• Title, Summary, Keyword: 앙상블 유량예측

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Availability of AWS data from KMA for real-time river flow forecast (실시간 하천유량 예측을 위한 기상청 AWS 자료의 활용성 평가)

  • Lee, Byong-Ju;Chang, Ki-Ho;Choi, Young-Jean
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.131-131
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    • 2011
  • 기후변화로 인한 기상이변 현상이 빈번하게 발생하면서 홍수와 같은 자연재해의 피해규모가 증가하고 있다. 이를 극복하기 위해 최근에는 구조적 대책뿐만 아니라 홍수예측시스템과 같은 비구조적 대책에도 많은 관심과 연구가 이루어지고 있다. 통상 홍수예측을 위해서는 예측강우의 정확도가 중요하게 부각되지만 중규모 이상의 유역에서는 수 시간의 지체시간 효과로 인해 AWS 실황강우만으로도 어느정도 선행시간에 대해서 하천유량예측이 가능하다고 할 수 있다. 본 연구에서는 기상청 AWS 실황강우를 이용하여 하천유량을 예측할 경우 어느정도 선행시간과 정확도를 확보할 수 있는지에 대해서 분석하고자 한다. 분석을 위한 시단위 강우자료와 기상자료는 각각 AWS와 ASOS 자료를 이용하였다. 또한 하천유량 모의를 위한 강우-유출모형으로는 SURF 모델(Sejong University River Forecast Model)을 이용하였다. 이 모형은 저류함수모형 기반의 연속형 강우-유출모형으로 미래에 대한 유출모의결과의 정확도를 향상시키기 위해 앙상블 칼만필터링 기법을 연계한 모형이다. 그림 1은 충주댐유역에 대해서 2009.7.8~17일(240시간)에 대해서 관측유량 자료동화 전후의 결과를 나타낸 것이다. 현시점을 100, 105, 110, 115시간으로 가정하고 미래기간에 대해서는 관측강우를 0으로 가정했을 때 대략 첨두유량 발생 5시간 전에 예측된 모의유량이 관측유량과 거의 일치함을 확인할 수 있다. 따라서 실황강우와 관측유량 자료동화 기법을 연계할 경우 수 시간의 선행시간에 대해서 유량예측이 가능한 것으로 판단된다.

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Probabilistic Daecheong Dam Streamflow Prediction using Weather Outlook Weighted Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (확률론적 통계분석을 이용한 대청댐 유입량 예측)

  • Lee, Sang-Jin;Kim, Jeong-Kon;Kim, Joo-Cheol;Woo, Dong-Hyeon
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.303-303
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    • 2011
  • 효율적인 수자원 관리를 위해서는 미래 수문자료의 예측치에 대한 구간을 추정하여 미래에 관측될 자료에 대한 정보를 얻는 문제는 어렵지만 중요한 부분에 해당한다. 특히 중장기 유량예측은 입력변수의 불확실성이 크므로 확률론적 방법을 적용한 예측이 유리하다. 본 연구에서는 SSARR 모형을 이용하여 현재 유역의 상태에 과거에 재현되었던 강우를 결합한 앙상블 유출시나리오를 생성하였다. 그리고 대청댐 월 유입량에 대한 확률론적 예측방안을 제시하기위하여 과거 시나리오의 관측 ESP(Ensemble Streamflow Prediction)확률 및 Croley방법, PDF-Ratio방법을 한국의 기상예측정보 실정에 맞는 가중치 부여방안으로 적용하여 분석하였다. 2010년도 상반기를 기준으로 각 분석 기법별 정확성을 검증한 결과 Croley, PDF-Ratio 등 기상전망을 가중치로 부여한 확률론적 예측기법의 효용성을 확인하였다.

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Development of the Optimal Joint Operation System for Geumgang (추계학적 특성을 고려한 금강수계 최적 연계운영 시스템 개발)

  • Eum, Hyung-il;Lee, Eun Goo;Kim, Young-Oh;Ko, Ik hwan
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.272-276
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    • 2004
  • 이수기와 같이 장기적인 관점에서 저수지운영을 해야 하는 관리자는 해당 기간동안의 이익을 최대화하는 전략을 필요로 한다. 이를 위해서는 미래 유입량의 불확실성을 고려한 최적화 모형에 근거한 운영률을 수립해야 할 것이다. 본 연구에서는 금강수계의 이수기를 대상으로 추계학적 최적화 기법인 표본 추계학적 동적계획법(Sampling Stochastic Dynamic Programming)을 적용하여 최적 연계운영 시스템을 개발하였다. 본 연구를 통해 개발된 모형은 상용프로그램인 CSUDP와의 비교를 통해 검증되었으며 이를 기반으로 과거자료를 이용한 SSDP/Hist모형과 앙상블 유량예측(Ensemble Streamflow Prediction)을 이용한 SSDP/ESP모형을 개발하여 두 모형의 장${\cdot}$단점을 비교 분석하였다. 발전부분은 두 모형이 비슷하였으나 용수공급 측면에서는 SSDP/ESP가 SSDP/Hist 보다 우수함을 알 수 있었다.

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Streamflow Forecast Model on Nakdong River Basin (낙동강유역 하천유량 예측모형 구축)

  • Lee, Byong-Ju;Bae, Deg-Hyo
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.44 no.11
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    • pp.853-861
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    • 2011
  • The objective of this study is to assess Sejong University River Forecast (SURF) model which consists of a continuous rainfall-runoff model and measured streamflow assimilation using ensemble Kalman filter technique for streamflow forecast on Nakdong river basin. The study area is divided into 43 subbasins. The forecasted streamflows are evaluated at 12 measurement sites during flood season from 2006 to 2007. The forecasted ones are improved due to the impact of the measured streamflows assimilation. In effectiveness indices corresponding to 1~5 h forecast lead times, the accuracy of the forecasted streamflows with the assimilation approach is improved by 46.2~30.1% compared with that using only the rainfall-runoff model. The mean normalized absolute error of forecasted peak flow without and with data assimilation approach in entering 50% of the measured rainfall, respectively, the accuracy of the latter is improved about 40% than that of the former. From these results, SURF model is able to be used as a real-time river forecast model.

Value of Ensemble Streamflow Forecasts for Reservoir Operations during the Drawdown Period (이수기 저수지 운영을 위한 앙상블 유량예측의 효용성)

  • Eum, Hyung-Il;Ko, Ick-Hwan;Kim, Young-Oh
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.187-198
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    • 2006
  • Korea Water Resources Corporation(KOWACO) has developed the Integrated Real-time Water Management System(IRWMS) that calculates monthly optimal ending target storages by using Sampling Stochastic Dynamic Programming(SSDP) with Ensemble Streamflow Prediction(ESP) running on the $1^{st}$ day of each month. This system, however, has a shortcoming: it cannot reflect the hydrolmeteorologic variations in the middle of the month. To overcome this drawback, in this study updated ESP forecasts three times each month by using the observed precipitation series from the $1^{st}$ day of the month to the forecast day and the historical precipitation ensemble for the remaining days. The improved accuracy and its effect on the reservoir operations were quantified as a result. SSDP/ESP21 that reflects within-a-month hydrolmeteorologic states saves $1\;X\;10^6\;m^3$ in water shortage on average than SSDP/ESP01. In addition, the simulation result demonstrated that the effect of ESP accuracy on the reduction of water shortage became more important when the total runoff was low during the drawdown period.

A Study on the Development of the Stochastic Continuous Storage Function Model (추계학적 연속형 저류함수 모형 개발에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Byong-Ju;Bae, Deg-Hyo
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.231-235
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    • 2009
  • 본 연구에서는 홍수예보를 위한 사상형 모형인 저류함수모형 적용시 문제점을 개선하기 위해 기존의 저류함수 모형에 자유수와 장력수의 2개 영역으로 구성된 토양수분모의 컴포넌트를 결합하여 지표유출, 중간유출, 기저유출의 유출수문성분에 대한 연속적인 모의가 가능하도록 하였으며 실시간 홍수예측을 위해 다수의 유량 관측지점과의 실시간 오차 보정이 가능하도록 앙상블 칼만 필터링 기법을 도입하였다. 개발된 모형의 적용성을 평가하기 위해 낙동강 권역을 대상유역으로 선정하였으며 시단위 강우자료, 기상자료, 유량자료를 비롯하여 GIS를 기반의 지형자료를 구축하였다. 연속형 저류함수형의 매개변수 추정결과 주요지점의 관측유량에 대해 높은 적합도를 보였으며 1시간 선행시간의 홍수량 예측결과에서도 높은 정확도를 보이는 것으로 나타났다.

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Development of Real-Time River Flow Forecasting Model with Data Assimilation Technique (자료동화 기법을 연계한 실시간 하천유량 예측모형 개발)

  • Lee, Byong-Ju;Bae, Deg-Hyo
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.199-208
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    • 2011
  • The objective of this study is to develop real-time river flow forecast model by linking continuous rainfall-runoff model with ensemble Kalman filter technique. Andong dam basin is selected as study area and the model performance is evaluated for two periods, 2006. 7.1~8.18 and 2007. 8.1~9.30. The model state variables for data assimilation are defined as soil water content, basin storage and channel storage. This model is designed so as to be updated the state variables using measured inflow data at Andong dam. The analysing result from the behavior of the state variables, predicted state variable as simulated discharge is updated 74% toward measured one. Under the condition of assuming that the forecasted rainfall is equal to the measured one, the model accuracy with and without data assimilation is analyzed. The model performance of the former is better than that of the latter as much as 49.6% and 33.1% for 1 h-lead time during the evaluation period, 2006 and 2007. The real-time river flow forecast model using rainfall-runoff model linking with data assimilation process can show better forecasting result than the existing methods using rainfall-runoff model only in view of the results so far achieved.

Assessing the Benefits of Incorporating Rainfall Forecasts into Monthly Flow Forecast System of Tampa Bay Water, Florida (하천 유량 예측 시스템 개선을 위한 강우 예측 자료의 적용성 평가: 플로리다 템파 지역 사례를 중심으로)

  • Hwang, Sye-Woon;Martinez, Chris;Asefa, Tirusew
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.54 no.4
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    • pp.127-135
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    • 2012
  • This paper introduced the flow forecast modeling system that a water management agency in west central Florida, Tampa Bay Water has been operated to forecast monthly rainfall and streamflow in the Tampa Bay region, Florida. We evaluated current 1-year monthly rainfall forecasts and flow forecasts and actual observations to investigate the benefits of incorporating rainfall forecasts into monthly flow forecast. Results for rainfall forecasts showed that the observed annual cycle of monthly rainfall was accurately reproduced by the $50^{th}$ percentile of forecasts. While observed monthly rainfall was within the $25^{th}$ and $75^{th}$ percentile of forecasts for most months, several outliers were found during the dry months especially in the dry year of 2007. The flow forecast results for the three streamflow stations (HRD, MB, and BS) indicated that while the 90 % confidence interval mostly covers the observed monthly streamflow, the $50^{th}$ percentile forecast generally overestimated observed streamflow. Especially for HRD station, observed streamflow was reproduced within $5^{th}$ and $25^{th}$ percentile of forecasts while monthly rainfall observations closely followed the $50^{th}$ percentile of rainfall forecasts. This was due to the historical variability at the station was significantly high and it resulted in a wide range of forecasts. Additionally, it was found that the forecasts for each station tend to converge after several months as the influence of the initial condition diminished. The forecast period to converge to simulation bounds was estimated by comparing the forecast results for 2006 and 2007. We found that initial conditions have influence on forecasts during the first 4-6 months, indicating that FMS forecasts should be updated at least every 4-6 months. That is, knowledge of initial condition (i.e., monthly flow observation in the last-recent month) provided no foreknowledge of the flows after 4-6 months of simulation. Based on the experimental flow forecasts using the observed rainfall data, we found that the 90 % confidence interval band for flow predictions was significantly reduced for all stations. This result evidently shows that accurate short-term rainfall forecasts could reduce the range of streamflow forecasts and improve forecast skill compared to employing the stochastic rainfall forecasts. We expect that the framework employed in this study using available observations could be used to investigate the applicability of existing hydrological and water management modeling system for use of stateof-the-art climate forecasts.

Use of Climate Information for Improving Extended Streamflow Prediction in Korea (중장기 유량예측 향상을 위한 국내 기후정보의 이용)

  • Lee Jae-Kyoung;Kim Young-Oh;Jeong Dae-Il
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.39 no.9
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    • pp.755-766
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    • 2006
  • Since the accuracy of climate forecast information has improved from better understanding of the climatic system, particularly, from the better understanding of ENSO and the improvement in meteorological models, the forecasted climate information is becoming the important clue for streamflow prediction. This study investigated the available climate forecast information to improve the extended streamflow prediction in Korea, such as MIMI(Monthly Industrial Meteorological Information) and GDAPS(Global Data Assimilation and Prediction) and measured their accuracies. Both MIMI and the 10-day forecast of GDAPS were superior to a naive forecasts and peformed better for the flood season than for the dry season, thus it was proved that such climate forecasts would be valuable for the flood season. This study then forecasted the monthly inflows to Chungju Dam by using MIMI and GDAPS. For MIMI, we compared three cases: All, Intersection, Union. The accuracies of all three cases are better than the naive forecast and especially, Extended Streamflow Predictions(ESPs) with the Intersection and with Union scenarios were superior to that with the All scenarios for the flood season. For GDAPS, the 10-day ahead streamflow prediction also has the better accuracy for the flood season than for the dry season. Therefore, this study proved that using the climate information such as MIMI and GDAPS to reduce the meteorologic uncertainty can improve the accuracy of the extended streamflow prediction for the flood season.