• Title, Summary, Keyword: 압력지진파

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Rock Deformation and Formation of LPO of Minerals in the Upper Mantle: Implications for Seismic Anisotropy (맨틀상부에서 암석의 변형 및 광물의 격자선호방향(LPO) 형성과 지진파 비등방성과의 연계성)

  • Jung, Hae-Meong
    • The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.249-261
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    • 2012
  • Olivine is a dominant mineral in the upper mantle and is elastically very anisotropic. When olivine is deformed under stress at high pressure and high temperature, lattice preferred orientation (LPO) is formed. It is known that the LPO of olivine is affected by water, stress, and pressure. In this paper, I reviewed the papers dealing with the effects of water, stress, and pressure on the LPO of olivine, summarized the papers on the LPOs of olivine in natural mantle rocks, and discussed its implications for seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle. In addition, I also described four types of LPOs of orthopyroxene recently found in natural spinel lherzolite.

Pseudo Dynamic Test for the Seismic Performance Evaluation of Circular RC Bridge Piers Retrofitted with Fibers (섬유보강 원형 RC교각의 내진성능 평가를 위한 유사동적실험)

  • 정영수;박종협;박희상
    • Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.49-57
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    • 2001
  • 본 연구의 목적은 유사동적실험에 의한 섬유보강 원형 RC교각의 내진성능평가를 위한 연구로서 수원시에 위치한 내진교량인 하길교를 대상모델로 하였으며, 도로교 표준시방서의 내진설계규정이 적용되지 않은 비내진교각시험체 2본 및 내진성능향상을 위한 섬유보강시험 4본, 즉 총 6본에 대하여 유사동적실험을 수행하였다. 보강공법으로는 유리 탄소섬유 보강공법을 사용하였으며, 실험변수로는 입력지진동, 섬유고방유무로 하였다. 그리고 내진성능평가 방법은 입력 및 소산에너지, 변위 연성도가 분석되었다. 본 실험의 결과 유리 섬유로 보강된 비내진시험체의 변위연성도 KHC인공지진파에 대하여 7.7~9.0정도의 값으로 충분한 내진성능을 확보하고 있는 것으로 평가되었다.

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Geophysical Study Through Infrasound Observation (인프라사운드 관측을 통한 지구물리학적 연구)

  • Che, Il-Young;Jeon, Jeong-Soo
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.495-505
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    • 2006
  • Atmospheric infrasound is defined as low frequency inaudible sound waves generated from natural phenomena and human activities. One property of long-distance travelling of infrasound makes it possible to detect the wave propagated from remote sound sources and to understand many geophysical phenomena generating it. Recently, advanced global infrasound sensor arrays are being deployed to monitor the clandestine nuclear test and to study geophysical phenomena in the world. In Korea, five seismo-acoustic arrays consisting of co-located seismometer and micro-barometer have been operated to discriminate the artificial explosions from the natural earthquakes in and around the Korean Peninsula. In addition to the discrimination purpose, these ways also record distinct infrasonic signals from natural phenomena on global scale such as large earthquake, bolide event, volcanic explosion, typhoon, and so on. As a new frontier in monitoring the earth, infrasound is being applied to understand various phenomena in and above the earth's surface.

Numerical Modeling of Dehydration of Subducting Slab and Behavior of Expelled Water: A Preliminary Study (섭입해양판의 탈수 및 탈수된 물의 거동 수치모델링: 선행 연구)

  • Lee, Changyeol
    • Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.198-206
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    • 2018
  • In this preliminary study, dehydration of the subducting slab and behavior of the expelled water are numerically modeled using 2-dimensional model scheme. The hydrated minerals in the oceanic crust of the subducting slab experience dehydration by increases in temperature and pressure and expel their water into the overlying mantle wedge. Behavior of the expelled water is governed by both the corner flow in the mantle wedge and porous flow of the expelled water through the pores of the mantle minerals. The effects of convergence rate and age of the subducting slab as well as grain size of the minerals on the dehydration of the subducting slab and behavior of the expelled water are evaluated. The water solubility of the oceanic crust measured from the laboratory experiments is considered for modeling dehydration of the oceanic crust. The model calculations show most of the hydrated minerals in the oceanic crust is dehydrated by a depth of 100 km and the effects of the convergence rate and age of the subducting slab on the dehydration of the subducting slab and behavior of the expelled water are not significant. The larger grain size allows faster porous flow of the expelled water through the oceanic crust, mantle wedge and overlying continental crust and reduces the volume fraction of the expelled water there. The developed technique will be used for future studies on arc volcanism and has a potential implication for the other fields such as seismic tomographic study.

Thermoelastic Aspects of the San Andreas Faults under Very Low Strength (낮은 강도를 갖는 산 안드레아 단층의 열탄성 특성)

  • Park, Moo-Choon;Han, Uk
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.315-322
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    • 2000
  • In this study, the data used for the models were a set of 56 geologic estimates of long-term fault slip rates. The hest models were those in which mantle drag was convergent on the Transverse Ranges in the San Andreas fault system, and faults had a low friction (${\mu}$= 0.3). It is clearly important to decide whether these cases of low strength are local anomalies or whether they are representative. Furthermore, it would be helpful to determine fault strength in as many tectonic settings as possible. Analysis of data was considered by unsuspected sources of pore pressure, or even to question the relevance of the friction law. To contribute to the solution of this problem, three attempts were tried to apply finite element method that would permit computational experiments with different hypothesized fault rheologies. The computed model has an assumed rheology and plate tectonic boundary conditions, and produces predictions of present surface velocity, strain rate, and stress. The results of model will be acceptably close to reality in its predictions of mean fault slip rates, stress directions and geodetic data. This study suggests some implications of the thermoelastic characteristics to interpret the relationship with very low strength of San Andreas fault system.

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Petrology of Host Body of Feldspar Deposits in Jechon Ganites (장석광상 모암인 제천반상화강암의 암석학적 특성)

  • Lee, Han-Yeang;Kim, Dai-Oap;Park, Joong-Kwon
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.405-414
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    • 2001
  • Jecheon granite can be divided into two types; porphyritic granite (K-feldspar megacryst bearing) and medium-grained biotite granite. Porphyritic granite, host body of feldspar deposits, is 8${\sim}$11 km in diameter and about 80 $km^{2}$ in area. It mainly contains K-feldspar, plagioclase, biotite and quartz, and magnetite, zircon, sphene and apatite are accessary minerals. Enclosed minerals in K-feldspar megacryst with 3${\sim}$10 cm in diameter are hornblende, plagioclase, quartz, magnetite, apatite, sphene and zircon. Mafic enclaves mainly consisting of hornblende, plagioclase and quartz are frequently observed in porphrytic granite. Medium-grained biotite granite consists of K-feldspar, plagioclase, biotite and hornblende as main, and hematite, muscovite, apatite and zircon as accessary minerals. Core and rim An contents of plagioclase from porphyritic granite, medium biotite granite, K-feldspar megacryst, and mafic enclave are 36 and 21, 40 and 32, 37 and 32, and 43 and 36, respectively. $X_{Fe}$ values of hornblende are 0.57 at biotite granite, 0.51 at K-feldspar mehacryst and 0.45 at mafic enclave. $X_{Fe}$ values of biotite and hornblende are homogeneous without chemical zonation. K-feldspar megacryst shows end member of pure composition with exsolved thin lamellar pure albites. Characteristics of mineral compositions and petrography indicate porphyritic granite is igneous origin and medium-grained biotite granite comes from the same source of magma; biotite granite is initiated to solidly and from residual melt porphyritic granite can be formed. Possibly K-feldspar megacrysts are formde under H$_{2}$O undersaturation condition and near K-feldspar solidus curve temperature; growth rate is faster than nucleation rate. Mafic enclaves are thought to be mingled mafic magma in felsic magma, which is formed from compositional stratigraphy. Estimated equilibrium temperature and pressure for medium-grained biotite granite are about $800^{\circ}C$ and 4.83${\sim}$5.27 Kb, respectively.

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