and convex strips on sides respectively, one flapped rudder, and one rudder with end plates on tips. In the circulating water channel, model test was carried out for measuring lift characteristics of the rudders in open water. And various captive model tests were also carried out for measuring the experimental constants related with helm angle and steering in hull-propeller-rudder system. From the test results, the changes in manoeuvring hydrodynamic derivatives due to adoption of normal and special rudders were predicted. Then course stability performances of a ship with normal and special rudders were evaluated and discussed. As a result, it is clarified that the rudder with concave or convex strips and flapped rudder have no effect on course stability, while the rudder with end plates improves course stability with effect. The result in this study is expected to be used usefully when the course stability is in issue and has to be improved without amendment of hull design at initial design phase or after construction of a ship.

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Numerical Analysis on Aerodynamic Performances and Characteristics of Quad Tilt Rotor during Forward Flight (전진 비행하는 쿼드 틸트 로터의 공력성능 및 특징에 대한 수치적 연구)

  • Lee, Seonggi;Oh, Sejong;Choi, Seongwook;Lee, Yunggyo;Park, Donghun
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Aeronautical & Space Sciences
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.197-209
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    • 2018
  • In this study, numerical analyses on Quad Tilt Rotor(QTR) are carried out to investigate the interference effect of components and effect of operating condition during forward flight. Actuator Surface Method(ASM) which is implemented in an open source CFD code, OpenFOAM, is used to calculate the flow field around QTR with high computational efficiency. The lift of the front and rear wing is found to increase or decrease depending on the rotation direction of the rotor. At the rear wing, the interference effects of the front and rear rotor appear as a combined manner. Performance change due to the phase difference is found to be insignificant. For both rotors, the locally higher thrust is generated by the blockage effect of the wing. The interference effect of wake from the front nacelle contributes to higher local thrust for the rear rotor compared to the front rotor. And it is observed that the amplitude of thrust oscillation can decrease depending on the phase difference between the rotors. Aerodynamic performances of both rotors and the entire aircraft were compared and analyzed for various operating conditions.

The hydrodynamic characteristics of the canvas kite - 2. The characteristics of the triangular canvas kite - (캔버스 카이트의 유체역학적 특성에 관한 연구 - 2. 삼각형 캔버스 카이트의 특성 -)

  • Bae, Bong-Seong;Bae, Jae-Hyun;An, Heui-Chun;Lee, Ju-Hee;Shin, Jung-Wook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.206-213
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    • 2004
  • As far as an opening device of fishing gears is concerned, applications of a kite are under development around the world. The typical examples are found in the opening device of the stow net on anchor and the buoyancy material of the trawl. While the stow net on anchor has proved its capability for the past 20 years, the trawl has not been wildly used since it has been first introduced for the commercial use only without sufficient studies and thus has revealed many drawbacks. Therefore, the fundamental hydrodynamics of the kite itself need to ne studied further. Models of plate and canvas kite were deployed in the circulating water tank for the mechanical test. For this situation lift and drag tests were performed considering a change in the shape of objects, which resulted in a different aspect ratio of rectangle and trapezoid. The results obtained from the above approaches are summarized as follows, where aspect ratio, attack angle, lift coefficient and maximum lift coefficient are denoted as A, B, $C_L$ and $C_{Lmax}$ respectively : 1. Given the triangular plate, $C_{Lmax}$ was produced as 1.26${\sim}$1.32 with A${\leq}$1 and 38$^{\circ}$B${\leq}$42$^{\circ}$. And when A${\geq}$1.5 and 20$^{\circ}$${\leq}$B${\leq}$50$^{\circ}$, $C_L$ was around 0.85. Given the inverted triangular plate, $C_{Lmax}$ was 1.46${\sim}$1.56 with A${\leq}$1 and 36$^{\circ}$B${\leq}$38$^{\circ}$. And When A${\geq}$1.5 and 22$^{\circ}$B${\leq}$26$^{\circ}$, $C_{Lmax}$ was 1.05${\sim}$1.21. Given the triangular kite, $C_{Lmax}$ was produced as 1.67${\sim}$1.77 with A${\leq}$1 and 46$^{\circ}$B${\leq}$48$^{\circ}$. And when A${\geq}$1.5 and 20$^{\circ}$B${\leq}$50$^{\circ}$, $C_L$ was around 1.10. Given the inverted triangular kite, $C_{Lmax}$ was 1.44${\sim}$1.68 with A${\leq}$1 and 28$^{\circ}$B${\leq}$32$^{\circ}$. And when A${\geq}$1.5 and 18$^{\circ}$B${\leq}$24$^{\circ}$, $C_{Lmax}$ was 1.03${\sim}$1.18. 2. For a model with A=1/2, an increase in B caused an increase in $C_L$ until $C_L$ has reached the maximum. Then there was a tendency of a very gradual decrease or no change in the value of $C_L$. For a model with A=2/3, the tendency of $C_L$ was similar to the case of a model with A=1/2. For a model with A=1, an increase in B caused an increase in $C_L$ until $C_L$ has reached the maximum. And the tendency of $C_L$ didn't change dramatically. For a model with A=1.5, the tendency of $C_L$ as a function of B was changed very small as 0.75${\sim}$1.22 with 20$^{\circ}$B${\leq}$50$^{\circ}$. For a model with A=2, the tendency of $C_L$ as a function of B was almost the same in the triangular model. There was no considerable change in the models with 20$^{\circ}$B${\leq}$50$^{\circ}$. 3. The inverted model's $C_L$ as a function of increase of B reached the maximum rapidly, then decreased gradually compared to the non-inverted models. Others were decreased dramatically. 4. The action point of dynamic pressure in accordance with the attack angle was close to the rear area of the model with small attack angle, and with large attack angle, the action point was close to the front part of the model. 5. There was camber vertex in the position in which the fluid pressure was generated, and the triangular canvas had large value of camber vertex when the aspect ratio was high, while the inverted triangular canvas was versa. 6. All canvas kite had larger camber ratio when the aspect ratio was high, and the triangular canvas had larger one when the attack angle was high, while the inverted triangluar canvas was versa.

The hydrodynamic characteristics of the canvas kite - 1. The characteristics of the rectangular, trapezoid canvas kite - (캔버스 카이트의 유체역학적 특성에 관한 연구 - 1. 사각형 캔버스 카이트의 특성 -)

  • Bae, Bong-Seong;Bae, Jae-Hyun;An, Heui-Chun;Lee, Ju-Hee;Shin, Jung-Wook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.196-205
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    • 2004
  • As far as an opening device of fishing gears is concerned, applications of a kite are under development around the world. The typical examples are found in the opening device of the stow net on anchor and the buoyancy material of the trawl. While the stow net on anchor has proved its capability for the past 20 years, the trawl has not been wildly used since it has been first introduced for the commercial use only without sufficient studies and thus has revealed many drawbacks. Therefore, the fundamental hydrodynamics of the kite itself need to ne studied further. Models of plate and canvas kite were deployed in the circulating water tank for the mechanical test. For this situation lift and drag tests were performed considering a change in the shape of objects, which resulted in a different aspect ratio of rectangle and trapezoid. The results obtained from the above approaches are summarized as follows, where aspect ratio, attack angle, lift coefficient and maximum lift coefficient are denoted as A, B, $C_L$ and $C_{Lmax}$ respectively : 1. Given the rectangular plate, $C_{Lmax}$ was produced as 1.46${\sim}$1.54 with A${\leq}$1 and 40$^{\circ}$${\leq}$B${\leq}$42$^{\circ}$. And when A${\geq}$1.5 and 20$^{\circ}$${\leq}$B${\leq}$22$^{\circ}$, $C_{Lmax}$ was 10.7${\sim}$1.11. Given the rectangular canvas, $C_{Lmax}$ was 1.75${\sim}$1.91 with A${\leq}$1 and 32$^{\circ}$${\leq}$B${\leq}$40$^{\circ}$. And when A${\geq}$1.5 and 18$^{\circ}$${\leq}$B${\leq}$22$^{\circ}$, $C_{Lmax}$ was 1.24${\sim}$1.40. Given the trapezoid kite, $C_{Lmax}$ was produced as 1.65${\sim}$1.89 with A${\leq}$1.5 and 34$^{\circ}$${\leq}$B${\leq}$44$^{\circ}$. And when A=2 and B=14${\sim}$48, $C_L$ was around 1. Given the inverted trapezoid kite, $C_{Lmax}$ was 1.57${\sim}$1.74 with A${\leq}$1.5 and 24$^{\circ}$${\leq}$B${\leq}$36$^{\circ}$. And when A=2, $C_{Lmax}$ was 1.21 with B=18$^{\circ}$. 2. For a model with A=1/2, an increase in B caused an increase in $C_L$ until $C_L$ has reached the maximum. Then there was a tendency of a gradual decrease in the value of $C_L$ and in particular, the rectangular kite showed a more rapid decrease. For a model with A=2/3, the tendency of $C_L$ was similar to the case of a model with A=1/2 but the tendency was a more rapid decrease than those of the previous models. For a model with A=1, and increase in B caused an increase in $C_L$ until $C_L$ has reached the maximum. Soon after the tendency of $C_L$ decreased dramatically. For a model with A=1.5, the tendency of $C_L$ as a function of B was various. For a model with A=2, the tendency of $C_L$ as a function of B was almost the same in the rectangular and trapezoid model. There was no considerable change in the models with 20$^{\circ}$${\leq}$B${\leq}$50$^{\circ}$. 3. The tendency of kite model's $C_L$ in accordance with increase of B was increased rapidly than plate models until $C_L$ has reached the maximum. Then $C_L$ in the kite model was decreased dramatically but in the plate model was decreased gradually. The value of $C_{Lmax}$ in the kite model was higher than that of the plate model, and the kite model's attack angel at $C_{Lmax}$ was smaller than the plate model's. 4. In the relationship between aspect ratio and lift force, the attack angle which had the maximum lift coefficient was large at the small aspect ratio models, At the large aspect ratio models, the attack angle was small. 5. There was camber vertex in the position in which the fluid pressure was generated, and the rectangular & trapezoid canvas had larger value of camber vertex when the aspect ratio was high, while the inverted trapezoid canvas was versa. 6. All canvas kite had larger camber ratio when the aspect ratio was high, and the rectangular & trapezoid canvas had larger one when the attack angle was high.